Association Between the Methicillin Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Slaughter Poultry, Their Toxin Gene Profiles and Prophage Patterns.
ABSTRACT: In this work, 85 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from samples taken from slaughter poultry in Poland. Attempts were made to determine the prophage profile of the strains and to investigate the presence in their genome of genes responsible for the production of five classical enterotoxins (A-E), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1), exfoliative toxins (ETA and ETB) and staphylokinase (SAK). For this purpose, multiplex PCR was performed using primer-specific pairs for targeted genes. The presence of the mecA gene was found in 26 strains (30.6%). The genomes of one of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains and two methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains contained the gene responsible for the production of enterotoxin A. Only one MRSA strain and two MSSA strains showed the presence of the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst) gene. Only one of the MSSA strains had the gene (eta) responsible for the production of exfoliative toxins A. The presence of the staphylokinase gene (sak) was confirmed in 13 MRSA strains and in 5 MSSA strains. The study results indicated a high prevalence of prophages among the test isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. In all, 15 prophage patterns were observed among the isolates. The presence of 77-like prophages incorporated into bacterial genome was especially often demonstrated. Various authors emphasize the special role of these prophages in the spread of virulence factors (staphylokinase, enterotoxin A) not only within strains of the same species but also between species and even types of bacteria.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Staphylococcus aureus is considered an important pathogen with a variety of virulence factors in communities and hospitals all around the world. Prophage typing is a practical technique for categorizing this bacterium. In this study, we focused on the detection of prophage patterns in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains based on their virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and molecular typing by rep-PCR. RESULTS:Out of 126 S. aureus isolates, 45 (35.7%) were identified as MRSA. In total, 17 different prophage types were detected and 112 strains out of 126 strains contained at least one prophage. There was a statistically significant relationship between hld, hlg, eta and SGA, SGA, and SGFb, respectively. The results of the rep-PCR analysis revealed 14 different patterns among the MRSA and MSSA isolates. In conclusion, the presence of different prophage-encoded virulence factors and antibiotic-resistant genes among MRSA strains enables them to produce a broad range of diseases. Thus, diverse MRSA strains which have these prophages can be considered as a potential threat to the patient's health in either the hospital or the community.
Project description:A large collection of Staphylococcus aureus including a. 745 clinically significant isolates that were consecutively recovered from human infections during 2012-2013, b. 19 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), randomly selected between 2006-2011 from our Staphylococcal Collection, c. 16 human colonizing isolates, and d. 10 strains from colonized animals was investigated for the presence and the molecular characteristics of CC398. The study was conducted in Thessaly, a rural region in Greece. The differentiation of livestock-associated clade from the human clade was based on canSNPs combined with the presence of the φ3 bacteriophage and the tetM, scn, sak, and chp genes. Among the 745 isolates, two MRSA (0.8% of total MRSA) and thirteen MSSA (2.65% of total MSSA) were found to belong to CC398, while, between MSSA of our Staphylococcal Collection, one CC398, isolated in 2010, was detected. One human individual, without prior contact with animals, was found to be colonized by a MSSA CC398. No CC398 was identified among the 10 S. aureus isolated from animals. Based on the molecular markers, the 17 CC398 strains were equally placed in the livestock-associated and in the human clades. This is the first report for the dissemination of S. aureus CC398 among humans in Greece.