Novel Dual-Action Targeted Nanomedicine in Mice With Metastatic Thyroid Cancer and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
ABSTRACT: Background:The advantages of nanomedicines include preferential delivery of the payload directly to tumor tissues. CYT-21625 is the novel, first-in-class gold nanomedicine designed to target tumor vasculature and cancer cells by specifically delivering recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rhTNF) and a paclitaxel prodrug. Methods:We analyzed TNF receptor expression in publicly available gene expression profiling data and in thyroid tissue samples. Mice with metastatic FTC-133 and 8505C xenografts and the MEN1 conditional knock-out mice were treated weekly with CYT-21625 and gold nanoparticles with rhTNF only (CYT-6091); controls included mice treated with either paclitaxel or saline. In vivo luciferase activity was used to assess the effects on tumor growth. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and 18F-Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were used to study tumor selectivity in mice with insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results:Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) expressed statistically significantly higher levels of TNF receptor superfamily 1A and 1B messenger RNA (n = 11) and protein (n = 6) than control samples (n = 45 and 13, respectively). Mice (n = 5-7 per group) with metastatic ATC (P < .009) and FTC-133 xenografts (P = .03 at week 3, but not statistically significant in week 4 owing to reduced sample size from death in non-CYT-21625 groups) treated with CYT-21625 had a statistically significantly lower tumor burden. Treatment with CYT-21625 resulted in loss of CD34 expression in intratumoral vasculature, decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and increased cleaved caspase-3. Intratumoral vascular leakage occurred only in mice with PNET and ATC treated with CYT-6091 and CYT-21625. CYT-6091 and CYT-21625 preferentially deposited in PNETs and statistically significantly decreased serum insulin levels (n = 3 per group, P < .001). There were no toxicities observed in mice treated with CYT-21625. Conclusions:CYT-21625 is effective in mice with PNETs and metastatic human thyroid cancer with no toxicities. Thus, CYT-21625 should be studied in patients with advanced PNETs and thyroid cancer.
Project description:Although remarkable preclinical antitumor effects have been shown for tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) alone and combined with radiation, its clinical use has been hindered by systemic dose-limiting toxicities. We investigated the physiological and antitumor effects of radiation therapy combined with the novel nanomedicine CYT-6091, a 27-nm average-diameter polyethylene glycol-TNF-coated gold nanoparticle, which recently passed through phase 1 trials.The physiologic and antitumor effects of single and fractionated radiation combined with CYT-6091 were studied in the murine 4T1 breast carcinoma and SCCVII head and neck tumor squamous cell carcinoma models.In the 4T1 murine breast tumor model, we observed a significant reduction in the tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) 24 hours after CYT-6091 alone and combined with a radiation dose of 12 Gy (P<.05 vs control). In contrast, radiation alone (12 Gy) had a negligible effect on the IFP. In the SCCVII head and neck tumor model, the baseline IFP was not markedly elevated, and little additional change occurred in the IFP after single-dose radiation or combined therapy (P>.05 vs control) despite extensive vascular damage observed. The IFP reduction in the 4T1 model was also associated with marked vascular damage and extravasation of red blood cells into the tumor interstitium. A sustained reduction in tumor cell density was observed in the combined therapy group compared with all other groups (P<.05). Finally, we observed a more than twofold delay in tumor growth when CYT-6091 was combined with a single 20-Gy radiation dose-notably, irrespective of the treatment sequence. Moreover, when hypofractionated radiation (12 Gy × 3) was applied with CYT-6091 treatment, a more than five-fold growth delay was observed in the combined treatment group of both tumor models and determined to be synergistic.Our results have demonstrated that TNF-labeled gold nanoparticles combined with single or fractionated high-dose radiation therapy is effective in reducing IFP and tumor growth and shows promise for clinical translation.
