Nicotine replacement therapy sampling via primary care: Methods from a pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Primary care is the most important point of healthcare contact for smokers. Brief physician advice to quit, based on the 5As/AAR model, offers some efficacy but is inconsistently administered and has limited population impact. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling, defined as provision of a brief NRT starter kit, when added to the 5As/AAR, is well-suited to primary care because it is simple, brief, and can be provided to all smokers. This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing comparative effectiveness trial testing standard care vs. standard care?+?NRT sampling within primary care. METHODS:Smokers were recruited directly from primary care practices between July 2014 and December 2017 within an established network of South Carolina clinics. Interventions were delivered randomly by clinic personnel, and phone-based follow-ups were centrally coordinated by research staff to track outcomes through six months post-intervention. Primary study aims are to examine the impact of NRT sampling on smoking, inclusive of cessation, quit attempts, and uptake of evidence-based treatment. RESULTS:Twenty-two clinics were recruited. Across clinics, patient census ranged from 985 to 10,957 and number of providers ranged from 1 to 63. Average patient age across clinics was 52.9?years and smoking prevalence across ranged from 10.6% to 28.5%. CONCLUSION:Improving the effectiveness and reach of brief interventions within primary care could have a considerable impact on population quit rates. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of key methodological decisions relevant to the design of future primary care-based cessation trials.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Within the context of busy clinical settings, health-care providers need practical, evidence-based options to engage smokers in quitting. Sampling of nicotine replacement therapy [i.e. provision of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT starter kits)] is a brief, pragmatic strategy to address this need. We aimed to compare the effects of NRT sampling plus standard care (SC), relative to SC alone, provided by primary care providers during routine clinic visits.<h4>Design</h4>Cluster-randomized clinical trial.<h4>Setting</h4>Twenty-two primary care clinics in South Carolina, USA.<h4>Participants</h4>Adult smokers [n = 1245; 61% female, mean age = 50.7, standard deviation (SD) = 13.5] both motivated and unmotivated to quit, seen during routine clinical visit. Interventions were provider-delivered SC (n = 652, 12 clinics) cessation advice or SC + a 2-week supply of both nicotine patch and lozenge, with minimal instructions on use (n = 593; 10 clinics).<h4>Measurements</h4>The primary outcome was 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up, using intent-to-treat. Additional outcomes included NRT use and quit attempts, assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months following baseline.<h4>Findings</h4>Seven-day point prevalence abstinence rates were significantly higher in the NRT sampling group throughout follow-up, including at 6 months [12 versus 8%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.4]. NRT sampling increased prevalence of any use of NRT (65 versus 25%, OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 4.3-7.7), with higher prevalence of use at 6 months (25 versus 14%, OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). NRT sampling increased the rate of quit attempts in the initial month (24 versus 18%, OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.3) but had no significant effect on overall rate of quit attempts (48 versus 45%, OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.7).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Providing smokers with a free 2-week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy increased quit attempts, use of stop smoking medications and smoking abstinence compared with standard care in a primary care setting.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Most smokers see a physician each year, but few use any assistance when they try to quit. Text messaging programs improve smoking cessation in community and school settings; however, their efficacy in a primary care setting is unclear. The current trial assesses the feasibility and preliminary clinical outcomes of text messaging and mailed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among smokers in primary care. METHODS:In this single-center pilot randomized trial, eligible smokers in primary care are offered brief advice by phone and randomly assigned to one of four interventions: (1) Brief advice only, (2) text messages targeted to primary care patients and tailored to quit readiness, (3) a 2-week supply of nicotine patches and/or lozenges (NRT), and (4) both text messaging and NRT. Randomization is stratified by practice and intention to quit. The text messages (up to 5/day) encourage those not ready to quit to practice a quit attempt, assist those with a quit date through a quit attempt, and promote NRT use. The 2-week supply of NRT is mailed to patients' homes. RESULTS:Feasibility outcomes include recruitment rates, study retention, and treatment adherence. Clinical outcomes are assessed at 1, 2, 6, and 12-weeks post-enrollment. The primary outcome is ?1self-reported quit attempt(s). Secondary clinical outcomes include self-reported past 7- and 30-day abstinence, days not smoked, NRT adherence, and exhaled carbon monoxide. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot assesses text messaging plus NRT, as a proactively offered intervention for smoking cessation support in smokers receiving primary care and will inform full-scale randomized trial planning. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.govNCT03174158.
