ABSTRACT: Precision gravimetry is key to a number of scientific and industrial applications, including climate change research, space exploration, geological surveys and fundamental investigations into the nature of gravity. A variety of quantum systems, such as atom interferometry and on-chip-Bose-Einstein condensates have thus far been investigated to this aim. Here, we propose a new method which involves using a quantum optomechanical system for measurements of gravitational acceleration. As a proof-of-concept, we investigate the fundamental sensitivity for gravitational accelerometry of a cavity optomechanical system with a trilinear radiation pressure light-matter interaction. The phase of the optical output encodes the gravitational acceleration g and is the only component which needs to be measured. We prove analytically that homodyne detection is the optimal readout method and we predict an ideal fundamental sensitivity of ?g?=?10-15?ms-2 for state-of-the-art parameters of optomechanical systems, showing that they could, in principle, surpass the best atomic interferometers even for low optical intensities. Further, we show that the scheme is strikingly robust to the initial thermal state of the oscillator.
Project description:The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices, to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in optomechanical laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an optomechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatter light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose silicon microcavity designs based on laterally coupled single and double-layer cavities, the proposed structures enable optomechanical coupling with very high frequency modes (11 to 25?GHz) and large optomechanical coupling rates (g0/2?) from 50?kHz to 90?kHz.
Project description:Cavity optomechanics allows the characterization of a vibration mode, its cooling and quantum manipulation using electromagnetic fields. Regarding nanomechanical as well as electronic properties, single wall carbon nanotubes are a prototypical experimental system. At cryogenic temperatures, as high quality factor vibrational resonators, they display strong interaction between motion and single-electron tunneling. Here, we demonstrate large optomechanical coupling of a suspended carbon nanotube quantum dot and a microwave cavity, amplified by several orders of magnitude via the nonlinearity of Coulomb blockade. From an optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) experiment, we obtain a single photon coupling of up to g0 = 2? ? 95 Hz. This indicates that normal mode splitting and full optomechanical control of the carbon nanotube vibration in the quantum limit is reachable in the near future. Mechanical manipulation and characterization via the microwave field can be complemented by the manifold physics of quantum-confined single electron devices.
Project description:Precision measurements of gravity can provide tests of fundamental physics and are of broad practical interest for metrology. We propose a scheme for absolute gravimetry using a quantum magnetomechanical system consisting of a magnetically trapped superconducting resonator whose motion is controlled and measured by a nearby RF-SQUID or flux qubit. By driving the mechanical massive resonator to be in a macroscopic superposition of two different heights our we predict that our interferometry protocol could, subject to systematic errors, achieve a gravimetric sensitivity of ?g/g?~?2.2?×?10(-10)?Hz(-1/2), with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. This sensitivity and spatial resolution exceeds the precision of current state of the art atom-interferometric and corner-cube gravimeters by more than an order of magnitude, and unlike classical superconducting interferometers produces an absolute rather than relative measurement of gravity. In addition, our scheme takes measurements at ~10?kHz, a region where the ambient vibrational noise spectrum is heavily suppressed compared the ~10?Hz region relevant for current cold atom gravimeters.
Project description:The coupling of distinct systems underlies nearly all physical phenomena. A basic instance is that of interacting harmonic oscillators, giving rise to, for example, the phonon eigenmodes in a lattice. Of particular importance are the interactions in hybrid quantum systems, which can combine the benefits of each part in quantum technologies. Here we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system having three degrees of freedom, consisting of a microwave cavity and two micromechanical beams with closely spaced frequencies around 32?MHz and no direct interaction. We record the first evidence of tripartite optomechanical mixing, implying that the eigenmodes are combinations of one photonic and two phononic modes. We identify an asymmetric dark mode having a long lifetime. Simultaneously, we operate the nearly macroscopic mechanical modes close to the motional quantum ground state, down to 1.8 thermal quanta, achieved by back-action cooling. These results constitute an important advance towards engineering of entangled motional states.
Project description:Gravimetry is a well-established technique for the determination of sub-surface mass distribution needed in several fields of geoscience, and various types of gravimeters have been developed over the last 50 years. Among them, quantum gravimeters based on atom interferometry have shown top-level performance in terms of sensitivity, long-term stability and accuracy. Nevertheless, they have remained confined to laboratories due to their complex operation and high sensitivity to the external environment. Here we report on a novel, transportable, quantum gravimeter that can be operated under real world conditions by non-specialists, and measure the absolute gravitational acceleration continuously with a long-term stability below 10 nm.s-2 (1 ?Gal). It features several technological innovations that allow for high-precision gravity measurements, while keeping the instrument light and small enough for field measurements. The instrument was characterized in detail and its stability was evaluated during a month-long measurement campaign.
Project description:Cavity optomechanical systems are being studied for their potential in areas such as metrology, communications, and quantum information science. For a number of recently proposed applications in which multiple optical and mechanical modes interact, an outstanding challenge is to develop multimode architectures that allow flexibility in the optical and mechanical sub-system designs while maintaining the strong interactions that have been demonstrated in single-mode systems. To that end, we demonstrate slot-mode optomechanical crystals, devices in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeams separated by a narrow slot are coupled via optomechanical interactions. These nanobeam pairs are patterned to confine a mechanical breathing mode at the center of one beam and a low-loss optical mode in the slot between the beams. This architecture affords great design flexibility towards multimode optomechanics, as well as substantial optomechanical coupling rates. We show this by producing slot-mode devices in stoichiometric Si3N4, with optical modes in the 980 nm band coupled to mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We exploit the Si3N4 tensile stress to achieve slot widths down to 24 nm, which leads to enhanced optomechanical coupling, sufficient for the observation of optomechanical self-oscillations at all studied frequencies. We then develop multimode optomechanical systems with triple-beam geometries, in which two optical modes couple to a single mechanical mode, and two mechanical modes couple to a single optical mode. Taken together, these results demonstrate great flexibility in the design of multimode chip-scale optomechanical systems with large optomechanical coupling.
Project description:A simple scheme for determination of spin-orbit coupling strength in spinbased optomechanics with carbon nanotubes is introduced, under the control of a strong pump field and a weak signal field. The physical mechanism comes from the phonon induced transparency (PIT), by relying on the coherent coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion of the nanotube, which is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in atom systems. Based on this spin-nanotube optomechanical system, we also conceptually design a single photon router and a quantum microwave transistor, with ultralow pump power (~ pW) and tunable switching time, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin-based microwave quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Project description:We demonstrate application of the method of higher-order operators to nonlinear standard optomechanics. It is shown that a symmetry breaking in frequency shifts exists, corresponding to inequivalency of red and blue side-bands. This arises from nonlinear higher-order processes leading to inequal detunings. Similarly, a higher-order resonance shift exists appearing as changes in both of the optical and mechanical resonances. We provide the first known method to explicitly estimate the population of coherent phonons. We also calculate corrections to spring effect due to higher-order interactions and coherent phonons, and show that these corrections can be quite significant in measurement of single-photon optomechanical interaction rate. It is shown that there exists non-unique and various choices for the higher-order operators to solve the optomechanical interaction with different multiplicative noise terms, among which a minimal basis offers exactly linear Langevin equations, while decoupling one Langevin equation and thus leaving the whole standard optomechanical problem exactly solvable by explicit expressions. We finally present a detailed treatment of multiplicative noise as well as nonlinear dynamic stability phases by the method of higher-order operators. Similar approach can be used outside the domain of standard optomechanics to quadratic and all other types of nonlinear interactions in quantum physics.
Project description:In just 20 years of history, the field of optomechanics has achieved impressive progress, stepping into the quantum regime just 5 years ago. Such remarkable advance relies on the technological revolution of nano-optomechanical systems, whose sensitivity towards thermal decoherence is strongly limited due to their ultra-low mass. Here we report a hybrid approach pushing nano-optomechanics to even lower scales. The concept relies on synthesising an efficient optical scatterer at the tip of singly clamped carbon nanotube resonators. We demonstrate high signal-to-noise motion readout and record force sensitivity, two orders of magnitude below the state of the art. Our work opens the perspective to extend quantum experiments and applications at room temperature.
Project description:The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities.