Effect of Dose and 5?-Reductase Inhibition on the Circulating Testosterone Metabolite Profile of Men Administered Oral Testosterone.
ABSTRACT: Development of an oral testosterone therapy has proven extremely challenging because of extensive and variable first-pass metabolism. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of testosterone with increasing oral doses of testosterone, both alone and with the co-administration of dutasteride (5?-reductase inhibitor) by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In eugonadal men prior to dosing, the circulating concentration of testosterone, androstenedione, etiocholanolone-glucuronide, and androsterone-glucuronide was 8.6, 20.9, 9.1, and 55.3%, respectively, of the total testosterone-related species, whereas testosterone-glucuronide was ?1%. When testosterone was dosed orally to men with experimental hypogonadism, a proportion of testosterone-glucuronide increased to 13%. Dutasteride treatment significantly decreased levels of androsterone and its metabolites. This work reveals extensive metabolism of orally dosed testosterone to androsterone glucuronide via androstenedione, with testosterone-glucuronide appearing to be the second most important metabolite. This information is of importance in the development of an effective oral testosterone therapy and may have implications for testosterone doping research.
Project description:Co-administration of the 5?-reductase inhibitor dutasteride increases the oral testosterone bioavailability in men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. We examined oral testosterone with and without dutasteride administration in hypogonadal men for 28 days.We randomly assigned 43 hypogonadal men to twice daily oral doses of 150, 250 or 400 mg testosterone with 0.25 mg dutasteride, 400 mg testosterone alone or 0.25 mg dutasteride alone for 28 days in a multicenter study. Subjects underwent pharmacokinetic profiling of serum hormones on days 1 and 28. A total of 32 men completed all study procedures.Serum testosterone increased in all groups on testosterone compared with that in the dutasteride only group. At the 400 mg dose the combination of testosterone and dutasteride resulted in average testosterone concentrations that were 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than in the testosterone only group on days 1 and 28, respectively (p <0.01). On day 28 average testosterone was 20% to 30% lower in all groups on testosterone and dutasteride, and 50% lower in the testosterone only group compared with day 1. Serum dihydrotestosterone was suppressed in all groups on dutasteride and increased in the testosterone only group.Oral testosterone administration resulted in a therapeutic serum testosterone concentration in hypogonadal men. Dutasteride improved the oral bioavailability of testosterone while suppressing dihydrotestosterone. Compared with day 1, testosterone was decreased after 28 days of administration. Additional study is warranted of oral testosterone with dutasteride for testosterone deficiency.
Project description:Testosterone glucuronide (TG), androsterone glucuronide (AG), etiocholanolone glucuronide (EtioG) and dihydrotestosterone glucuronide (DHTG) are the major metabolites of testosterone (T), which are excreted in urine and bile. Glucuronides can be deconjugated to active androgen in gut lumen after biliary excretion, which in turn can affect physiological levels of androgens. The goal of this study was to quantitatively characterize the mechanisms by which TG, AG, EtioG and DHTG are eliminated from liver, intestine, and kidney utilizing relative expression factor (REF) approach. Using vesicular transport assay with recombinant human MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MDR1 and BCRP, we first identified that TG, AG, EtioG, and DHTG were primarily substrates of MRP2 and MRP3, although lower levels of transport were also observed with MDR1 and BCRP vesicles. The transport kinetic analyses revealed higher intrinsic clearances of TG by MRP2 and MRP3 as compared to that of DHTG, AG, and EtioG. MRP3 exhibited higher affinity for the transport of the studied glucuronides than MRP2. We next quantified the protein abundances of these efflux transporters in vesicles and compared the same with pooled total membrane fractions isolated from human tissues by quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics. The fractional contribution of individual transporters (ft) was estimated by proteomics-based physiological scaling factors, i.e., transporter abundance in whole tissue versus vesicles, and corrected for inside-out vesicles (determined by 5'-nucleotidase assay). The glucuronides of inactive androgens, AG and EtioG were preferentially transported by MRP3, whereas the glucuronides of active androgens, TG and DHTG were mainly transported by MRP2 in liver. Efflux by bile canalicular transport may indicate the potential role of enterohepatic recirculation in regulating the circulating active androgens after deconjugation in the gut. In intestine, MRP3 possibly contributes most to the efflux of these glucuronides. In kidney, all studied glucuronides seemed to be preferentially effluxed by MRP2 and MDR1 (for EtioG). These REF based analysis need to be confirmed with in vivo findings. Overall, characterization of the efflux mechanisms of T glucuronide metabolites is important for predicting the androgen disposition and interindividual variability, including drug-androgen interaction in humans. The mechanistic data can be extrapolated to other androgen relevant organs (e.g. prostate, testis and placenta) by integrating these data with quantitative tissue proteomics data.
Project description:Acupuncture has been demonstrated to improve menstrual frequency and to decrease circulating testosterone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to investigate whether acupuncture affects ovulation frequency and to understand the underlying mechanisms of any such effect by analyzing LH and sex steroid secretion in women with PCOS. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted between June 2009 and September 2010. Thirty-two women with PCOS were randomized to receive either acupuncture with manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation or to meetings with a physical therapist twice a week for 10-13 wk. Main outcome measures were changes in LH secretion patterns from baseline to after 10-13 wk of treatment and ovulation frequency during the treatment period. Secondary outcomes were changes in the secretion of sex steroids, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and serum cortisol. Ovulation frequency during treatment was higher in the acupuncture group than in the control group. After 10-13 wk of intervention, circulating levels of estrone, estrone sulfate, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone glucuronide, androstane-3?,17?-diol-3-glucuronide, and androstane-3?,17?-diol-17-glucuronide decreased within the acupuncture group and were significantly lower than in the control group for all of these except androstenedione. We conclude that repeated acupuncture treatments resulted in higher ovulation frequency in lean/overweight women with PCOS and were more effective than just meeting with the therapist. Ovarian and adrenal sex steroid serum levels were reduced with no effect on LH secretion.
