Reliability and Validity of Radiographic Measurement of the Humerus-Elbow-Wrist Angle in Healthy Children.
ABSTRACT: This article was updated on May 4, 2017, because of a previous error. The proximal line drawn in Figure 1 was different from the line described in the Materials and Methods section, which reads "The proximal line was drawn at the level of the radial tuberosity, and the distal line was made at the level of the top of the radial bowing (Fig. 1)." The correct figure is presented in this version of the article. An erratum has been published: JBJS Open Access. 2017 May 26;2(2):e0012ER.We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the normal value, range, reliability, and validity of measurement of the humerus-elbow-wrist angle, an index of valgus-varus angulation of the elbow, in healthy children. This measurement has been used to assess postoperative radiographic results.Radiographs of the elbow in 62 healthy children ranging from 2 to 11 years of age were reviewed by 6 examiners at 2 sessions. The mean value and the reliability of measurement of the humerus-elbow-wrist angle, the carrying angle, and the Baumann angle were assessed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated with use of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). To determine concurrent validity, the association between the humerus-elbow-wrist angle and carrying angle measurements was examined with use of Pearson correlation coefficients.The mean humerus-elbow-wrist angle value was 12.0° (range, 1° to 24°), and the mean carrying angle was 14.6° (range, 4° to 28°). The ICCs for intraobserver measurements of the humerus-elbow-wrist angle were almost perfect for 4 examiners and were substantial for 2 examiners, with a mean value of 0.85 (range, 0.73 to 0.94). The ICCs for interobserver reliability with regard to the first and second measurements of the humerus-elbow-wrist angle were both substantial (0.76 and 0.78). A significant association between the humerus-elbow-wrist angle and the carrying angle was observed, with the Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 (p < 0.001).Measurement of the humerus-elbow-wrist angle demonstrated good reliability and validity. The humerus-elbow-wrist angle is a reliable radiographic measure of coronal alignment of the humerus and forearm.
Project description:Background:Several radiographic measurements of the humerus can be used to evaluate the treatment outcome of supracondylar fractures in children. Because of the cartilaginous nature of the immature elbow, interpretation of radiographs around this area is sometimes challenging and can be unreliable. This study was conducted to determine the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the six commonly used radiographic measurements of the distal humerus. Method:The Baumann angle, humero-ulna angle, metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle, radial epiphyseal angle, shaft-condylar angle and lateral capitellohumeral angle of the humerus were measured by two observers on the radiographs of uninjured elbows from 58 children. The values between each measurement were compared and correlated using a Pearson coefficient of correlation to determine the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability. Results:All of the radiographic parameters showed excellent intra-observer reliability with the correlation coefficient values of the Baumann angle, humero-ulna angle, metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle, radial epiphyseal angle, shaft-condylar angle, lateral capitellohumeral angle as 0.945, 0.95, 0.909, 0.888, 0.961 and 0.975 (p?<?0.001), respectively. The inter-observer reliability of the Baumann and humero-ulna angles were also found to be highly correlated at r?=?0.843 (p?<?0.001) and 0.878 (p?<?0.001), respectively. The metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle had poor reliability with r?=?0.136 (p?=?0.291) while the radial epiphyseal angle, shaft-condylar angle, and lateral capitellohumeral angle demonstrated good reliability with r?=?0.675 (p?<?0.001), 0.747 (p?<?0.001), and 0.686 (p?<?0.001), respectively. Conclusion:The Baumann angle and humero-ulna angle measurements of distal humerus showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability. Both parameters represent repeatable and reliable methods for determining the outcome of supracondylar humeral fractures in pediatric population.
