Glycine is able to induce both a motility speed in- and decrease during zebrafish neuronal migration.
ABSTRACT: Various neurotransmitters influence neuronal migration in the developing zebrafish hindbrain. Migrating tegmental hindbrain nuclei neurons (THNs) are governed by depolarizing neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate), and glycine. In mature neurons, glycine binds to its receptor to hyperpolarize cells. This effect depends on the co-expression of the solute carrier KCC2. Immature precursors, however, typically express NKCC1 instead of KCC2, leading to membrane depolarization upon glycine receptor activation. As neuronal migration occurs in neurons after leaving the cell cycle and before terminal differentiation, we hypothesized that the switch from NKCC1 to KCC2 expression could alter the effect of glycine on THN migration. We tested this notion using in vivo cell tracking, overexpression of glycine receptor mutations and whole mount in situ hybridization. We summarize our findings in a speculative model, combining developmental age, glycine receptor strength and solute carrier expression to describe the effect of glycine on the migration of THNs.
Project description:Glycine and GABA, the dominant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS, assume a depolarizing role in early development, leading to increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and action potentials. The effect is thought to be of some significance for maturation. The depolarization is caused by Cl- efflux, and chloride transporters contribute to the phenomenon by raising the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) above equilibrium, thereby generating an outward-directed electrochemical gradient for Cl-. In mature neurons, the [Cl-]i is reduced below equilibrium, thus rendering glycine activity hyperpolarizing. Here, we investigated the temporal expression of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 and the Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 in the lateral superior olive (LSO) of rats and mice. The two cation cotransporters normally extrude and accumulate Cl-, respectively. As evidenced by several methods, KCC2 mRNA was present in LSO neurons during both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing periods. Western blots confirmed a constant level of KCC2 in the brainstem, and immunohistochemistry showed that the protein is diffusely distributed within neonatal LSO neurons, becoming integrated into the plasma membrane only with increasing age. The glycine reversal potential in KCC2 knock-out mice differed significantly from that determined in wild-type controls at postnatal day 12 (P12) but not at P3, demonstrating that KCC2 is not active in neonates, despite its early presence. NKCC1 mRNA was not detected during the depolarizing phase in the LSO, implying that this transporter does not contribute to the high [Cl-]i. Our results reveal major differences in the development of [Cl-]i regulation mechanisms seen in brainstem versus forebrain regions.
Project description:Cation chloride cotransporters (CCC) play an essential role for neuronal chloride homeostasis. K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2), is the principal Cl(-)-extruder, whereas Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), is the major Cl(-)-uptake mechanism in many neurons. As a consequence, the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine strongly depend on the activity of these two transporters. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in ion transport and regulation is thus of great importance to better understand normal and disturbed brain function. Although no overall 3-dimensional crystal structures are yet available, recent molecular and phylogenetic studies and modeling have provided new and exciting insights into structure-function relationships of CCC. Here, we will summarize our current knowledge of the gross structural organization of the proteins, their functional domains, ion binding and translocation sites, and the established role of individual amino acids (aa). A major focus will be laid on the delineation of shared and distinct organizational principles between KCC2 and NKCC1. Exploiting the richness of recently generated genome data across the tree of life, we will also explore the molecular evolution of these features.
Project description:Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2) have fundamental roles in neuron differentiation that are integrated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors, GABA synthesized by GAD25/65/67 encoded by GAD1/GAD2 genes, and GABA transporters (GATs). Cells in the eye lens express at least 13 GABA receptor subunits, ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, GAD1/GAD2, GAT1-4 and vGAT, and NKCC1. NKCC1:KCC2 ratios determine the switch in GABA actions from trophic/growth promoting early in development to their classic inhibitory roles in adult neurons. Lens epithelial cells cover the anterior surface and differentiate to elongated fiber cells in the lens interior with comparable morphology and sub-cellular structures as neurons. NKCC1 is expressed before KCC2 in neuron development and increases cell chloride, which stimulates differentiation and process formation. Subsequently, KCC2 increases and extrudes cell chloride linked with maturation. KCC2 has an additional structural moonlighting role interacting with F-actin scaffolding in dendritic spine morphogenesis. We examined KCC2 versus NKCC1 spatial expression in relation to fiber cell developmental status within the lens.Immunofluorescence and immunoblots were used to detect expression in mouse and rabbit lenses.NKCC1 was restricted to peripheral elongating lens fiber cells in young adult mouse and rabbit lenses. Lens KCC2 expression included the major KCC2b neuronal isoform and was detected in interior fiber cells with decreased NKCC1 expression and localized at the membranes. Lens expression of RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) regulated KCC2 is consistent with GAD1 and GAD2, several GABA and glutamate receptor subunits, miR-124, and other REST-regulated genes expressed in lenses.NKCC1 in peripheral elongating fiber cells is superseded by KCC2 expression in interior mature fiber cells that also express >20 additional integral GABA biology genes, AMPA/NMDA glutamate receptors, and an array of accessory proteins that together underlie morphogenesis in neurons. The present findings provide further evidence that this fundamental neuronal regulation is extensively conserved in lens and identify additional parallels in the morphogenetic programs that underlie lens fiber cell and neuronal differentiation and contribute to the development of visual acuity.