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous pathogen and colonizer in humans and animals. There are few studies on the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in wild monkeys and apes. S. aureus carriage in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) is a species that has not previously been sampled and lives in remote environments with limited human contact. Forty Staphylococcus aureus isolates including 33 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and seven methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized. Thirty-four isolates were from rhesus macaques and six isolates (five MSSA, one MRSA) were from Assam macaques. Isolates were characterized using StaphyType DNA microarrays. Five of the MRSA including one from Assam macaque were CC22 MRSA-IV (PVL+/tst+), which is a strain previously identified in Nepalese rhesus. One MRSA each were CC6 MRSA-IV and CC772 MRSA-V (PVL+). One MSSA each belonged to CC15, CC96, and CC2990. Six MRSA isolates carried the blaZ, while ten known CC isolates (seven MRSA, three MSSA) carried a variety of genes including aacA-aphD, aphA3, erm(C), mph(C), dfrA, msrA, and/or sat genes. The other 30 MSSA isolates belonged to 17 novel clonal complexes, carried no antibiotic resistance genes, lacked Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and most examined exotoxin genes. Four clonal complexes carried egc enterotoxin genes, and four harbored edinB, which is an exfoliative toxin homologue.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance in staphylococci, is located on a mobile genetic element called Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal, interspecies transfer of this element could be an important factor in the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Previously, we reported the isolation of a closely related methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), MRSA and potential SCCmec donor Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from the same patient. Based on fingerprint techniques we hypothesized that the S. epidermidis had transferred SCCmec to the MSSA to become MRSA. The aim of this study was to show that these isolates form an isogenic pair and that interspecies horizontal SCCmec transfer occurred. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing of both isolates was performed and for the MSSA gaps were closed by conventional sequencing. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis was also sequenced by conventional methods. The results show no difference in nucleotide sequence between the two isolates except for the presence of SCCmec in the MRSA. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis and the MRSA are identical except for a single nucleotide in the ccrB gene, which results in a valine to alanine substitution. The main difference with the closely related EMRSA-16 is the presence of SaPI2 encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin and exfoliative toxin A in the MSSA-MRSA pair. No transfer of SCCmec from the S. epidermidis to the MSSA could be demonstrated in vitro. CONCLUSION: The MSSA and MRSA form an isogenic pair except for SCCmec. This strongly supports our hypothesis that the MRSA was derived from the MSSA by interspecies horizontal transfer of SCCmec from S. epidermidis O7.1.
Project description:The appearance of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in several animal species (including rabbits) has set off alarms for their capacity to act as reservoirs for this bacterium. This is especially important in wild animals given its epidemiological implications. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize S. aureus, specifically MRSA, strains in wild lagomorph high-density areas. Ten hares and 353 wild rabbits from 14 towns with a high rabbit density in the Valencian region (eastern Spanish coast) were sampled. Swabs from the nasal cavity, ears, perineum and lesions (when present) were taken for microbiological studies. The detection of different genes and antibiotic susceptibility studies were also carried out. Of all the animals, 41.3% were positive for S. aureus, of which 63.3% were MRSA. Ears were the anatomical location with more S. aureus and MRSA strains. The more frequently identified MLST type was ST1945 (97.1%, 136/140). The mecA gene was found only in one sample. The rest (n = 139) carried the mecC gene and were included in CC130, except one. Penicillin resistance was detected in 28 mec-negative isolates and, in one case, bacitracin resistance. mecA isolate presented resistance to enrofloxacin and tetracycline, and 10 mecC isolates also showed bacitracin resistance. No MRSA isolate was positive for genes chp, sea, tst and PVL. Two ST1945 isolates contained IEC type E (comprising genes scn and sak). mecA-isolate was positive for blaZ. Of the 28 MSSA strains showing resistance to penicillin, 22 carried the blaZ gene. These surprising results highlight the marked presence of MRSA strains in wild rabbits in high-density areas.