Project description:Manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) are commonly used in people with inflammatory myopathy (IM), but their clinimetric properties have not yet been sufficiently studied. To evaluate the reliability and validity of MMT and HHD, maximum isometric strength was measured in eight muscle groups across three measurement events. To evaluate reliability of HHD, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), the standard error of measurements (SEM) and smallest detectable changes (SDC) were calculated. To measure reliability of MMT linear Cohen`s Kappa was computed for single muscle groups and ICC for total score. Additionally, correlations between MMT8 and HHD were evaluated with Spearman Correlation Coefficients. Fifty people with myositis (56±14 years, 76% female) were included in the study. Intra-and interrater reliability of HHD yielded excellent ICCs (0.75-0.97) for all muscle groups, except for interrater reliability of ankle extension (0.61). The corresponding SEMs% ranged from 8 to 28% and the SDCs% from 23 to 65%. MMT8 total score revealed excellent intra-and interrater reliability (ICC>0.9). Intrarater reliability of single muscle groups was substantial for shoulder and hip abduction, elbow and neck flexion, and hip extension (0.64-0.69); moderate for wrist (0.53) and knee extension (0.49) and fair for ankle extension (0.35). Interrater reliability was moderate for neck flexion (0.54) and hip abduction (0.44); fair for shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist and ankle extension (0.20-0.33); and slight for knee extension (0.08). Correlations between the two tests were low for wrist, knee, ankle, and hip extension; moderate for elbow flexion, neck flexion and hip abduction; and good for shoulder abduction. In conclusion, the MMT8 total score is a reliable assessment to consider general muscle weakness in people with myositis but not for single muscle groups. In contrast, our results confirm that HHD can be recommended to evaluate strength of single muscle groups.
Project description:Computed tomography (CT)-based method of three dimensional (3D) analysis (MIMICS®, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) is reported as very useful software for evaluation of OPLL, but its reliability and reproducibility are obscure. This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of MIMICS® system, and inter- and intra-observer reliability in the measurement of OPLL.Three neurosurgeons independently analyzed the randomly selected 10 OPLL cases with medical image processing software (MIMICS®) which create 3D model with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) data from CT images after brief explanation was given to examiners before the image construction steps. To assess the reliability of inter- and intra-examiner intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 3 examiners measured 4 parameters (volume, length, width, and length) in 10 cases 2 times with 1-week interval.The inter-examiner ICCs among 3 examiners were 0.996 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.987-0.999) for volume measurement, 0.973 (95% CI, 0.907-0.978) for thickness, 0.969 (95% CI, 0.895-0.993) for width, and 0.995 (95% CI, 0.983-0.999) for length. The intra-examiner ICCs were 0.994 (range, 0.991-0.996) for volume, 0.996 (range, 0.944-0.998) for length, 0.930 (range, 0.873-0.947) for width, and 0.987 (range, 0.985-0.995) for length.The medical image processing software (MIMICS®) provided detailed quantification OPLL volume with minimal error of inter- and intra-observer reliability in the measurement of OPLL.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Elbow and wrist chronic conditions are very common among musculoskeletal problems. These painful conditions affect muscle function, which ultimately leads to a decrease in the joint's Range Of Motion (ROM). Due to their portability and ease of use, goniometers are still the most widespread tool for measuring ROM. Inertial sensors are emerging as a digital, low-cost and accurate alternative. However, whereas inertial sensors are commonly used in research studies, due to the lack of information about their validity and reliability, they are not widely used in the clinical practice. The goal of this study is to assess the validity and intra-inter-rater reliability of inertial sensors for measuring active ROM of the elbow and wrist.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Measures were taken simultaneously with inertial sensors (Werium<sup>™</sup> system) and a universal goniometer. The process involved two physiotherapists ("rater A" and "rater B") and an engineer responsible for the technical issues. Twenty-nine asymptomatic subjects were assessed individually in two sessions separated by 48 h. The procedure was repeated by rater A followed by rater B with random order. Three repetitions of each active movement (elbow flexion, pronation, and supination; and wrist flexion, extension, radial deviation and ulnar deviation) were executed starting from the neutral position until the ROM end-feel; that is, until ROM reached its maximum due to be stopped by the anatomy. The coefficient of determination (<i>r</i> <sup>2</sup>) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. The Standard Error of the Measurement and the Minimum Detectable Change and a Bland-Altman plots were also calculated.<h4>Results</h4>Similar ROM values when measured with both instruments were obtained for the elbow (maximum difference of 3° for all the movements) and wrist (maximum difference of 1° for all the movements). These values were within the normal range when compared to literature studies. The concurrent validity analysis for all the movements yielded ICC values ?0.78 for the elbow and ?0.95 for the wrist. Concerning reliability, the ICC values denoted a high reliability of inertial sensors for all the different movements. In the case of the elbow, intra-rater and inter-rater reliability ICC values range from 0.83 to 0.96 and from 0.94 to 0.97, respectively. Intra-rater analysis of the wrist yielded ICC values between 0.81 and 0.93, while the ICC values for the inter-rater analysis range from 0.93 to 0.99.