Chromatin remodeling controls Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation from latency.
ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of three human malignancies, the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma, and two B cell cancers, Primary Effusion Lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV has latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle, and while both contribute to viral pathogenesis, lytic proteins contribute to KSHV-mediated oncogenesis. Reactivation from latency is driven by the KSHV lytic gene transactivator RTA, and RTA transcription is controlled by epigenetic modifications. To identify host chromatin-modifying proteins that are involved in the latent to lytic transition, we screened a panel of inhibitors that target epigenetic regulatory proteins for their ability to stimulate KSHV reactivation. We found several novel regulators of viral reactivation: an inhibitor of Bmi1, PTC-209, two additional histone deacetylase inhibitors, Romidepsin and Panobinostat, and the bromodomain inhibitor (+)-JQ1. All of these compounds stimulate lytic gene expression, viral genome replication, and release of infectious virions. Treatment with Romidepsin, Panobinostat, and PTC-209 induces histone modifications at the RTA promoter, and results in nucleosome depletion at this locus. Finally, silencing Bmi1 induces KSHV reactivation, indicating that Bmi1, a member of the Polycomb repressive complex 1, is critical for maintaining KSHV latency.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation.Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
Project description:An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. The RTA transcription activator of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) acts as a molecular switch for lytic reactivation. Here we demonstrate that KSHV RTA recruits CBP, the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, and the TRAP/Mediator coactivator into viral promoters through interactions with a short acidic sequence in the carboxyl region and that this recruitment is essential for RTA-dependent viral gene expression. The Brg1 subunit of SWI/SNF and the TRAP230 subunit of TRAP/Mediator were shown to interact directly with RTA. Consequently, genetic ablation of these interactions abolished KSHV lytic replication. These results demonstrate that the recruitment of CBP, SWI/SNF, and TRAP/Mediator complexes by RTA is the principal mechanism to direct well-controlled viral gene expression and thereby viral lytic reactivation.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) displays two life modes, latency and lytic reactivation in the infected host cells which are equally important for virus mediated pathogenesis. During latency only a small number of genes are expressed. Under specific conditions, KSHV can undergo lytic replication with the production of viral progeny. One immediate-early gene RTA, encoded by open reading frame 50 of KSHV, has been shown to play a critical role in switching the viral latency to lytic reactivation. Over-expression of RTA from a heterologous promoter is sufficient for driving KSHV lytic replication which results in production of viral progeny. In the present study, we show that RTA can activate the expression of the ORF59 which encodes the processivity factor essential for DNA replication during lytic reactivation. We also show that RTA regulates ORF59 promoter through interaction with RBP-Jkappa as well as a cis-acting RTA responsive element within the promoter. In the context of KSHV infected cells, the upregulation of ORF59 is a direct response to RTA expression. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence to explain the mechanism by which RTA can regulate its downstream gene ORF59, further increasing our understanding of the biology of KSHV lytic replication.
Project description:An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. In order to study the life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we developed a gene expression system in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. This system uses Flp-mediated efficient recombination and tetracycline-inducible expression. The Rta transcriptional activator, which acts as a molecular switch for lytic reactivation of KSHV, was efficiently integrated downstream of the Flp recombination target site, and its expression was tightly controlled by tetracycline. Like stimulation with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), the ectopic expression of Rta efficiently induced a complete cycle of viral replication, including a well-ordered program of KSHV gene expression and production of infectious viral progeny. A striking feature of Rta-mediated lytic gene expression was that Rta induced KSHV gene expression in a more powerful and efficient manner than TPA stimulation, indicating that Rta plays a central, leading role in KSHV lytic gene expression. Thus, our streamlined gene expression system provides a novel means not only to study the effects of viral gene products on overall KSHV gene expression and replication, but also to understand the natural viral reactivation process.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncogenic virus, which maintains the persistent infection of the host by intermittently reactivating from latently infected cells to produce viral progenies. While it is established that the replication and transcription activator (RTA) viral transcription factor is required for the induction of lytic viral genes for KSHV lytic reactivation, it is still unknown to what extent RTA alters the host transcriptome to promote KSHV lytic cycle and viral pathogenesis. To address this question, we performed a comprehensive time course transcriptome analysis during KSHV reactivation in B-cell lymphoma cells and determined RTA-binding sites on both the viral and host genomes, which resulted in the identification of the core RTA-induced host genes (core RIGs). We found that the majority of RTA-binding sites at core RIGs contained the canonical RBP-J?-binding DNA motif. Subsequently, we demonstrated the vital role of the Notch signaling transcription factor RBP-J? for RTA-driven rapid host gene induction, which is consistent with RBP-J? being essential for KSHV lytic reactivation. Importantly, many of the core RIGs encode plasma membrane proteins and key regulators of signaling pathways and cell death; however, their contribution to the lytic cycle is largely unknown. We show that the cell cycle and chromatin regulator geminin and the plasma membrane protein gamma-glutamyltransferase 6, two of the core RIGs, are required for efficient KSHV reactivation and virus production. Our results indicate that host genes that RTA rapidly and directly induces can be pivotal for driving the KSHV lytic cycle.IMPORTANCE The lytic cycle of KSHV is involved not only in the dissemination of the virus but also viral oncogenesis, in which the effect of RTA on the host transcriptome is still unclear. Using genomics approaches, we identified a core set of host genes which are rapidly and directly induced by RTA in the early phase of KSHV lytic reactivation. We found that RTA does not need viral cofactors but requires its host cofactor RBP-J? for inducing many of its core RIGs. Importantly, we show a critical role for two of the core RIGs in efficient lytic reactivation and replication, highlighting their significance in the KSHV lytic cycle. We propose that the unbiased identification of RTA-induced host genes can uncover potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting KSHV replication and viral pathogenesis.
