Combined treatment of human multiple myeloma cells with bortezomib and doxorubicin alters the interactome of 20S proteasomes.
ABSTRACT: The proteasome is the key player in targeted degradation of cellular proteins and serves as a therapeutic target for treating several blood malignancies. Although in general, degradation of proteins via the proteasome requires their ubiquitination, a subset of proteins can be degraded independently of their ubiquitination by direct interaction with subunits of the 20S proteasome core. Thus, investigation of the proteasome-associated proteins may help identify novel targets of proteasome degradation and provide important insights into the mechanisms of malignant cell proteostasis. Here, using biochemical purification of proteasomes from multiple myeloma (MM) cells followed by mass-spectrometry we have uncovered 77 proteins in total that specifically interacted with the 20S proteasome via its PSMA3 subunit. Our GST pull-down assays followed by western blots validated the interactions identified by mass-spectrometry. Eleven proteins were confirmed to bind PSMA3 only upon apoptotic conditions induced by a combined treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, and genotoxic drug, doxorubicin. Nine of these eleven proteins contained bioinformatically predicted intrinsically disordered regions thus making them susceptible to ubiquitin-independent degradation. Importantly, among those proteins five interacted with the ubiquitin binding affinity matrix suggesting that these proteins may also be ubiquitinylated and hence degraded via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Collectively, these PSMA3-interacting proteins represent novel potential substrates for 20S proteasomes upon apoptosis. Furthermore, these data may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to chemotherapy. ABBREVIATIONS:BD: bortezomib/doxorubicin treatment; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinases; CHCA: ?-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid; IDP: intrinsically disordered proteins; IDR: intrinsically disordered regions; IPG: immobilized pI gradient; MALDI TOF/TOF: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass-spectrometry; MM: multiple myeloma; ODC: ornithine decarboxylase; PI: proteasomal inhibitors; PSMA: alpha-type 20S proteasome subunits; PTMs: post-translational modifications; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; UIP: ubiquitin-independent proteasomal proteolysis.
Project description:The proteasome is responsible for selective degradation of proteins. It exists in mammalian cells under four main subtypes, which differ by the combination of their catalytic subunits: the standard proteasome (?1-?2-?5), the immunoproteasome (?1i-?2i-?5i) and the two intermediate proteasomes (?1-?2-?5i and ?1i-?2-?5i). The efficiency of the four proteasome subtypes to degrade ubiquitinated or oxidized proteins remains unclear. Using cells expressing exclusively one proteasome subtype, we observed that ubiquitinated p21 and c--myc were degraded at similar rates, indicating that the four 26S proteasomes degrade ubiquitinated proteins equally well. Under oxidative stress, we observed a partial dissociation of 26S into 20S proteasomes, which can degrade non-ubiquitinated oxidized proteins. Oxidized calmodulin and hemoglobin were best degraded in vitro by the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, while their native forms were not degraded. Circular dichroism analyses indicated that ubiquitin-independent recognition of oxidized proteins by 20S proteasomes was triggered by the disruption of their structure. Accordingly, ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes degraded unoxidized naturally disordered protein tau, while 26S proteasomes did not. Our results suggest that the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, namely the immunoproteasome and the two intermediate proteasomes, might help cells to eliminate proteins containing disordered domains, including those induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:The critical role of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system in regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes is well established. In contrast, the impact of the ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity of proteasomes is poorly understood. Through biochemical analysis of mammalian lysates, we find that the 20S proteasome, latent in peptide hydrolysis, specifically cleaves more than 20% of all cellular proteins. Thirty intrinsic proteasome substrates (IPSs) were identified and in vitro studies of their processing revealed that cleavage occurs at disordered regions, generating stable products encompassing structured domains. The mechanism of IPS recognition is remarkably well conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom, as mammalian and yeast 20S proteasomes exhibit the same target specificity. Further, 26S proteasomes specifically recognize and cleave IPSs at similar sites, independent of ubiquitination, suggesting that disordered regions likely constitute the universal structural signal for IPS proteolysis by proteasomes. Finally, we show that proteasomes contribute to physiological regulation of IPS levels in living cells and the inactivation of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 does not prevent IPS degradation. Collectively, these findings suggest a significant contribution of the ubiquitin-independent proteasome degradation pathway to the regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes.