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inertial sensors are a valid and reliable tool for measuring elbow and wrist active ROM. Particularly noteworthy is their high inter-rater reliability, often questioned in measurement tools. The lowest reliability is observed in elbow prono-supination, probably due to skin artifacts. Based on these results and their advantages, inertial sensors can be considered a valid assessment tool for wrist and elbow ROM.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN: Interobserver and intraobserver reliabilityObjective: To measure and compare the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the cervical spine injury severity score (CSISS), the subaxial injury classification (SLIC) and severity scale, and the Allen-Ferguson system in patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: Five examiners independently reviewed c-spine x-rays (CT/MRI) of 50 consecutive patients with subaxial cervical-spine injuries. They classified each case using CSISS, SLIC, and the Allen-Ferguson system. Examiners also documented if they believed the case required surgical management. At least 6 weeks later, the above steps were repeated for ten randomly chosen cases. RESULTS: The interobserver and intraobserver reliability for the total CSISS and total SLIC score are excellent. There is poor interobserver reliability and excellent intraobserver reliability when a total kappa score is calculated using all 21 groups for the Allen-Ferguson system. With respect to surgical management decisions, the interobserver agreement is moderate and the intraobserver agreement is excellent. CONCLUSIONS: There is no universally accepted classification scheme for subaxial cervical-spine injuries. A useful classification system must have excellent reliability to consistently and accurately describe injury patterns between different observers and allow for comparison across systems or cohorts. Both the CSISS and the SLIC and severity scale are promising classification systems with excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Future studies will need to determine if their quantitative scores correlate with management and clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS):Measurement error of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been assessed using traditional methods for reliability, such as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Most studies reporting QST reliability focused on assessing one source of measurement error at a time, e.g., inter- or intra-examiner (test-retest) reliabilities and employed two examiners to test inter-examiner reliability. The present study used a complex design with multiple examiners with the aim of assessing the reliability of intraoral QST taking account of multiple sources of error simultaneously. METHODS:Four examiners of varied experience assessed 12 healthy participants in two visits separated by 48h. Seven QST procedures to determine sensory thresholds were used: cold detection (CDT), warmth detection (WDT), cold pain (CPT), heat pain (HPT), mechanical detection (MDT), mechanical pain (MPT) and pressure pain (PPT). Mixed linear models were used to estimate variance components for reliability assessment; dependability coefficients were used to simulate alternative test scenarios. RESULTS:Most intraoral QST variability arose from differences between participants (8.8-30.5%), differences between visits within participant (4.6-52.8%), and error (13.3-28.3%). For QST procedures other than CDT and MDT, increasing the number of visits with a single examiner performing the procedures would lead to improved dependability (dependability coefficient ranges: single visit, four examiners=0.12-0.54; four visits, single examiner=0.27-0.68). A wide range of reliabilities for QST procedures, as measured by ICCs, was noted for inter- (0.39-0.80) and intra-examiner (0.10-0.62) variation. CONCLUSION:Reliability of sensory testing can be better assessed by measuring multiple sources of error simultaneously instead of focusing on one source at a time. In experimental settings, large numbers of participants are needed to obtain accurate estimates of treatment effects based on QST measurements. This is different from clinical use, where variation between persons (the person main effect) is not a concern because clinical measurements are done on a single person. IMPLICATIONS:Future studies assessing sensory testing reliability in both clinical and experimental settings would benefit from routinely measuring multiple sources of error. The methods and results of this study can be used by clinical researchers to improve assessment of measurement error related to intraoral sensory testing. This should lead to improved resource allocation when designing studies that use intraoral quantitative sensory testing in clinical and experimental settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radiological assessments are considered an important part of the management of patellar instability (PI). However, PI measurements are influenced by the knee position, which cannot be guaranteed to be the same for each examination. Therefore, we aimed to determine the reliability of common PI measurements on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:Two MRI examinations within a 6-month period were obtained from 51 knees. The common PI measurements were quantitatively determined and re-evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plot, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) were used to determine the intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-scan reliability. RESULTS:Adequate intra- and inter-observer reliability was obtained for all PI measurements (all ICCs > 0.8). For patellar positional parameters, the inter-scan reliability was adequate for the angle of Fulkerson, angle of Laurin, patellar tilt angle (PTA), lateral patellar displacement (LPD), and bisect offset ratio (BSO; ICCs = 0.723-0.897), although it was inadequate for the angle of Grelsamer and the congruence angle (CA; ICCs = 0.325-0.380). All parameters of trochlear dysplasia showed adequate inter-scan reliability (ICCs = 0.793-0.915). Nearly all patellar height parameters showed adequate inter-scan reliability (ICCs = 0.700-0.903), except the patellar trochlear index (PTI; ICC = 0.655). CONCLUSION:All PI measurements showed adequate intra- and inter-observer reliability on MRI. Most measurements showed adequate inter-scan reliability, with the exception of the angle of Grelsamer, CA, and PTI.