Project description:We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange.In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005-2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status.Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P<0.0001), regardless of clinic training status.Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The 5As model is a standard component of most guidelines for tobacco treatment. Unfortunately, provider adherence to this model is modest.<h4>Aims</h4>Providing physicians with adjunctive tools to adhere to 5As guidelines may serve as a catalyst for brief advice delivery.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a secondary data analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial assessing the uptake and impact of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling versus standard care in primary care. Patients reported receipt of separate elements of the 5As model, assessed one month following a baseline visit. Analyses compared patients who recalled receipt of brief advice among those who received NRT vs. standard care. Additional analyses examined demographic predictors of receiving brief advice.<h4>Results/findings</h4>Medication sampling did not improve compliance with ask, advise, or assess. Receipt of "assistance" was significantly higher among NRT recipients (70%) (<i>p</i> ≤ 0.0001). The NRT sampling group was more likely to have received all components (<i>p</i> = 0.004). As age increased, being asked (<i>p</i> = 0.006), advised (<i>p</i> = 0.05), and assessed (<i>p</i> = 0.003) decreased. Non-Whites reported higher rates of assessment (<i>p</i> = 0.02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Provision of NRT sampling increased provider compliance with some elements of the brief advice model, thus enhancing the impact of cessation advice within primary care.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02096029.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated among marginalized populations with limited access to evidence-based cessation treatment. This includes racial/ethnic minorities, lower income individuals, those with lower educational attainment, and residents of rural areas. To reach Healthy People 2020 objectives, successful cessation interventions must narrow these disparities. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling is an easily translatable and scalable intervention that could enhance treatment access and thus narrow disparities. The present study examined individual-level demographic moderators of the impact of NRT sampling on cessation-related behaviors including: 1) use of a cessation medication, 2) making a 24-hour quit attempt, 3) floating abstinence, and 4) 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-months. Study participants included N = 1245 adult smokers enrolled in the Tobacco Intervention in Primary Care Treatment Opportunities for Providers (TIP TOP) study, a recently concluded large-scale clinical trial of NRT sampling relative to standard care within 22 primary care clinics across South Carolina. Generalized linear models examined individual-level demographic moderators of treatment effect. Results suggest that NRT sampling may be more effective among some of the most disadvantaged groups of smokers, including smokers with lower income and education, as well those who live in more rural areas. The effects of NRT sampling did not differ by race. In sum, NRT sampling is a low-cost, low-burden intervention that could be disseminated broadly to reach large numbers of smokers and potentially narrow cessation disparities.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adherence to smoking cessation treatment is generally low, especially among socio-economically disadvantaged groups including individuals experiencing homelessness and those with mental illnesses. Despite the high smoking rates in homeless populations (~70%) no study to date has systematically examined predictors of adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in this population. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this secondary analysis was to identify predictors of adherence to NRT in a smoking cessation trial conducted among homeless smokers. METHODS:Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial enrolling 430 persons who were homeless and current cigarette smokers. Participants were assigned to one of the two study conditions to enhance smoking cessation: Motivational Interviewing (MI; 6 sessions of MI + 8 weeks of NRT) or Standard Care (Brief advice to quit+ 8 weeks of NRT). The primary outcome for the current analysis was adherence to NRT at end of treatment (8 weeks following randomization). Adherence was defined as a total score of zero on a modified Morisky adherence scale). Demographic and baseline psychosocial, tobacco-related, and substance abuse measures were compared between those who did and did not adhere to NRT. RESULTS:After adjusting for confounders, smokers who were depressed at baseline (OR=0.58, 95% CI, 0.38-0.87, p=0.01), had lower confidence to quit (OR=1.10, 95% CI, 1.01-1.19, p=0.04), were less motivated to adhere (OR=1.04, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07, p=0.04), and were less likely to be adherent to NRT. Further, age of initial smoking was positively associated with adherence status (OR= 0.83, 95% CI, 0.69-0.99, p=0.04). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that smoking cessation programs conducted in this population may target increased adherence to NRT by addressing both depression and motivation to quit. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00786149.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:More than half of the smoking population in Hong Kong are unmotivated to quit. Only about 2% of tobacco users in the territory have ever used cessation aids such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of delivering 1-week free NRT sample plus brief intervention to smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots on quit attempts and use of smoking cessation services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a two-arm, pragmatic, multisite, cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of increasing quit attempts, use of cessation service and recruitment outcomes. Trained smoking cessation ambassadors will approach smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots, and deliver brief smoking cessation advice. Recruitment sessions are randomised to intervention or control group (allocation ratio 1:1). Participants in the intervention group (n=550) will receive 1-week free NRT sample (either patch or gum), brief medication advice from an onsite nurse and cessation service referral, whereas participants in control group (n=275) will only receive the brief advice and service referral. The primary outcomes are the proportion of participants who enrol in any cessation service in Hong Kong within 1?month of the recruitment, and the proportion of participants who report quit attempts at 1-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported use of NRT, self-reported 7-day tobacco abstinence, 30-day abstinence at 3 months and 6?months, biochemically validated abstinence at 6?months, perceived importance, difficulty and confidence to quit (scale 0-10), and Incremental Behavior Change towards Smoking Cessation. Process outcomes include number of smokers who will be approached, will accept the brief smoking cessation advice or be recruited to participate in the RCT. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster approved the trial (UW 18-118). Findings will be disseminated through funding website, publication and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03717051.
