Mutational analysis of uterine cervical cancer that survived multiple rounds of radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is an essential component of cancer therapy. Despite advances in cancer genomics, the mutation signatures of radioresistant tumors have not yet been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we analyzed a unique set of clinical specimens from a uterine cervical cancer that repeatedly locally recurred after multiple rounds of radiotherapy. Exon sequencing of 409 cancer-related genes in the treatment-naïve tumor and the tumors that recurred after initial and secondary radiotherapy identified (i) activating mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS, and putative inactivating mutations in SMAD4, as trunk mutation signatures that persisted over the clinical course; and (ii) mutations in KMT2A, TET1, and NLRP1 as acquired mutation signatures observed only in recurrent tumors after radiotherapy. Comprehensive mining of published in vitro genomics data pertaining to radiosensitivity revealed that simultaneous mutations in KRAS and SMAD4, which have not been described previously in uterine cervical cancer, are associated with cancer cell radioresistance. The association between this mutation signature and radioresistance was validated by isogenic cell-based experiments. These results provide proof-of-principle for the analytical pipeline employed in this study, which explores clinically relevant mutation signatures for radioresistance, and demonstrate that this approach is worth pursuing with larger cohorts in the future.
Project description:Engineered organoids by sequential introduction of key mutations could help modeling the dynamic cancer progression. However, it remains difficult to determine gene paths which were sufficient to capture cancer behaviors and to broadly explain cancer mechanisms. Here, as a case study of colorectal cancer (CRC), functional and dynamic characterizations of five types of engineered organoids with different mutation combinations of five driver genes (APC, SMAD4, KRAS, TP53, and PIK3CA) showed that sequential introductions of all five driver mutations could induce enhanced activation of more hallmark signatures, tending to cancer. Comparative analysis of engineered organoids and corresponding CRC tissues revealed sequential introduction of key mutations could continually shorten the biological distance from engineered organoids to CRC tissues. Nevertheless, there still existed substantial biological gaps between the engineered organoid even with five key mutations and CRC samples. Thus, we proposed an integrative strategy to prioritize gene cascading paths for shrinking biological gaps between engineered organoids and CRC tissues. Our results not only recapitulated the well-known adenoma-carcinoma sequence model (e.g., AKST-organoid with driver mutations in APC, KRAS, SMAD4, and TP53), but also provided potential paths for delineating alternative pathogenesis underlying CRC populations (e.g., A-organoid with APC mutation). Our strategy also can be applied to both organoids with more mutations and other cancers, which can improve and innovate mechanism across cancer patients for drug design and cancer therapy.
Project description:The development and progression of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied and the genes responsible have been well characterized. However the correlation between the SMAD4 gene mutations with KRAS mutant status has not been explored by many studies so far. Here, in this study we aimed to investigate the role of SMAD4 gene aberrations in the pathogenesis of CRC in Kashmir valley and to correlate it with various clinicopathological variables and KRAS mutant genotype.We examined the paired tumor and normal tissue specimens of 86 CRC patients for the occurrence of aberrations in MCR region of SMAD4 and exon 1 of KRAS by PCR-SSCP and/or PCR-Direct sequencing.The overall mutation rate of mutation cluster region (MCR) region of SMAD4 gene among 86 patients was 18.6% (16 of 86). 68.75% (11/16) of the SMAD4 gene mutants were found to have mutations in KRAS gene as well. The association between the KRAS mutant genotype with SMAD4 mutants was found to be significant (P = or < 0.05). Further more, we found a significant association of tumor location, tumor grade, node status, occupational exposure to pesticides and bleeding PR/Constipation with the mutation status of the SMAD4 gene (P = or < 0.05).Our study suggests that SMAD4 gene aberrations are the common event in CRC development but play a differential role in the progression of CRC in higher tumor grade (C+D) and its association with the KRAS mutant status suggest that these two molecules together are responsible for the progression of the tumor to higher/advanced stage.
