Evolution in the management of acute cholecystitis in the elderly: population-based cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Acute cholecystitis is a life-threatening emergency in elderly patients. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the commonly used management strategies for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis as well as resulting mortality and re-admission rates.Data from all consecutive elderly patients (≥ 80 years) admitted with acute cholecystitis in England from 1997 to 2012 were captured from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Influence of management strategies upon mortality was analyzed with adjustment for patient demographics and treatment year.47,500 elderly patients were admitted as an emergency with acute cholecystitis. On the index emergency admission the majority of patients (n = 42,620, 89.7%) received conservative treatment, 3539 (7.5%) had cholecystectomy, and 1341 (2.8%) underwent cholecystostomy. In the short term, 30-day mortality was increased in the emergency cholecystectomy group (11.6%) compared to those managed conservatively (9.9%) (p < 0.001). This was offset by the long-term benefits of cholecystectomy with a reduced 1-year mortality [20.8 vs. 27.1% for those managed conservatively (p < 0.001)]. Management with percutaneous cholecystostomy had increased 30-day and 1-year mortality (13.4 and 35.0%, respectively). The annual proportion of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased from 27% in 2006 to 59% in 2012. Within the cholecystectomy group, laparoscopic approach was an independent predictor of reduced 30-day mortality (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.25). Following conservative management, there were 16,088 admissions with further cholecystitis. Only 11% of patients initially managed conservatively or with cholecystostomy received subsequent cholecystectomy.Acute cholecystitis is associated with significant mortality in elderly patients. Potential benefits of emergency cholecystectomy in selected elderly patients include reduced rate of readmissions and 1-year mortality. Laparoscopic approach for emergency cholecystectomy was associated with an 84% relative risk reduction in 30-day mortality compared to open surgery.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy.Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p?<?0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. Both interventions would be compared with regard to in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, procedure-dependent complications, re-intervention, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, re-admission, and cost of treatment. The review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.This systematic review aims at identifying and evaluating the clinical value of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis.PROSPERO CRD42015016205.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Tokyo Guidelines recommend initial cholecystostomy tube drainage, antibiotics, and delayed cholecystectomy in patients with grade III cholecystitis. STUDY DESIGN:We used Medicare data (1996 to 2010) to identify patients 66 years and older who were admitted with grade III acute cholecystitis. We evaluated adherence to the Tokyo Guidelines and compared mortality, readmission, and complication rates with and without cholecystostomy tube placement in a propensity-matched (1:3) cohort of patients with grade III cholecystitis. RESULTS:There were 8,818 patients admitted with grade III cholecystitis; 565 patients (6.4%) had a cholecystostomy tube placed. Cholecystostomy tube placement increased from 3.9% to 9.7% during the study period. Compared with 1,689 propensity-matched controls, patients with cholecystostomy tube placement had higher 30-day (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.50), 90-day (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.46), and 2-year mortality (HR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36) and were less likely to undergo cholecystectomy in the 2 years after initial hospitalization (33.4% vs 64.4%; HR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.31). Readmissions were also higher at 30 days (HR = 2.93; 95% CI 2.12 to 4.05), 90 days (HR = 3.48; 95% CI 2.60 to 4.64), and 2 years (HR = 3.08; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.90). CONCLUSIONS:Since the introduction of the Tokyo Guidelines (2007), use of cholecystostomy tubes in patients with grade III cholecystitis has increased, but the majority of patients do not get cholecystostomy tube drainage as first-line therapy. Cholecystostomy tube placement was associated with lower rates of definitive treatment with cholecystectomy, higher mortality, and higher readmission rates. These data suggest a need for additional evaluation and refinement of the Tokyo Guidelines.
Project description:Besides cholecystectomy (CC), percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) has been recommended for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. However, solid evidence on the benefit of PC in this subgroup of patients is lacking.In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2014. Two investigators independently screened the studies included.Six studies with a total of 337 500 patients (PC 10 045, CC 327 455) were included for meta-analysis. Significant differences in favor of CC were recorded with regard to the rate of mortality (OR 4.28, [1.72 to 10.62], p = 0.0017), length of hospital stay (OR 1.41, [1.02 to 1.95], p = 0.04), and the rate of readmission for biliary complaints (OR 2.16, [1.72 to 2.73], p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between both intervention arms with regard to complications (OR 0.74, [0.36 to 1.53], p = 0.42) and re-interventions (OR 7.69, [0.68 to 87.33], p = 0.10).The benefit of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) over cholecystectomy (CC) in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis could not be proven in this systematic review.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common surgical diagnoses encountered by general surgeons. Despite its high incidence there remains a range of treatment of approaches. Current practices in biliary surgery vary as to timing, intraoperative utilization of biliary imaging, and management of bile duct stones despite growing evidence in the literature defining best practice. Management of patients with acute cholecystitis with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in better patient outcomes when compared with delayed surgical management techniques including antibiotic therapy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Regardless of this data, many surgeons still prefer to utilize antibiotic therapy and complete an interval LC to manage acute cholecystitis. The use of intraoperative biliary imaging by cholangiogram or laparoscopic ultrasound has been demonstrated to facilitate the safe completion of cholecystectomy, minimizing the risk for inadvertent injury to surrounding structures, and lowering conversion rates, however it is rarely utilized. Choledocholithiasis used to be a diagnosis managed exclusively by surgeons but current practice favors referral to gastroenterologists for performance of preoperative endoscopic removal. Yet, there is evidence that intraoperative laparoscopic stone extraction is safe, feasible and may have added advantages. This review aims to highlight the differences between existing management of acute cholecystitis and evidence supported in the literature regarding best practice with the goal to change surgical practice to adopt these current recommendations.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a frequent condition. Although cholecystectomy is the indicated treatment of this entity, it cannot be performed in some high-risk surgery patients, such as critically ill or those with multiple comorbidities. In these non-uncommon scenarios, percutaneous cholecystostomy is the recommended alternative treatment, which allows immediate decompression and drainage of the acutely inflamed gallbladder and thus reducing the patient's symptoms and the systemic inflammatory response. Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice to guide the percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure due to its real-time guidance, lack of ionizing radiation and portability, avoiding the need to transfer unhealthy patients to the radiology department. We will review the ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure, of special interest for radiologists, surgeons, and also intensive care and emergency physicians.
Project description:Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient's general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient's general medical condition.
Project description:Introduction:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus 4, transmitted through intimate contact between susceptible persons and asymptomatic EBV shedders. It usually presents with fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. Majority of individuals with primary EBV infection recover uneventfully. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis (AAC) is usually seen in hospitalized and critically ill patients with major trauma, shock, severe sepsis, total parenteral nutrition and mechanical ventilation. Case presentation:We report a 25-year- old woman presented with acute Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)infection and hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan confirmed presence of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis (AAC). Conservative management was advised initially, but she had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to intolerable abdominal pain. Conclusion:AAC is a rare complication of acute EBV infection and it is usually managed conservatively, although our patient had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to intolerable abdominal pain.
Project description:Early cholecystectomy within 72 hours has been shown to be superior to late or delayed cholecystectomy with regard to outcome and cost of treatment. Recently, immediate cholecystectomy within 24 hours of onset of symptom was proposed as standard procedure for the management of fit patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. We sort to find out if there are any differences in surgical outcomes between patients managed within 24 h and those managed 25-72 h following symptom begin for acute cholecystitis.A retrospective analysis was performed. The outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 h were compared to those of patients managed 25-72 h following symptom onset for acute cholecystitis.35 patients managed 25-72 h following begin of symptoms were matched with 35 patients with similar baseline features, medical comorbidities and disease severity managed within 24 hours of symptom onset. There were no significant differences in the duration of surgery, postoperative complications, rate of conversion and length of hospital stay.Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within 24 hour of symptom onset is not superior to surgery 25-72 hour after symptoms begin. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis therefore can be safely performed anytime within the golden 72 h.
Project description:Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) tube placement followed by delayed cholecystectomy has been shown to be an effective treatment option in high-risk populations such as older and critically ill patients. The goal of this study was to review the short- and long-term clinical and operative outcomes of patients with acute cholecystitis initially treated with PC tube placement.We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent image-guided PC tube insertion between 2001 and 2011 at the Royal University Hospital or St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. Clinical outcomes, complications and elective cholecystectomy follow-up were noted.A total of 140 patients underwent PC tube insertion, 76 men and 64 women with a mean age of 68.4 (standard deviation 17.7) years. Of the 140, 94 (67.1%) had an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification score of III or IV. Percutaneous cholecystostomy tubes remained in place for a median of 21.0 days, and the median hospital stay was 7.0 days. Readmission owing to complications from PC tubes occurred in 21 patients (15.0%), and 10 (7.1%) were readmitted with recurrent cholecystitis after tube removal. Forty-four patients (31.4%) returned for subsequent elective cholecystectomy, of whom 32 (73%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (9%) underwent open cholecystectomy, and 8 (18%) underwent laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy.Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a safe procedure that can be performed in patients who are older or have numerous comorbidities. However, less than one-third of such patients in our cohort subsequently had the definitive intervention of elective cholecystectomy, with a high rate of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.
Project description:Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most frequent complication of cholelithiasis and represents one-third of all surgical emergency hospital admissions, many aspects of the disease are still a matter of debate. Knowledge of the current evidence may allow the surgical team to develop practical bedside decision-making strategies, aiming at a less demanding procedure and lower frequency of complications. In this regard, recommendations on the diagnosis supported by specific criteria and severity scores are being implemented, to prioritize patients eligible for urgency surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment for ACC and the procedure should ideally be performed within 72 h. Early surgery is associated with better results in comparison to delayed surgery. In addition, when to suspect associated common bile duct stones and how to treat them when found are still debated. The antimicrobial agents are indicated for high-risk patients and especially in the presence of gallbladder necrosis. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and in some cases with antifungal agents is related to better prognosis. Moreover, an emerging strategy of not converting to open, a difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and performing a subtotal cholecystectomy is recommended by adept surgical teams. Some authors support the use of percutaneous cholecystostomy as an alternative emergency treatment for acute Cholecystitis for patients with severe comorbidities.