Project description:Anaplastic (ATC) and refractory papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) lack effective treatments. Inhibition of either oncogenic BRAF or SRC has marked anti-tumor effects in mouse models of thyroid cancer, however, neither drug induces notable apoptosis. Here we report that the SRC-inhibitor dasatinib further sensitizes BRAFV600E-positive thyroid cancer cells to the BRAFV600E-inhibitor PLX4720. Combined treatment with PLX4720 and dasatinib synergistically inhibited proliferation and reduced migration in PTC and ATC cells. Whereas PLX4720 did not induce robust apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells, combined treatment with dasatinib induced apoptosis in 4 of 6 lines. In an immunocompetent orthotopic mouse model of ATC, combined PLX4720 and dasatinib treatment significantly reduced tumor volume relative to PLX4720 treatment alone. Immune cell infiltration was increased by PLX4720 treatment and this effect was maintained in mice treated with both PLX4720 and dasatinib. Further, combined treatment significantly increased caspase 3 cleavage in vivo relative to control or either treatment alone. In conclusion, combined PLX4720 and dasatinib treatment induces apoptosis, increases immune cell infiltration and reduces tumor volume in a preclinical model of ATC, suggesting that the combination of these FDA-approved drugs may have potential for the treatment of patients with ATC or refractory PTC.
Project description:Background: Thyroid tumor progression from well-differentiated cancer to poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) involves step-wise dedifferentiation associated with loss of iodine avidity and poor outcomes. ALK fusions, typically STRN-ALK, are found with higher incidence in human PDTC compared with well-differentiated cancer and, as previously shown, can drive the development of murine PDTC. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid cancer initiation and progression in mice with concomitant expression of STRN-ALK and inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53 (Trp53) in thyroid follicular cells. Methods: Transgenic mice with thyroid-specific expression of STRN-ALK and biallelic p53 loss were generated and aged on a regular diet or with methimazole and sodium perchlorate goitrogen treatment. Development and progression of thyroid tumors were monitored by using ultrasound imaging, followed by detailed histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Gene expression analysis was performed on selected tumor samples by using RNA-Seq and quantitative RT-PCR. Results: In mice treated with goitrogen, the first thyroid cancers appeared at 6 months of age, reaching 86% penetrance by the age of 12 months, while a similar rate (71%) of tumor occurrence in mice on regular diet was observed by 18 months of age. Histological examination revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) (n?=?26), PDTC (n?=?21), and ATC (n?=?8) that frequently coexisted in the same thyroid gland. The tumors were frequently lethal and associated with the development of lung metastasis in 24% of cases. Histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these cancers recapitulated tumors seen in humans. Detailed analysis of PDTC revealed two tumor types with distinct cell morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics, designated as PDTC type 1 (PDTC1) and type 2 (PDTC2). Gene expression analysis showed that PDTC1 tumors retained higher expression of thyroid differentiation genes including Tg and Slc5a5 (Nis) as compared with PDTC2 tumors. Conclusions: In this study, we generated a new mouse model of multistep thyroid cancer dedifferentiation with evidence of progression from PTC to PDTC and ATC. Further, PDTC in these mice showed two distinct histologic appearances correlated with levels of expression of thyroid differentiation and iodine metabolism genes, suggesting a possibility of existence of two PDTC types with different functional characteristics and potential implication for therapeutic approaches to these tumors.
Project description:Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [(64)Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of (64)Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are expanded in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and standard treatment approaches have failed to improve survival, suggesting a need to specifically target the CSC population. Recent studies in breast and colorectal cancer demonstrated that inhibition of the SUMO pathway repressed CD44 and cleared the CSC population, mediated through SUMO-unconjugated TFAP2A. We sought to evaluate effects of inhibiting the SUMO pathway in ATC. ATC cell lines and primary ATC tumor samples were evaluated. The SUMO pathway was inhibited by knockdown of PIAS1 and use of SUMO inhibitors anacardic acid and PYR-41. The expression of TFAP2A in primary ATC was examined by immunohistochemistry. All ATC cell lines expressed TFAP2A but only 8505C expressed SUMO-conjugated TFAP2A. In 8505C only, inhibition of the SUMO pathway by knockdown of PIAS1 or treatment with SUMO inhibitors repressed expression of CD44 with a concomitant loss of SUMO-conjugated TFAP2A. The effect of SUMO inhibition on CD44 expression was dependent upon TFAP2A. Treatment with SUMO inhibitors resulted in a statistically improved tumor-free survival in mice harboring 8505C xenografts. An examination of primary ATC tissue determined that TFAP2A was expressed in 4 of 11 tumors surveyed. We conclude that inhibition of the SUMO pathway repressed the CSC population, delaying the outgrowth of tumor xenografts in ATC. The effect of SUMO inhibition was dependent upon expression of SUMO-conjugated TFAP2A, which may serve as a molecular marker for therapeutic effects of SUMO inhibitors. The findings provide pre-clinical evidence for development of SUMO inhibitors for the treatment of ATC.