Project description:SMAD4 is an essential mediator in the transforming growth factor-? pathway. Sporadic mutations of SMAD4 are present in 2.1-20.0% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) but data are limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, prognosis, and clinical outcome associated with this mutation in CRC cases. Data for patients with metastatic or unresectable CRC who underwent genotyping for SMAD4 mutation and received treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed. Their tumors were sequenced using a hotspot panel predicted to cover 80% of the reported SMAD4 mutations, and further targeted resequencing that included full-length SMAD4 was performed on mutated tumors using a HiSeq sequencing system. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas data on CRC, the characteristics of SMAD4 and transforming growth factor-? pathway mutations were evaluated according to different consensus molecular subtypes of CRC. Among 734 patients with CRC, 90 (12%) had SMAD4 mutations according to hotspot testing. SMAD4 mutation was associated with colon cancer more so than with rectal cancer (odds ratio 2.85; p<0.001), female sex (odds ratio 1.71; p = 0.02), and shorter overall survival than in wild-type SMAD4 cases (median, 29 months versus 56 months; hazard ratio 2.08; p<0.001 [log-rank test]). SMAD4 mutation was not associated with age, stage at presentation, colonic location, distant metastasis, or tumor grade. A subset of patients with metastatic CRC (n = 44) wild-type for KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF who received anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy with mutated SMAD4 (n = 13) had shorter progression-free survival duration than did patients wild-type for SMAD4 (n = 31) (median, 111 days versus 180 days; p = 0.003 [log-rank test]). Full-length sequencing confirmed that missense mutations at R361 and P356 in the MH2 domain were the most common SMAD4 alterations. In The Cancer Genome Atlas data, SMAD4 mutation frequently occurred with KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations and was more common in patients with the consensus molecular subtype 3 of CRC than in those with the other 3 subtypes. This is one of the largest retrospective studies to date characterizing SMAD4 mutations in CRC patients and demonstrates the prognostic role and lack of response of CRC to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Further studies are required to validate these findings and the role of SMAD4 mutation in CRC.
Project description:Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues used for routine pathological diagnosis are valuable for cancer genomic analysis; however, the association between mutation status derived from these specimens and prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. We analyzed 50 cancer-related gene mutations including driver genes in PDAC, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clarify the association between gene mutations and prognosis. DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues obtained from 74 patients with untreated resectable PDAC who underwent surgery at our institution between 2013 and 2018. Fifty of the 74 patients with DNA extracts from FFPE samples suitable for NGS were analyzed. The prevalence of driver gene mutations was as follows: 84% for KRAS, 62% for TP53, 32% for SMAD4, and 18% for CDKN2A. There were no cases of single SMAD4 mutations; its rate of coincidence with KRAS or TP53 mutations was 30% and 2%, respectively. The combination of KRAS and SMAD4 mutations resulted in significantly shorter relapse-free survival (RFS; median survival time [MST], 12.3 vs. 28.9 months, P = .014) and overall survival (OS; MST, 22.3 months vs. not reached, P = .048). On multivariate analysis, the combination of KRAS and SMAD4 mutations was an independent prognostic factor for RFS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.218; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-10.08; P = .001) and OS (HR 6.730; 95% CI, 1.93-23.43; P = .003). The combination of KRAS and SMAD4 mutations in DNA obtained from FFPE tissues is an independent poor prognostic factor in PDAC.
Project description:Radiotherapy is used to treat gastric cancer (GC); however, radioresistance challenges the clinical outcomes of GC, and the mechanisms of radioresistance in GC remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the TGF-? receptor inhibitor, LY2109761 (LY), is a potential radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. As per the Cancer Genome Atlas database, TGF-? overexpression is significantly related to poor overall survival in GC patients. We demonstrated that the TGF-?/SMAD4 signaling pathway was activated in both radioresistant GC cells and radioresistant GC patients. As a TGF-? receptor inhibitor, LY can enhance the activities of irradiation by inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing clonogenicity and increasing apoptosis. Moreover, LY attenuated the radiation-induced migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammatory factor activation, immunosuppression, and cancer stem cell characteristics of GC cells, thus leading to radiosensitization of the GC cells. We confirmed that LY reduced tumor growth, inhibited TGF-?/SMAD4 pathway activation and reversed irradiation-induced EMT in a tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that the novel TGF-? receptor inhibitor, LY, increases GC radiosensitivity by directly regulating the TGF-?/SMAD4 signaling pathway. These findings provide new insight for radiotherapy in GC patients.
Project description:Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an aggressive tumor that is treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation if the patient is not a candidate for surgery. Predictive biomarkers for response to radiotherapy are lacking in this patient population, making it a non-tailored therapy regimen with unknown outcome. Twenty to 30 % of NSCLC harbor an activating mutation in KRAS that may confer radioresistance. We hypothesized that mutant KRAS can regulate glutamine metabolism genes in NSCLC and maintain tumor redox balance through transamination reactions that generate cytosolic NADPH via malic enzyme 1 (ME1), which may contribute to radioresistance.A doxycycline-inducible mouse model of KRAS (G12D) driven NSCLC and patient data was analyzed from multiple publicly accessible databases including TCGA, CCLE, NCBI GEO and Project Achilles. ME1 expression was found to be mutant KRAS associated in both a NSCLC mouse model and human NSCLC cancer cell lines. Perturbing glutamine metabolism sensitized mutant KRAS, but not wild-type KRAS NSCLC cell lines to radiation treatment. NSCLC survival analysis revealed that patients with elevated ME1 and GOT1 expression had significantly worse outcomes after radiotherapy, but this was not seen after chemotherapy alone.KRAS driven glutamine metabolism genes, specifically ME1 and GOT1 reactions, may be a predictive marker and potential therapeutic target for radiotherapy in NSCLC.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is a multiple genetic disorder with many mutations identified during the progression. Two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines were established which showed different phenotype in vivo: a non-metastatic cell line, Panc02, and a highly metastatic cell line, Panc02-H7, a derivative of Panc02. In order to investigate whether the genetic mutations of key genes in pancreatic cancer such as KRAS, TP53 (p53), CDKN2A (p16), SMAD4, ZIP4, and PDX-1 contribute to the phenotypic difference of these two mouse pancreatic cancer cells, we sequenced the exonic regions of these key genes in both cell lines and in the normal syngeneic mouse pancreas and compared them with the reference mouse genome sequence. The exons of KRAS, SMAD4, CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes were amplified and the genotype of these genes was determined by Sanger sequencing. The sequences were analyzed with Sequencher software. A mutation in SMAD4 was identified in both cell lines. This homozygote G to T mutation in the first position of codon 174 (GAA) generated a stop codon resulting in the translation of a truncated protein. Further functional analysis indicates that different TGF-?/SMAD signaling pathways were involved in those two mouse cell lines, which may explain the phonotypic difference between the two cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in KRAS gene (TAT to TAC at codon 32) was also identified in the normal pancreas DNA of the syngenic mouse and in both derived tumoral Panc02 and Panc02-H7 cells. No mutation or SNP was found in CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes in these two cell lines. The absence of mutations in genes such as KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A, which are considered as key genes in the development of human pancreatic cancer suggests that SMAD4 might play a central and decisive role in mouse pancreatic cancer. These results also suggest that other mechanisms are involved in the substantial phenotypic difference between these two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways that lead to the aggressive metastatic potential of Panc02-H7.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy, with a 5-year survival rate of 6%. Cancer gene panel testing is expected to allow selection of suitable therapeutic drugs in individual patients with PC and improve their prognosis. Although somatic mutations can be identified in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples derived from surgical specimen, the rate of surgical indication among patients with PC is only 20%. To acquire genome information with a less invasive method, we used rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) specimens from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the utility of comprehensive cancer gene panel testing with ROSE specimens. DNA was extracted from preserved ROSE specimens of 26 patients diagnosed with PC between 2011 and 2017. DNA sequences of oncogenes and cancer-related genes were determined using the Ion AmpliSeq Comprehensive Caner Panel. We compared KRAS mutations between cancer gene panel testing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and KRAS mutation analysis by polymerase chain reaction. The mean yield of DNA per extraction from ROSE specimens was 171 ng (range, 34-478 ng). On cancer gene panel testing, we noted KRAS mutations (92%), TP53 mutations (50%), CDKN2A mutations (15%), and SMAD4 mutations (31%). The concordance rate of KRAS mutations between cancer gene panel testing by NGS using ROSE specimens and KRAS mutation analysis by the companion diagnostics using residual materials was 81%. Among five cases of KRAS discordance, three showed KRAS mutations in cancer gene panel testing but not in KRAS mutation analysis. Cancer gene panel testing with ROSE specimens can help stratify unresectable PC patients without additional invasive approaches, and it can be used for therapeutic drug selection.
Project description:Background: To support cancer therapy, development of low cost library preparation techniques for targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) is needed. In this study we designed and tested a PCR-based library preparation panel with limited target area for sequencing the top 12 somatic mutation hot spots in colorectal cancer on the GS Junior instrument. Materials and Methods: A multiplex PCR panel was designed to amplify regions of mutation hot spots in 12 selected genes (APC, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, FBXW7, KRAS, NRAS, MSH6, PIK3CA, SMAD2, SMAD4, TP53). Amplicons were sequenced on a GS Junior instrument using ligated and barcoded adaptors. Eight samples were sequenced in a single run. Colonic DNA samples (8 normal mucosa; 33 adenomas; 17 adenocarcinomas) as well as HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines with known mutation profiles were analyzed. Variants found by the panel on APC, BRAF, KRAS and NRAS genes were validated by conventional sequencing. Results: In total, 34 kinds of mutations were detected including two novel mutations (FBXW7 c.1740:C>G and SMAD4 c.413C>G) that have not been recorded in mutation databases, and one potential germline mutation (APC). The most frequently mutated genes were APC, TP53 and KRAS with 30%, 15% and 21% frequencies in adenomas and 29%, 53% and 29% frequencies in carcinomas, respectively. In cell lines, all the expected mutations were detected except for one located in a homopolymer region. According to re-sequencing results sensitivity and specificity was 100% and 92% respectively. Conclusions: Our NGS-based screening panel denotes a promising step towards low cost colorectal cancer genotyping on the GS Junior instrument. Despite the relatively low coverage, we discovered two novel mutations and obtained mutation frequencies comparable to literature data. Additionally, as an advantage, this panel requires less template DNA than sequence capture colon cancer panels currently available for the GS Junior instrument.