Combined treatment of human multiple myeloma cells with bortezomib and doxorubicin alters the interactome of 20S proteasomes.
ABSTRACT: The proteasome is the key player in targeted degradation of cellular proteins and serves as a therapeutic target for treating several blood malignancies. Although in general, degradation of proteins via the proteasome requires their ubiquitination, a subset of proteins can be degraded independently of their ubiquitination by direct interaction with subunits of the 20S proteasome core. Thus, investigation of the proteasome-associated proteins may help identify novel targets of proteasome degradation and provide important insights into the mechanisms of malignant cell proteostasis. Here, using biochemical purification of proteasomes from multiple myeloma (MM) cells followed by mass-spectrometry we have uncovered 77 proteins in total that specifically interacted with the 20S proteasome via its PSMA3 subunit. Our GST pull-down assays followed by western blots validated the interactions identified by mass-spectrometry. Eleven proteins were confirmed to bind PSMA3 only upon apoptotic conditions induced by a combined treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, and genotoxic drug, doxorubicin. Nine of these eleven proteins contained bioinformatically predicted intrinsically disordered regions thus making them susceptible to ubiquitin-independent degradation. Importantly, among those proteins five interacted with the ubiquitin binding affinity matrix suggesting that these proteins may also be ubiquitinylated and hence degraded via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Collectively, these PSMA3-interacting proteins represent novel potential substrates for 20S proteasomes upon apoptosis. Furthermore, these data may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to chemotherapy. ABBREVIATIONS:BD: bortezomib/doxorubicin treatment; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinases; CHCA: ?-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid; IDP: intrinsically disordered proteins; IDR: intrinsically disordered regions; IPG: immobilized pI gradient; MALDI TOF/TOF: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass-spectrometry; MM: multiple myeloma; ODC: ornithine decarboxylase; PI: proteasomal inhibitors; PSMA: alpha-type 20S proteasome subunits; PTMs: post-translational modifications; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; UIP: ubiquitin-independent proteasomal proteolysis.
Project description:The proteasome is responsible for selective degradation of proteins. It exists in mammalian cells under four main subtypes, which differ by the combination of their catalytic subunits: the standard proteasome (?1-?2-?5), the immunoproteasome (?1i-?2i-?5i) and the two intermediate proteasomes (?1-?2-?5i and ?1i-?2-?5i). The efficiency of the four proteasome subtypes to degrade ubiquitinated or oxidized proteins remains unclear. Using cells expressing exclusively one proteasome subtype, we observed that ubiquitinated p21 and c--myc were degraded at similar rates, indicating that the four 26S proteasomes degrade ubiquitinated proteins equally well. Under oxidative stress, we observed a partial dissociation of 26S into 20S proteasomes, which can degrade non-ubiquitinated oxidized proteins. Oxidized calmodulin and hemoglobin were best degraded in vitro by the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, while their native forms were not degraded. Circular dichroism analyses indicated that ubiquitin-independent recognition of oxidized proteins by 20S proteasomes was triggered by the disruption of their structure. Accordingly, ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes degraded unoxidized naturally disordered protein tau, while 26S proteasomes did not. Our results suggest that the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, namely the immunoproteasome and the two intermediate proteasomes, might help cells to eliminate proteins containing disordered domains, including those induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:The critical role of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system in regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes is well established. In contrast, the impact of the ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity of proteasomes is poorly understood. Through biochemical analysis of mammalian lysates, we find that the 20S proteasome, latent in peptide hydrolysis, specifically cleaves more than 20% of all cellular proteins. Thirty intrinsic proteasome substrates (IPSs) were identified and in vitro studies of their processing revealed that cleavage occurs at disordered regions, generating stable products encompassing structured domains. The mechanism of IPS recognition is remarkably well conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom, as mammalian and yeast 20S proteasomes exhibit the same target specificity. Further, 26S proteasomes specifically recognize and cleave IPSs at similar sites, independent of ubiquitination, suggesting that disordered regions likely constitute the universal structural signal for IPS proteolysis by proteasomes. Finally, we show that proteasomes contribute to physiological regulation of IPS levels in living cells and the inactivation of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 does not prevent IPS degradation. Collectively, these findings suggest a significant contribution of the ubiquitin-independent proteasome degradation pathway to the regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes.
Project description:Proteasomes are essential protease complexes that maintain cellular homeostasis, and aberrant proteasomal activity supports cancer development. The regulatory mechanisms and biological function of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome have been studied extensively, while those of the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome system remain obscure. Here, we show that the cap 'n' collar (CNC) family transcription factor NRF3 specifically enhances 20S proteasome assembly in cancer cells and that 20S proteasomes contribute to colorectal cancer development through ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of the tumor suppressor p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins. The NRF3 gene is highly expressed in many cancer tissues and cell lines and is important for cancer cell growth. In cancer cells, NRF3 upregulates the assembly of the 20S proteasome by directly inducing the gene expression of the 20S proteasome maturation protein POMP. Interestingly, NRF3 knockdown not only increases p53 and Rb protein levels but also increases p53 activities for tumor suppression, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, protein stability and cell viability assays using two distinct proteasome inhibitor anticancer drugs, the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor TAK-243, show that the upregulation of the NRF3-POMP axis leads to ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of p53 and Rb and to impaired sensitivity to bortezomib but not TAK-243. More importantly, the NRF3-POMP axis supports tumorigenesis and metastasis, with higher NRF3/POMP expression levels correlating with poor prognoses in patients with colorectal or rectal adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that the NRF3-POMP-20S proteasome assembly axis is significant for cancer development via ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins.
Project description:Degradation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) by a non-26S proteasome process does not require proteasomal targeting by polyubiquitin. However, whether and how IDPs are recognized by the non-26S proteasome, including the 20S complex, remains unknown. Analyses of protein interactome datasets revealed that the 20S proteasome subunit, PSMA3, preferentially interacts with many IDPs. Employing in vivo and cell-free experiments, it was found that a 69-amino-acids-long fragment at the C-terminus of PSMA3 is sufficient to bind the disordered protein p21. A recombinant PSMA3 C-terminus 69 fragment is sufficient to interact with many IDPs, and is therefore designated an IDP trapper. A recombinant IDP trapper blocks the degradation of many IDPs in vitro by the 20S proteasome, possibly by competing with the native trapper. In addition, over a third of the PSMA3 trapper-binding proteins have previously been identified as 20S proteasome substrates, and based on published datasets many of the trapper binding proteins are associated with the intracellular proteasomes. The PSMA3-trapped IDPs that are proteasome substrates have the unique features previously recognized as characteristic 20S proteasome substrates in vitro. We propose a model whereby the PSMA3 C-terminal region traps a subset of IDPs to facilitate their proteasomal degradation.
Project description:The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in the degradation of cellular proteins. Targeting protein degradation has been validated as an effective strategy for cancer therapy since 2003. Several components of the UPS have been validated as potential anticancer targets, including 20S proteasomes, 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s). 20S proteasome inhibitors (such as bortezomib/BTZ and carfilzomib/CFZ) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and some other liquid tumors. Although survival of MM patients has been improved by the introduction of BTZ-based therapies, these clinical 20S proteasome inhibitors have several limitations, including emergence of resistance in MM patients, neuro-toxicities, and little efficacy in solid tumors. One of strategies to improve the current status of cancer treatment is to repurpose old drugs with UPS-inhibitory properties as new anticancer agents. Old drug reposition represents an attractive drug discovery approach compared to the traditional de novo drug discovery process which is time-consuming and costly. In this review, we summarize status of repurposed inhibitors of various UPS components, including 20S proteasomes, 19S-associated DUBs, and ubiquitin ligase E3s. The original and new mechanisms of action, molecular targets, and potential anticancer activities of these repurposed UPS inhibitors are reviewed, and their new uses including combinational therapies for cancer treatment are discussed.
Project description:The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, human HSPA1A) plays indispensable roles in cellular stress responses and protein quality control (PQC). In the framework of PQC, it cooperates with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to clear damaged and dysfunctional proteins in the cell. Moreover, Hsp70 itself is rapidly degraded following the recovery from stress. It was demonstrated that its fast turnover is mediated via ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. At the same time, the effect of Hsp70 on the functional state of proteasomes has been insufficiently investigated. Here, we characterized the direct effect of recombinant Hsp70 on the activity of 20S and 26S proteasomes and studied Hsp70 degradation by the 20S proteasome in vitro. We have shown that the activity of purified 20S proteasomes is decreased following incubation with recombinant human Hsp70. On the other hand, high concentrations of Hsp70 activated 26S proteasomes. Finally, we obtained evidence that in addition to previously reported ubiquitin-dependent degradation, Hsp70 could be cleaved independent of ubiquitination by the 20S proteasome. The results obtained reveal novel aspects of the interplay between Hsp70 and proteasomes.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) can be degraded in a ubiquitin-independent process by the 20S proteasome. Decline in 20S activity characterizes neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we examine 20S degradation of IDP tau, a protein that aggregates into insoluble deposits in Alzheimer's disease. We show that cleavage of tau by the 20S proteasome is most efficient within the aggregation-prone repeat region of tau and generates both short, aggregation-deficient peptides and two long fragments containing residues 1 to 251 and 1 to 218. Phosphorylation of tau by the non-proline-directed Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits degradation by the 20S proteasome. Phosphorylation of tau by GSK3?, a major proline-directed tau kinase, modulates tau degradation kinetics in a residue-specific manner. The study provides detailed insights into the degradation products of tau generated by the 20S proteasome, the residue specificity of degradation, single-residue degradation kinetics, and their regulation by posttranslational modification.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is the main protease for the degradation of oxidatively damaged and intrinsically disordered proteins. When accumulation of disordered or oxidatively damaged proteins exceeds proper clearance in neurons, imbalanced pathway signaling or aggregation occurs, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Screening of the NIH Clinical Collection and Prestwick libraries identified the neuroleptic agent chlorpromazine as a lead agent capable of enhancing 20S proteasome activity. Chemical manipulation of chlorpromazine abrogated its D2R receptor binding affinity while retaining its ability to enhance 20S mediated proteolysis at low micromolar concentrations. The resulting small molecule enhancers of 20S proteasome activity induced the degradation of intrinsically disordered proteins, ?-synuclein, and tau but not structured proteins. These small molecule 20S agonists can serve as leads to explore the therapeutic potential of 20S activation or as new tools to provide insight into the yet unclear mechanics of 20S-gate regulation.
Project description:Four decades of proteasome research have yielded extensive information on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The archetype of proteasomes is a 20S barrel-shaped complex that does not rely on ubiquitin as a degradation signal but can degrade substrates with a considerable unstructured stretch. Since roughly half of all proteasomes in most eukaryotic cells are free 20S complexes, ubiquitin-independent protein degradation may coexist with ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the highly regulated 26S proteasome. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical and structural features that underlie the proteolytic mechanism of 20S proteasomes. The two outer ?-rings of 20S proteasomes provide a number of potential docking sites for loosely folded polypeptides. The binding of a substrate can induce asymmetric conformational changes, trigger gate opening, and initiate its own degradation through a protease-driven translocation mechanism. Consequently, the substrate translocates through two additional narrow apertures augmented by the ?-catalytic active sites. The overall pulling force through the two annuli results in a protease-like unfolding of the substrate and subsequent proteolysis in the catalytic chamber. Although both proteasomes contain identical ?-catalytic active sites, the differential translocation mechanisms yield distinct peptide products. Nonoverlapping substrate repertoires and product outcomes rationalize cohabitation of both proteasome complexes in cells.
Project description:Ubiquitination is the major criteria for the recognition of a substrate-protein by the 26S proteasome. Additionally, a disordered segment on the substrate - either intrinsic or induced - is critical for proteasome engagement. The proteasome is geared to interact with both of these substrate features and prepare it for degradation. To facilitate substrate accessibility, resting proteasomes are characterised by a peripheral distribution of ubiquitin receptors on the 19S regulatory particle (RP) and a wide-open lateral surface on the ATPase ring. In this substrate accepting state, the internal channel through the ATPase ring is discontinuous, thereby obstructing translocation of potential substrates. The binding of the conjugated ubiquitin to the ubiquitin receptors leads to contraction of the 19S RP. Next, the ATPases engage the substrate at a disordered segment, energetically unravel the polypeptide and translocate it towards the 20S catalytic core (CP). In this substrate engaged state, Rpn11 is repositioned at the pore of the ATPase channel to remove remaining ubiquitin modifications and accelerate translocation. C-termini of five of the six ATPases insert into corresponding lysine-pockets on the 20S α-ring to complete 20S CP gate opening. In the resulting substrate processing state, the ATPase channel is fully contiguous with the translocation channel into the 20S CP, where the substrate is proteolyzed. Complete degradation of a typical ubiquitin-conjugate takes place over a few tens of seconds while hydrolysing tens of ATP molecules in the process (50 kDa/∼50 s/∼80ATP). This article reviews recent insight into biochemical and structural features that underlie substrate recognition and processing by the 26S proteasome.