Project description:Background:Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancies globally. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) accounts for 1-3% of all Thyroid cancer. The evidence showed that ATC is a highly invasive solid tumor with poor prognosis. Despite conventional chemotherapy treatments, a considerable number of patients show developing resistance to therapeutic agents and tumor relapse. The aim of this study was the investigation anti-tumor effect of Abemaciclib (novel targeted cancer therapy drug) on Anaplastic Thyroid carcinoma SW1736 and C643 cell lines. Methods:SW1736 and C643 cell lines were treated by desire concentrations of Abemaciclib (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 ?M) and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Also, Anoikis resistance assay was conducted for non-adherent the cells in the exposure of Abemaciclib. The gene expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was conducted by quantitative Real-time PCR. Results:Abemaciclib at the concentration of 10 and 20 ?M effectively reduced cell proliferation and growth of the ATC cells compared to the control (p=0.000). Furthermore, we showed that 10 and 20 ?M doses of the Abemaciclib inhibited the non-adherent ATC cells which were resistant to Anoikis death significantly (p=0.001). Moreover, we demonstrated this targeted therapy significantly reduced anti-apoptotic gene expression levels (BCL2 and CMYC) (p<0.05) and increased apoptotic gene expressions such as P21 and BAX (p<0.05). Conclusion:Our data suggested that Abemaciclib can be utilized as a novel therapeutic agent in ATC cancer. Further in vivo and in vitro investigations are needed to evaluate molecular and clinical mechanisms of Abemaciclib.
Project description:Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal form of thyroid neoplasia and represents the end stage of thyroid tumor progression. No effective treatment exists so far. ATC frequently derive from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), which have a good prognosis. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression profiles of 59 thyroid tumors (11 ATC and 48 PTC) by microarrays. ATC and PTC showed largely overlapping mRNA expression profiles with most genes regulated in all ATC being also regulated in several PTC. 43% of the probes regulated in all the PTC are similarly regulated in all ATC. Many genes modulations observed in PTC are amplified in ATC. This illustrates the fact that ATC mostly derived from PTC. A molecular signature of aggressiveness composed of 9 genes clearly separates the two tumors. Moreover, this study demonstrates gene regulations corresponding to the ATC or PTC phenotypes like inflammatory reaction, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion, high proliferation rate, dedifferentiation, calcification and fibrosis processes, high glucose metabolism and glycolysis, lactate generation and chemoresistance. The main qualitative differences between the two tumor types bear on the much stronger EMT, dedifferentiation and glycolytic phenotypes showed by the ATC.
Project description:Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers with a median survival of 6 months. The inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) alone, or with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), represents an attractive approach for treatment of ATC. Several reports have examined agents that target these receptors. However, with the misidentification of as many as 60% of all commonly used ATC cell lines, the significance of these past findings is unclear.Cell lines authenticated by short tandem repeat profiling were selected to establish xenograft tumors in an orthotopic murine model of ATC. These mice were then treated with vandetanib to evaluate its effects on ATC tumor growth. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was utilized to measure the impact of vandetanib on tumor vasculature.Vandetanib inhibited tumor growth of the ATC cell lines Hth83 and 8505C in vivo by 69.3% (P < 0.001) and 66.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, when compared with control. Significant decreases in vascular permeability (P < 0.01) and vascular volume fraction (P < 0.05) were detected by DCE-MRI in the orthotopic xenograft tumors after 1 week of treatment with vandetanib as compared with control.The inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR2 by vandetanib and its tremendous in vivo antitumor activity against ATC make it an attractive candidate for further preclinical and clinical development for the treatment of this particularly virulent cancer, which remains effectively untreatable. Vandetanib disrupts angiogenesis and DCE-MRI is an effective method to quantify changes in vascular function in vivo.