Project description:Proteasomes are essential protease complexes that maintain cellular homeostasis, and aberrant proteasomal activity supports cancer development. The regulatory mechanisms and biological function of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome have been studied extensively, while those of the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome system remain obscure. Here, we show that the cap 'n' collar (CNC) family transcription factor NRF3 specifically enhances 20S proteasome assembly in cancer cells and that 20S proteasomes contribute to colorectal cancer development through ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of the tumor suppressor p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins. The NRF3 gene is highly expressed in many cancer tissues and cell lines and is important for cancer cell growth. In cancer cells, NRF3 upregulates the assembly of the 20S proteasome by directly inducing the gene expression of the 20S proteasome maturation protein POMP. Interestingly, NRF3 knockdown not only increases p53 and Rb protein levels but also increases p53 activities for tumor suppression, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, protein stability and cell viability assays using two distinct proteasome inhibitor anticancer drugs, the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor TAK-243, show that the upregulation of the NRF3-POMP axis leads to ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of p53 and Rb and to impaired sensitivity to bortezomib but not TAK-243. More importantly, the NRF3-POMP axis supports tumorigenesis and metastasis, with higher NRF3/POMP expression levels correlating with poor prognoses in patients with colorectal or rectal adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that the NRF3-POMP-20S proteasome assembly axis is significant for cancer development via ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins.
Project description:The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, human HSPA1A) plays indispensable roles in cellular stress responses and protein quality control (PQC). In the framework of PQC, it cooperates with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to clear damaged and dysfunctional proteins in the cell. Moreover, Hsp70 itself is rapidly degraded following the recovery from stress. It was demonstrated that its fast turnover is mediated via ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. At the same time, the effect of Hsp70 on the functional state of proteasomes has been insufficiently investigated. Here, we characterized the direct effect of recombinant Hsp70 on the activity of 20S and 26S proteasomes and studied Hsp70 degradation by the 20S proteasome in vitro. We have shown that the activity of purified 20S proteasomes is decreased following incubation with recombinant human Hsp70. On the other hand, high concentrations of Hsp70 activated 26S proteasomes. Finally, we obtained evidence that in addition to previously reported ubiquitin-dependent degradation, Hsp70 could be cleaved independent of ubiquitination by the 20S proteasome. The results obtained reveal novel aspects of the interplay between Hsp70 and proteasomes.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) can be degraded in a ubiquitin-independent process by the 20S proteasome. Decline in 20S activity characterizes neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we examine 20S degradation of IDP tau, a protein that aggregates into insoluble deposits in Alzheimer's disease. We show that cleavage of tau by the 20S proteasome is most efficient within the aggregation-prone repeat region of tau and generates both short, aggregation-deficient peptides and two long fragments containing residues 1 to 251 and 1 to 218. Phosphorylation of tau by the non-proline-directed Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits degradation by the 20S proteasome. Phosphorylation of tau by GSK3?, a major proline-directed tau kinase, modulates tau degradation kinetics in a residue-specific manner. The study provides detailed insights into the degradation products of tau generated by the 20S proteasome, the residue specificity of degradation, single-residue degradation kinetics, and their regulation by posttranslational modification.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is the main protease for the degradation of oxidatively damaged and intrinsically disordered proteins. When accumulation of disordered or oxidatively damaged proteins exceeds proper clearance in neurons, imbalanced pathway signaling or aggregation occurs, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Screening of the NIH Clinical Collection and Prestwick libraries identified the neuroleptic agent chlorpromazine as a lead agent capable of enhancing 20S proteasome activity. Chemical manipulation of chlorpromazine abrogated its D2R receptor binding affinity while retaining its ability to enhance 20S mediated proteolysis at low micromolar concentrations. The resulting small molecule enhancers of 20S proteasome activity induced the degradation of intrinsically disordered proteins, ?-synuclein, and tau but not structured proteins. These small molecule 20S agonists can serve as leads to explore the therapeutic potential of 20S activation or as new tools to provide insight into the yet unclear mechanics of 20S-gate regulation.