Project description:Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is important for persistent infection in the host as well as viral oncogenesis. The replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by KSHV ORF50 plays a central role in the switch from viral latency to lytic replication. Given that RTA is a transcriptional activator and RTA expression is sufficient to activate complete lytic replication, RTA must possess an elaborate mechanism for regulating its protein abundance. Previous studies have demonstrated that RTA could be degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A protein abundance regulatory signal (PARS), which consists of PARS I and PARS II, at the C-terminal region of RTA modulates its protein abundance. In the present study, we identified a host protein named Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2), which can interact with RTA in vitro and in vivo. We further showed that NCOA2 binds to the PARS II domain of RTA. We demonstrated that NCOA2 enhances RTA stability and prevents the proteasome-mediated degradation of RTA by competing with MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of RTA that interacts with the PARS II domain. Moreover, overexpression of NCOA2 in KSHV-infected cells significantly enhanced the expression level of RTA, which promotes the expression of RTA downstream viral lytic genes and lytic replication. In contrast, silencing of endogenous NCOA2 downregulated the expression of viral lytic genes and impaired viral lytic replication. Interestingly, we also found that RTA upregulates the expression of NCOA2 during lytic reactivation. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that NCOA2 is a novel RTA-binding protein that promotes RTA-driven lytic reactivation by increasing the stability of RTA, and the RTA-NCOA2 positive feedback regulatory loop plays an important role in KSHV reactivation.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic pathogen that displays latent and lytic life cycles. In KS lesions, infiltrated immune cells, secreted viral and/or cellular cytokines, and hypoxia orchestrate a chronic pro-lytic microenvironment that can promote KSHV reactivation. However, only a small subset of viruses spontaneously undergoes lytic replication in this pro-lytic microenvironment while the majority remains in latency. Here, we show that the expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 is induced by KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) during reactivation. JAG1 up-regulation activates Notch signaling in neighboring cells and prevents viral lytic replication. The suppression of JAG1 and Notch1 with inhibitors or small interfering RNA promotes lytic replication in the presence of RTA induction or under conditions of hypoxia. The underlying mechanism involves the Notch downstream effector hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), which directly binds lytic gene promoters and attenuates viral lytic gene expression. RTA interacts with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), disrupts LEF1/Groucho/TLE suppressive complexes and releases LEF1 to activate JAG1 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that cells with viral lytic replication can inhibit KSHV reactivation in neighboring cells through an RTA-JAG1-Notch pathway. These data provide insight into the mechanism by which the virus maintains the balance between lytic and latent infection in the pro-lytic tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Herpesviruses encode numerous microRNAs (miRNAs), most of whose functions are unknown. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 17 known miRNAs as part of its latency program, suggesting that these RNAs might function to regulate the latent state. Here we show that one of these KSHV miRNAs, miRK9( *), targets a sequence in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA encoding the major lytic switch protein (RTA), which controls viral reactivation from latency. Ectopic expression of miRK9( *) impairs RTA synthesis, while its specific antagonism in latently infected cells enhances spontaneous lytic reactivation frequency by 2- to 3-fold. Mutation of the recognition sequence in the RTA 3'UTR abolishes RTA downregulation by miRK9( *). We propose that miRNA targeting of RTA, while not the primary regulator of the lytic switch, functions like a safety mechanism on the trigger of lytic reactivation, preventing stochastic variations in basal RTA transcription from activating inappropriate entry into the lytic cycle.
Project description:Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication is mediated by the viral RTA transcription factor, but little is known about the physiological processes controlling its expression or activity. Links between autonomic nervous system activity and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma led us to examine the potential influence of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Physiological concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine efficiently reactivated lytic replication of KSHV in latently infected primary effusion lymphoma cells via beta-adrenergic activation of the cellular cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Effects were blocked by PKA antagonists and mimicked by pharmacological and physiological PKA activators (prostaglandin E2 and histamine) or overexpression of the PKA catalytic subunit. PKA up-regulated RTA gene expression, enhanced activity of the RTA promoter, and posttranslationally enhanced RTA's trans-activating capacity for its own promoter and heterologous lytic promoters (e.g., the viral PAN gene). Mutation of predicted phosphorylation targets at RTA serines 525 and 526 inhibited PKA-mediated enhancement of RTA trans-activating capacity. Given the high catecholamine levels at sites of KSHV latency such as the vasculature and lymphoid organs, these data suggest that beta-adrenergic control of RTA might constitute a significant physiological regulator of KSHV lytic replication. These findings also suggest novel therapeutic strategies for controlling the activity of this oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in vivo.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-?-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1) an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2) a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.