Project description:Neuronal migration during embryonic development contributes to functional brain circuitry. Many neurons migrate in morphologically distinct stages that coincide with differentiation, requiring tight spatial regulation. It had been proposed that neurotransmitter-mediated activity could exert this control. Here, we demonstrate that intracellular calcium transients occur in cerebellar neurons of zebrafish embryos during migration. We show that depolarization increases and hyperpolarization reduces the speed of tegmental hindbrain neurons using optogenetic tools and advanced track analysis optimized for in vivo migration. Finally, we introduce a compound screening assay to identify acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate, and glycine as regulators of migration, which act regionally along the neurons' route. We summarize our findings in a model describing how different neurotransmitters spatially interact to control neuronal migration. The high evolutionary conservation of the cerebellum and hindbrain makes it likely that polarization state-driven motility constitutes an important principle in building a functional brain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cation chloride cotransporters play essential roles in many physiological processes such as volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport and setting the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons. They consist mainly of the inward transporters NCC, NKCC1, and NKCC2, and the outward transporters KCC1 to KCC4. To gain insight into regulatory and structure-function relationships, precise determination of their activity is required. Frequently, these analyses are performed in HEK-293 cells. Recently the activity of the inward transporters NKCC1 and NCC was shown to increase with temperature in these cells. However, the temperature effect on KCCs remains largely unknown. FINDINGS: Here, we determined the temperature effect on KCC2 and KCC4 transport activity in HEK-293 cells. Both transporters demonstrated significantly higher transport activity (2.5 fold for KCC2 and 3.3 fold for KCC4) after pre-incubation at room temperature compared to 37°C. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify a reciprocal temperature dependence of cation chloride inward and outward cotransporters in HEK-293 cells. Thus, lower temperature should be used for functional characterization of KCC2 and KCC4 and higher temperatures for N(K)CCs in heterologous mammalian expression systems. Furthermore, if this reciprocal effect also applies to neurons, the action of inhibitory neurotransmitters might be more affected by changes in temperature than previously thought.
Project description:A developmental "switch" in chloride transporters occurs in most neurons resulting in GABAA mediated hyperpolarization in the adult. However, several neuronal cell subtypes maintain primarily depolarizing responses to GABAA receptor activation. Among this group are gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons, which control puberty and reproduction. NKCC1 is the primary chloride accumulator in neurons, expressed at high levels early in development and contributes to depolarization after GABAA receptor activation. In contrast, KCC2 is the primary chloride extruder in neurons, expressed at high levels in the adult and contributes to hyperpolarization after GABAA receptor activation. Anion exchangers (AEs) are also potential modulators of responses to GABAA activation since they accumulate chloride and extrude bicarbonate. To evaluate the mechanism(s) underlying GABAA mediated depolarization, GnRH neurons were analyzed for 1) expression of chloride transporters and AEs in embryonic, pre-pubertal, and adult mice 2) responses to GABAA receptor activation in NKCC1-/- mice and 3) function of AEs in these responses. At all ages, GnRH neurons were immunopositive for NKCC1 and AE2 but not KCC2 or AE3. Using explants, calcium imaging and gramicidin perforated patch clamp techniques we found that GnRH neurons from NKCC1-/- mice retained relatively normal responses to the GABAA agonist muscimol. However, acute pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide eliminated the depolarization/calcium response to muscimol in 40% of GnRH neurons from WT mice. In the remaining GnRH neurons, HCO3- mediated mechanisms accounted for the remaining calcium responses to muscimol. Collectively these data reveal mechanisms responsible for maintaining depolarizing GABAA mediated transmission in GnRH neurons.