Project description:Cellular processes are dynamically controlled through rapid changes in the abundance of regulatory proteins. To systematically elucidate mechanisms controlling protein expression and turnover, we developed a CRISPR screening assay based on time-controlled Cas9 mutagenesis, intracellular immunostaining, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) that enables the identification of regulatory factors independent of their effects on cellular fitness. We pioneered this approach by systematically probing the regulation of the transcription factor MYC, a master regulator of cell growth1-3. Our screens uncover a highly conserved protein, AKIRIN2, that is essentially required for nuclear protein degradation. We found that AKIRIN2 forms homodimers that directly bind to fully assembled 20S proteasomes to mediate their nuclear import. During mitosis, proteasomes are excluded from condensing chromatin and re-imported into newly formed daughter nuclei in a highly dynamic, AKIRIN2-dependent process. Cells undergoing mitosis in the absence of AKIRIN2 become devoid of nuclear proteasomes, rapidly causing accumulation of MYC and other nuclear proteins. Collectively, our study reveals a dedicated pathway controlling the nuclear import of proteasomes in vertebrates and establishes a scalable approach to decipher regulators in essential cellular processes. Overall design: mRNA-seq profiles of RKO cells after dox-inducible knockout of AAVS1 (control), AKIRIN2 or the 20S core proteasome subunit PSMA3.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is the main protease that directly targets intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) for proteolytic degradation. Mutations, oxidative stress, or aging can induce the buildup of IDPs resulting in incorrect signaling or aggregation, associated with the pathogenesis of many cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs that facilitate 20S-mediated proteolysis therefore have many potential therapeutic applications. We report herein the modulation of proteasome assembly by the small molecule TCH-165, resulting in an increase in 20S levels. The increase in the level of free 20S corresponds to enhanced proteolysis of IDPs, including ?-synuclein, tau, ornithine decarboxylase, and c-Fos, but not structured proteins. Clearance of ubiquitinated protein was largely maintained by single capped proteasome complexes (19S-20S), but accumulation occurs when all 19S capped proteasome complexes are depleted. This study illustrates the first example of a small molecule capable of targeting disordered proteins for degradation by regulating the dynamic equilibrium between different proteasome complexes.
Project description:Proteasomes generally degrade substrates tagged with polyubiquitin chains. In rare cases, however, proteasomes can degrade proteins without prior ubiquitination. For example, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp71 protein induces the proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) and Daxx proteins. These transcriptional corepressors and tumor suppressors inhibit the expression of cellular or viral genes that are required for efficient viral replication. Proteasomes are composed of a 20S catalytic core with or without one or two activator complexes, of which there are four different types. Here, we show that only one of these activators, the 19S regulatory particle that normally participates in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, is required for pp71-mediated degradation of Rb and Daxx. We report the unique use of a well-established route of substrate delivery to the proteasome by a viral protein to promote infection.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of targeted proteolysis in archaea are poorly understood, yet they may have deep evolutionary roots shared with the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate in archaea that TBP2, a TATA-binding protein (TBP) modified by ubiquitin-like isopeptide bonds, is phosphorylated and targeted for degradation by proteasomes. Rapid turnover of TBP2 required the functions of UbaA (the E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog of archaea), AAA ATPases (Cdc48/p97 and Rpt types), a type 2 JAB1/MPN/MOV34 metalloenzyme (JAMM/MPN+) homolog (JAMM2), and 20S proteasomes. The ubiquitin-like protein modifier small archaeal modifier protein 2 (SAMP2) stimulated the degradation of TBP2, but SAMP2 itself was not degraded. Analysis of the TBP2 fractions that were not modified by ubiquitin-like linkages revealed that TBP2 had multiple N termini, including Met1-Ser2, Ser2, and Met1-Ser2(p) [where (p) represents phosphorylation]. The evidence suggested that the Met1-Ser2(p) form accumulated in cells that were unable to degrade TBP2. We propose a model in archaea in which the attachment of ubiquitin-like tags can target proteins for degradation by proteasomes and be controlled by N-terminal degrons. In support of a proteolytic mechanism that is energy dependent and recycles the ubiquitin-like protein tags, we find that a network of AAA ATPases and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease are required, in addition to 20S proteasomes, for controlled intracellular proteolysis.This study advances the fundamental knowledge of signal-guided proteolysis in archaea and sheds light on components that are related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotes. In archaea, the ubiquitin-like proteasome system is found to require function of an E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog, a type 2 JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease, and a network of AAA ATPases for the targeted destruction of proteins. We provide evidence that the attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein is controlled by an N-terminal degron and stimulates proteasome-mediated proteolysis.