Project description:The primary care visit represents an important venue for intervening with a large population of smokers. However, physician adherence to the Smoking Cessation Clinical Guideline (5As) remains low. We evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-tailored intervention designed to increase smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians.Physicians and their patients were randomized to either intervention or control conditions. In addition to brief smoking cessation training, intervention physicians and patients received a one-page report that characterized the patients' smoking habit and history and offered tailored recommendations. Physician performance of the 5As was assessed via patient exit interviews. Quit rates and smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months postintervention via patient phone interviews. Intervention effects were tested in a sample of 70 physicians and 518 of their patients. Results were analyzed via generalized and mixed linear modeling controlling for clustering.Intervention physicians exceeded controls on "Assess" (OR 5.06; 95% CI 3.22, 7.95), "Advise" (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.70, 4.59), "Assist-set goals" (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.59, 7.16), "Assist-provide written materials" (OR 5.14; 95% CI 2.60, 10.14), "Assist-provide referral" (OR 6.48; 95% CI 3.11, 13.49), "Assist-discuss medication" (OR 4.72;95% CI 2.90, 7.68), and "Arrange" (OR 8.14; 95% CI 3.98, 16.68), all p values being < 0.0001. Intervention patients were 1.77 (CI 0.94, 3.34,p = 0.078) times more likely than controls to be abstinent (12 versus 8%), a difference that approached, but did not reach statistical significance, and surpassed controls on number of days quit (18.4 versus 12.2, p < .05) but not on number of quit attempts.The use of a brief computer-tailored report improved physicians' implementation of the 5As and had a modest effect on patients' smoking behaviors 6 months postintervention.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Cigarette smoking disproportionately affects communities of low socioeconomic status where greater smoking prevalence and poorer cessation rates have been observed. Utilizing brief evidence-based interventions to increase cessation attempts may be an effective and easily disseminable means by which to mitigate undue burden in this population.<h4>Aims and methods</h4>The current intervention randomized daily smokers (N = 57) recruited from a local community soup kitchen to receive either Brief (eg, 30 m) Motivational Interviewing, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) sampling, or a Referral-Only intervention. Approximately half of participants (50.9%) reported not completing high school and many reported either just (41.4%) or not (40.4%) meeting basic expenses. Follow-up was completed approximately 1-month postintervention.<h4>Results</h4>Nonsignificant group differences indicated that participants randomized to the NRT sampling condition were more likely to make a quit attempt (moderate effect size). Approximately 40% of the sample reported making a serious quit attempt at follow-up. Significant differences in cigarettes per day at follow-up, controlling for baseline, were observed, with participants in the Motivational Interviewing condition, only, reporting significant reductions. Participants randomized to the NRT condition were significantly more likely to report using NRT patch and lozenge at follow-up (large effect). There were no differences between groups with respect to seeking behavioral support. Finally, we found that subjective financial strain moderated the effect of condition on change in cigarette consumption where NRT sampling was more effective for participants reporting less financial strain.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Findings provide initial evidence for personalizing brief interventions to promote quit attempts in low-income smokers.<h4>Implications</h4>While most clinical research on tobacco use and dependence focuses on successful sustained abstinence, the current study is novel because it examined three brief interventions designed to increase the number of quit attempts made by a nontreatment-seeking group suffering from health disparities (ie, smokers from socioeconomic disadvantage). These data suggest that nontreatment-seeking smokers from socioeconomic disadvantage can be influenced by Brief MIs and these interventions should be used to motivate smokers from socioeconomic disadvantage to make a quit attempt. Future studies should examine combined MIs including pharmacological and behavioral interventions.
Project description:The behavioural impact of pharmacogenomics is untested; informing smokers of genetic test results for responsiveness to smoking cessation medication may increase adherence to this medication. The objective of this trial is to estimate the impact upon adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) of informing smokers that their oral dose of NRT has been tailored to a DNA analysis. Hypotheses to be tested are as follows: I Adherence to NRT is greater among smokers informed that their oral dose of NRT is tailored to an analysis of DNA (genotype), compared to one tailored to nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype). II Amongst smokers who fail to quit at six months, motivation to make another quit attempt is lower when informed that their oral dose of NRT was tailored to genotype rather than phenotype.An open label, parallel groups randomised trial in which 630 adult smokers (smoking 10 or more cigarettes daily) using National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking services in primary care are randomly allocated to one of two groups:i. NRT oral dose tailored by DNA analysis (OPRM1 gene) (genotype), orii. NRT oral dose tailored by nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype)The primary outcome is proportion of prescribed NRT consumed in the first 28 days following an initial quit attempt, with the secondary outcome being motivation to make another quit attempt, amongst smokers not abstinent at six months. Other outcomes include adherence to NRT in the first seven days and biochemically validated smoking abstinence at six months. The primary outcome will be collected on 630 smokers allowing sufficient power to detect a 7.5% difference in mean proportion of NRT consumed using a two-tailed test at the 5% level of significance between groups. The proportion of all NRT consumed in the first four weeks of quitting will be compared between arms using an independent samples t-test and by estimating the 95% confidence interval for observed between-arm difference in mean NRT consumption (Hypothesis I). Motivation to make another quit attempt will be compared between arms in those failing to quit by six months (Hypothesis II).This is the first clinical trial evaluating the behavioural impact on adherence of prescribing medication using genetic rather than phenotypic information. Specific issues regarding the choice of design for trials of interventions of this kind are discussed. TRIAL DETAILS: Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)Grant number: G0500274. ISRCTN: 14352545. Date trial stated: June 2007. Expected end date: December 2009. Expected reporting date: December 2010.