Project description:The intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl(-)]i) determines the strength and polarity of GABA neurotransmission. STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is known as an indirect regulator of [Cl(-)]i for its activation of Na-K-2 Cl(-)co-transporters (NKCC) and inhibition of K-Cl(-)co-transporters (KCC) in many organs. NKCC1 or KCC2 expression changes have been demonstrated previously in the hippocampal neurons of mice with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). However, it remains unclear whether SPAK modulates [Cl(-)]i via NKCC1 or KCC2 in the brain. Also, there are no data clearly characterizing SPAK expression in cortical or hippocampal neurons or confirming an association between SPAK and epilepsy. In the present study, we examined SPAK expression and co-expression with NKCC1 and KCC2 in the hippocampal neurons of mice with PISE, and we investigated alterations in SPAK expression in the hippocampus of such mice. Significant increases in SPAK mRNA and protein levels were detected during various stages of PISE in the PISE mice in comparison to levels in age-matched sham (control) and blank treatment (control) mice. SPAK and NKCC1 expression increased in vitro, while KCC2 was down-regulated in hippocampal neurons following hypoxic conditioning. However, SPAK overexpression did not influence the expression levels of NKCC1 or KCC2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that the intensity of interaction between SPAK and NKCC1 and between SPAK and KCC2 increased markedly after oxygen-deprivation, whereas SPAK overexpression strengthened the relationships. The [Cl(-)]i of hippocampal neurons changed in a corresponding manner under the different conditions. Our data suggests that SPAK is involved in the plasticity of GABA signaling function in acquired epilepsy via adjustment of [Cl(-)]i in hippocampal neurons.
Project description:BACKGROUND: During development the switch from a depolarizing to a hyperpolarizing action of GABA is a consequence of a decrease of the Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC1, Cl--uptake) and increase of the K+-Cl- co-transporter (KCC2, Cl--extrusion) expression. However albino visual cortex neurons don't show a corresponding decrease in intracellular chloride concentration during development of the visual system as compared to pigmented animals. RESULTS: Our study revealed that more cells express NKCC1 in albinos compared to pigmented rat visual cortex neurons whereas KCC2 is expressed in all cells in both strains. We determined a positive relationship between the presence of NKCC1 and an inhibitory deficit in single neurons of the albino visual cortex. After pharmacological blockade of NKCC1 function with its specific inhibitor, bumetanide, the reversal potential of electrically evoked GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and, as a consequence, [Cl-]i in albino visual cortex neurons shifted to the pigmented rat brain value. In conclusion, our pharmacological experiments and subsequent single cell real time PCR analysis of the co-transporter mRNA demonstrated that the inhibitory deficit present in the albino visual cortical network is almost exclusively mediated by NKCC1. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that blocking of NKCC1 in albino visual cortex neurons could improve processing in visual cortex and therefore might be beneficial for vision in albinos.
Project description:K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) are the main regulators of neuronal intracellular chloride concentration; altered expression patterns of KCC2 and NKCC1 have been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we show the effect of repeated stress on KCC2, NKCC1, and serine 940 phosphorylated KCC2 (pKCC2(ser940)) immunoreactivity. The data were obtained from the hippocampus of female mice using single-plane confocal microscopy images. The mean fluorescence intensity of the perisomatic area of neurons, defined as raw fluorescence intensity (RFI) was calculated. Repeated stress (RS) resulted in a decrease in perisomatic area of immunoreactive (IR)-KCC2 and an increase of the IR-NKCC1. In addition, RS decreased perisomatic IR-pKCC2(ser940), corresponding to that of KCC2. The data in this article support the results of a previous study  and provide the details of immunohistological methods. Interpretation of the data in this article can be found in "Repeated stress-induced expression pattern alterations of the hippocampal chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 associated with behavioral abnormalities in female mice" by Tsukahara et al. .
Project description:Spinal inhibition is required to generate coordinated outputs between antagonistic muscles during locomotion. It relies on low neuronal chloride concentration set by two cation-chloride cotransporters, NKCC1 and KCC2 which, respectively, pumps Cl(-) in or out of neurons. It is generally accepted that NKCC1 is gradually inactivated during development, while KCC2 is upregulated and activated, resulting in low intracellular [Cl(-)]. Newborn opossums are very immature but perform rhythmic and alternate movements of the forelimbs to crawl on the mother's belly and attach to a teat. Their hindlimbs are immobile. The alternation of the forelimbs suggests that mechanisms allowing spinal inhibition are present at birth. We studied the anatomical basis of inhibition in the spinal enlargements of postnatal opossums by immunolocalizing NKCC1 and KCC2. In some specimens, motoneurons and sensory afferents were labeled with TRDA prior to immunolabeling. At birth, both NKCC1 and KCC2 are detected in the presumptive gray and white matter of the ventral and the intermediolateral cord of both enlargements, but are sparse in the dorsal horn, where KCC2 is mostly seen on a small bundle of dendrites along primary afferents. KCC2 labeling is bright and has a mesh-like appearance in the gray matter and a radial appearance in the white matter, whereas NKCC1 is pale and diffuse. The subsequent expression of the cotransporters follows general ventrodorsal and mediolateral gradients, with the lumbar segments slightly lagging the cervical segments, until the mature pattern is observed around the 5th week. At all ages studied, KCC2 labeling is strong in the periphery of neurons. NKCC1 labeling decreases and becomes more uniformly distributed in the cells with age. Despite the significant anatomical and motor differences between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs of neonatal opossums, the maturation of KCC2 and NKCC1 is quite similar in both enlargements.