Project description:Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.
Project description:Chronic supraphysiological glucocorticoid therapy controls the androgen excess of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) but contributes to the high prevalence of obesity, glucose intolerance, and reduced bone mass in these patients. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a prodrug for abiraterone, a potent CYP17A1 inhibitor used to suppress androgens in the treatment of prostate cancer.The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that AA added to physiological hydrocortisone and 9?-fludrocortisone acetate corrects androgen excess in women with 21OHD without causing hypertension or hypokalemia.This was a phase 1 dose-escalation study.The study was conducted at university clinical research centers.We screened 14 women with classic 21OHD taking hydrocortisone 12.5-20 mg/d to enroll six participants with serum androstenedione greater than 345 ng/dL (>12 nmol/L).AA was administered for 6 days at 100 or 250 mg every morning with 20 mg/d hydrocortisone and 9?-fludrocortisone acetate.The primary endpoint was normalization of mean predose androstenedione on days 6 and 7 (< 230 ng/dL [<8 nmol/L)] in greater than 80% of participants. Secondary end points included serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone (T), electrolytes, plasma renin activity, and urine androsterone and etiocholanolone glucuronides.With 100 mg/d AA, mean predose androstenedione fell from 764 to 254 ng/dL (26.7-8.9 nmol/L). At 250 mg/d AA, mean androstenedione normalized in five participants (83%) and decreased from 664 to 126 ng/dL (23.2-4.4 nmol/L), meeting the primary end point. Mean androstenedione declined further during day 6 to 66 and 38 ng/dL (2.3 and 1.3 nmol/L) at 100 and 250 mg/d, respectively. Serum T and urinary metabolites declined similarly. Abiraterone exposure was strongly negatively correlated with mean androstenedione. Hypertension and hypokalemia were not observed.AA 100-250 mg/d added to replacement hydrocortisone normalized several measures of androgen excess in women with classic 21OHD and elevated serum androstenedione.
Project description:1. After large doses of androsterone, epiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, female rats excreted more of the dose conjugated with sulphuric acid than did the males. 2. Androgens were also incubated with liver slices from male and female rats. Slices from females conjugated androgens with sulphuric acid to a greater extent than did slices from males. 3. The amount of unchanged androgen present in the faeces of orally dosed animals was 4-35% of the dose.
Project description:Male Donryu, Wistar King rats showed discontinuous variations in hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities towards androsterone, but not towards testosterone, bilirubin, phenolphthalein and 4-nitrophenol. Fresh microsomal fraction with a low transferase activity towards androsterone formed 0.049--0.080 nmole of glucuronide/min per mg of protein, whereas fresh microsomal fraction with a high transferase activity towards androsterone formed 0.335--0.557 nmol of glucuronide/min per mg of protein. The microsomal fraction with low enzyme activity towards androsterone was not stimulated by treatment with Triton X-100 or freezing and thawing. In contrast, male Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats did not exhibit such diversity.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.<h4>Methods</h4>Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.<h4>Results</h4>Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a lesser extent with smoking status and alcohol consumption.
Project description:1. A computerized technique is described for the quantitative determination of radiometabolites from incubation studies. 2. Seven steroid substrates have been incubated with human endometrial tissue. The principal radiometabolites were identified and determined after 2hr. incubation without the addition of cofactors and after 4hr. incubation with cofactors. 3. The main products from progesterone were 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone and 5alpha-pregnanedione with lower yields of 5beta-pregnanedione and 20beta-dihydroprogesterone. There was no evidence for 17alpha-hydroxylase activity. 4. 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone was transformed into small yields of 17alpha,20alpha- and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. In one incubation there was evidence for conversion into androstenedione. 5. Dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed into small amounts of androstenedione, 5alpha-androstanedione and androsterone. 6. Androstenedione and testosterone were interconvertible, the reaction favouring the formation of androstenedione. 5alpha-Androstanedione and androsterone were formed from both substrates. There was no evidence for the formation of phenolic steroids. 7. Oestrone and oestradiol-17beta were interconvertible, the reaction favouring the formation of oestrone.
Project description:UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is a highly variable androgen-metabolizing and drug-metabolizing enzyme. UGT2B17 exhibits a unique ontogeny profile characterized by a dramatic increase in hepatic protein expression from prepubertal age to adulthood. Age, sex, copy number variation (CNV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms only explain 26% of variability in protein expression, highlighting the need for a phenotypic biomarker for predicting interindividual variability in glucuronidation of UGT2B17 substrates. Here, we propose testosterone glucuronide (TG) normalized by androsterone glucuronide (TG/AG) as a urinary UGT2B17 biomarker, and examine the associations among urinary TG/AG and age, sex, and CNV. We performed targeted metabolomics of 12 androgen conjugates with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 63 pediatric subjects ages 7-18 years followed over 7 visits in 3 years. Consistent with the reported developmental trajectory of UGT2B17 protein expression, urinary TG/AG is significantly associated with age, sex, and CNV. In conclusion, TG/AG shows promise as a phenotypic urinary UGT2B17 biomarker.