Project description:Inertial sensor technology has assumed an increasingly important role in the field of human motion analysis. However, the reliability of the kinematic estimates could still be critical for specific applications in the field of functional evaluation and motor rehabilitation. Within this context, the definition of subject-specific multi-body kinematic models is crucial since it affects the accuracy and repeatability of movement reconstruction. A key step for kinematic model calibration is the determination of bony segment lengths. This study proposes a functional approach for the in vivo estimation of the humerus length using a single magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) positioned on the right distal posterior forearm. The humerus length was estimated as the distance between the shoulder elevation axis and the elbow flexion-extension axis. The calibration exercise involved five shoulder elevations in the sagittal plane with the elbow completely extended and five elbow flexion-extensions with the upper arm rigidly aligned to the trunk. Validation of the method was conducted on five healthy subjects using the humerus length computed from magnetic resonance imaging as the gold standard. The method showed mean absolute errors of 12 ± 9 mm, which were in the estimate of the humerus length. When using magneto-inertial technology, the proposed functional method represents a promising alternative to the regressive methods or manual measurements for performing kinematic model calibrations. Although the proposed methodology was validated for the estimation of the humerus length, the same approach can be potentially extended to other body segments.
Project description:Assessments of upper limb performance should require participants to perform tasks that challenge the limits of their ability. In order to select appropriate tasks, it is important to know which joints are used to perform the movement and how reliably those movements can be measured. The purpose of this work was to quantify the reliability of upper limb and trunk joint angles in healthy adults during common activities of daily living (ADLs). Nineteen participants performed six ADLs with the right arm (applying deodorant, turning a doorknob, answering a desk telephone, placing a pushpin in a bulletin board, wiping a plate with a towel, and pouring water from a pitcher) during two separate sessions. Within- and between-session reliability was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and minimum detectable change values (MDCs). Reliability was generally better within-session than between-session. The ICCs exceeded 0.75 for 88% of the joint angles and exceeded 0.90 for 32% of the angles. All MDCs were less than 25° and 61% were also less than 10°. The MDCs represented a larger percent of the average angles for the trunk (61%) and wrist (62%) compared to the shoulder (18%) and elbow (26%). Although these results show that most angles can be measured reliably for these six ADLs, reliability varied considerably between joints. It is therefore important to select tasks for assessing of upper limb performance based on which specific joints need to be evaluated.
Project description:Wrist movements become impaired with disease progression in various neuromuscular disorders. With the development of new therapies, thorough measurement of muscle strength is crucial to document natural disease progression and to assess treatment efficacy. We developed a new dynamometer enabling wrist flexion and extension torque measurement with high sensitivity. The aims of the present study were to collect norms for healthy children and adults, to compute predictive equations, to assess the reliability of the measurements and to test the feasibility of using the device in patients with a neuromuscular disease.The peak isometric torque of wrist flexion and extension was measured with the MyoWrist dynamometer in 345 healthy subjects aged between 5 and 80 years old and in 9 patients with limb girdle muscle dystrophy type 2 C (LGMD2C) aged between 16 and 38 years old.Predictive equations are proposed for the wrist flexion and extension strength in children and adults. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was good with ICCs higher than 0.9 for both wrist flexion and extension. However, retest values were significantly higher by 4% than test results. The dynamometer was applied with no difficulty to patients with LGMD2C and was sensitive enough to detect strength as weak as 0.82 N.m. From our models, we quantified the mean strength of wrist extension in LGMD2C patients to 39?±?17% of their predicted values.The MyoWrist dynamometer provides reliable and sensitive measurement of both wrist flexion and extension torques. However, a training session is recommended before starting a study as a small but significant learning effect was observed. Strength deficit can be quantified from predictive equations that were computed from norms of healthy children and adults.