Project description:Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a threat to human health worldwide. Although progress has been made, mechanisms of CA-MRSA pathogenesis are poorly understood and a comprehensive analysis of CA-MRSA exoproteins has not been conducted. To address that deficiency, we used proteomics to identify exoproteins made by MW2 (USA400) and LAC (USA300) during growth in vitro. Two hundred and fifty unique exoproteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with automated direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry (ADI-MS/MS) analysis. Eleven known virulence-related exoproteins differed in abundance between the strains, including alpha-haemolysin (Hla), collagen adhesin (Cna), staphylokinase (Sak), coagulase (Coa), lipase (Lip), enterotoxin C3 (Sec3), enterotoxin Q (Seq), V8 protease (SspA) and cysteine protease (SspB). Mice infected with MW2 or LAC produced antibodies specific for known or putative virulence factors, such as autolysin (Atl), Cna, Ear, ferritin (Ftn), Lip, 1-phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (Plc), Sak, Sec3 and SspB, indicating the exoproteins are made during infection in vivo. We used confocal microscopy to demonstrate aureolysin (Aur), Hla, SspA and SspB are produced following phagocytosis by human neutrophils, thereby linking exoprotein production in vitro with that during host-pathogen interaction. We conclude that the exoproteins identified herein likely account in part for the success of CA-MRSA as a human pathogen.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST)398 is a livestock associated (LA) lineage with zoonotic potential, especially in humans with live pig contact. The objective of this study was to characterize two S. aureus strains of lineage ST398 (one methicillin-resistant (MRSA), one methicillin-susceptible (MSSA)) isolated from the same nasal sample of a patient admitted in the Intensive-Care Unit of a Spanish Hospital, and with previous occupational exposure to live pigs, by whole-genome-sequencing (WGS). The sample was obtained during routine surveillance for MRSA colonization. Purified genomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and processed using conventional bioinformatics software. The two isolates recovered were both S. aureus t011/ST398 and showed similar resistance-phenotypes, other than methicillin susceptibility. The possession of antibiotic resistance genes was the same, except for the mecA-gene located in SCCmecV in the MRSA isolate. The MSSA isolate harbored remnants of a SCCmec following the deletion of 17342bp from a recombination between two putative primases. Both isolates belonged to the livestock-associated clade as defined by three canonical single-nucleotide-polymorphisms, and neither possessed the human immune evasion cluster genes, chp, scn, or sak. The core genome alignment showed a similarity of 99.6%, and both isolates harbored the same mobile genetic elements. The two nasal ST398 isolates recovered from the patient with previous occupational exposure to pigs appeared to have a livestock origin and could represent different evolutionary steps of animal-human interface lineage. The MSSA strain was formed as a result of the loss of the mecA gene from the livestock-associated-MRSA lineage.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9. Within 14 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and 198 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, ST97 was the predominant MSSA clone and ST9-MRSA-SCCmecXII-spa t899 was the most common MRSA clone. The MRSA strains showed much higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than did MSSA strains. Compared with other MSSA strains, MSSA ST398 was more resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. No isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The molecular profiles of the virulence genes varied in different strains. ST520 strains carried seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, and ST9 and ST97 harbored sdrD-sdrE genes. Virulence phenotype analysis showed diversity in different clones. Biofilm formation ability was significantly enhanced in ST188 and ST7, and red blood cell lysis capacity was relatively strong in all S. aureus strains of animal origin except ST7. Our results indicate that MSSA was the predominant S. aureus strain causing bovine mastitis in eastern regions of China. However, the presence of multidrug resistant and toxigenic MRSA clone ST9 suggests that comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus infection should be implemented in the management of animal husbandry products.
Project description:The impact of bacterial genetic characteristics on the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections is uncertain. This investigation evaluated potential associations between bacterial genotype and clinical outcome using isolates collected as part of an international phase 2 clinical trial (FAST II) evaluating telavancin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Ninety S. aureus isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients with cSSSI enrolled in the FAST II trial from 11 sites in the United States (56 isolates, or 62%) and 7 sites in South Africa (34 isolates, or 38%) were examined for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, agr, and the presence of 31 virulence genes and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). South African methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more likely to carry certain virulence genes, including sdrD (P = 0.01), sea (P < 0.01), and pvl (P = 0.01). All 44 (49%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were from the United States; 37 (84%) were strain USA 300 by PFGE. In the United States, MRSA isolates were more likely than MSSA isolates to carry genes for sdrC (P = 0.03), map/eap (P = 0.05), fnbB (P = 0.11), tst (P = 0.02), sea (P = 0.04), sed (P = 0.04), seg (P = 0.11), sej (P = 0.11), agr (P = 0.09), V8 (P = 0.06), sdrD, sdrE, eta, etb, and see (P < 0.01 for all). MRSA isolates were more often clonal than MSSA isolates by PFGE. Isolates from patients who were cured were significantly more likely to contain the pvl gene than isolates from patients that failed or had indeterminate outcomes (79/84 [94%] versus 3/6 [50%]; P = 0.01). S. aureus strains from different geographic regions have different distributions of virulence genes.
Project description:Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (Sak?N10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for Sak?N10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of Sak?N10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with Sak?N10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein's ?-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on Sak?N10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties.