Mercury and arsenic attenuate canonical and non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
ABSTRACT: Exposure to heavy metals can cause several diseases associated with the immune system. Although the effects of heavy metals on production of inflammatory cytokines have been previously studied, the role of heavy metals in inflammasome activation remains poorly studied. The inflammasome is an intracellular multi-protein complex that detects intracellular danger signals, resulting in inflammatory responses such as cytokine maturation and pyroptosis. In this study, we elucidated the effects of four heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb), on the activation of NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes. In our results, mercury and arsenic inhibited interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 secretion resulting from canonical and non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages and attenuated elevation of serum IL-1? in response to LPS treatment in mice. In the mechanical studies, mercury interrupted production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, release of mitochondrial DNA, and activity of recombinant caspase-1, whereas arsenic down-regulated expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein. Both mercury and arsenic inhibited Asc pyroptosome formation and gasdermin D cleavage. Thus, we suggest that exposure to mercury and/or arsenic could disrupt inflammasome-mediated inflammatory responses, which might cause unexpected side effects.
Project description:Riboflavin is commonly taken as a nutritional supplement, and it converts to coenzymes during the process of energy production from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Although riboflavin is considered to be an anti-inflammatory vitamin because of its antioxidant properties, the effects of riboflavin on inflammasome have been not reported. Inflammasome, a cytosolic surveillance protein complex, leads to the activation of caspase-1, cytokine maturation, and pyroptosis. In the present study, riboflavin attenuated the indicators of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, such as the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, and caspase-1; the formation of Asc pyroptosome; and the cleavage of gasdermin D. In addition, the oral and peritoneal administration of riboflavin inhibited the peritoneal production of IL-1? and IL-18 in a mouse model. Mechanistically, riboflavin prevented mitochondrial perturbations, such as mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA release, which trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Riboflavin was further confirmed to disrupt the activity of caspase-1, and it also inhibited the AIM2, NLRC4, and non-canonical inflammasomes. Therefore, riboflavin has both an antioxidant effect and an anti-inflammasome property that regulates the inflammatory response.
Project description:Twenty eight 7-substitued fangchinoline analogues, of which twenty two were novel, were synthesized and evaluated for their effect to inhibit lipopolysaccharide/nigericin (LPS/NIG)-induced IL-1? release at both cell and protein levels at the concentration of 5 ?M. Among them, compound 6 exhibited promising inhibitory potency against IL-? activation with an IC50 value of 3.7 ?M. Preliminary mechanism study revealed that 6 might target NLRP3 protein, and then block ASC pyroptosome formation with-NLRP3, rather than acting on the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome (NF-?B and MAPK pathways) or caspase-1 protein. Our current study supported the potential role of compound 6 against IL-? activation, and provided powerful information for developing fangchinoline derivatives into a novel class of anti-inflammatory agents.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that trigger the activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), yet the regulation of these complexes remains poorly characterized. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the NLRP3-mediated ASC pyroptosome formation, caspase-1 activation and IL-1? secretion in myeloid cells from both mice and humans. Meanwhile, endogenous NO derived from iNOS (inducible form of NO synthase) also negatively regulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Depletion of iNOS resulted in increased accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in response to LPS and ATP, which was responsible for the increased IL-1? production and caspase-1 activation. iNOS deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of NO production enhanced NLRP3-dependent cytokine production in vivo, thus increasing mortality from LPS-induced sepsis in mice, which was prevented by NLRP3 deficiency. Our results thus identify NO as a critical negative regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome via the stabilization of mitochondria. This study has important implications for the design of new strategies to control NLRP3-related diseases.
Project description:Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1? mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time-points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1?, IL-18, and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Specific cell types expressing inflammasome proteins also were evaluated immunohistochemically and assessed quantitatively. After PBBI, expression of IL-1?, IL-18, caspase-1, ASC, XIAP, and NLRP3 peaked around 48?h. Brain protein lysates from PTBI animals showed pyroptosome formation evidenced by ASC laddering, and also contained increased expression of GSDMD at 48?h after injury. ASC-positive immunoreactive neurons within the perilesional cortex were observed at 24?h. At 48?h, ASC expression was concentrated in morphologically activated cortical microglia. This expression of ASC in activated microglia persisted until 12 weeks following PBBI. This is the first report of inflammasome activation after PBBI. Our results demonstrate cell-specific patterns of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis predominantly in microglia, suggesting a sustained pro-inflammatory state following PBBI, thus offering a therapeutic target for this type of brain injury.
Project description:The deleterious effects of diabetes in the heart are increasingly attributed to inflammatory signaling through the NLRP3 (NOD, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome. Thrombin antagonists reduce cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in diabet