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Distribution and breeding sites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in 32 urban/peri-urban districts of Mozambique: implication for assessing the risk of arbovirus outbreaks.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Aedes-borne arboviruses have emerged as an important public health problem worldwide and, in Mozambique, the number of cases and its geographical spread have been growing. However, information on the occurrence, distribution and ecology of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes remain poorly known in the country. METHODS:Between March and April 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 32 districts in Mozambique to determine the distribution and breeding sites of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larvae and pupae were collected from a total of 2,807 water-holding containers using pipette, dipper, funnel and sweeping procedures, depending on the container type and location. Both outdoor and indoor water-holding containers were inspected. The immature forms were reared to adults and the identifications of the mosquito species was carried out with a stereomicroscope using a taxonomic key. RESULTS:Aedes aegypti was found in every district sampled, while Ae. albopictus was only found in Moatize district, situated in Tete Province in the central part of the country. Six hundred and twenty-eight of 2,807 (22.4%) containers were positive for Ae. aegypti but only one (0.03%) was positive for Ae. albopictus. The Container Index (CI) of Aedes was highest in densely populated suburban areas of the central region (260/604; 43.0%), followed by suburban areas in northern areas (228/617; 36.9%) whilst the lowest proportion was found in urbanized southern areas (140/1586; 8.8%). The highest CI of Aedes was found in used tires (448/1268; 35.3%), cement tanks (20/62; 32.3%) and drums (21/95; 22.1%). CONCLUSION:Data from our study showed that Ae. aegypti is present nation-wide, since it occurred in every sampled district, whilst Ae. albopictus had a limited distribution. Therefore, the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya is likely to have been underestimated in Mozambique. This study highlights the need for the establishment of a national entomological surveillance program for Aedes spp. in Mozambique in order to gain a better understanding about vector bionomics and to support the development of informed effective vector control strategies.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6135346 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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