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Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Optimization of Target Concentrations of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.


ABSTRACT: Background:Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine (PQ) exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods:Human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected pregnant women (n = 300) were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks' gestation and randomized to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks, DHA-PQ every 8 weeks, or DHA-PQ every 4 weeks during pregnancy. Pharmacokinetic sampling for PQ was performed every 4 weeks, and an intensive pharmacokinetic substudy was performed in 30 women at 28 weeks' gestation. Concentration-effect relationships were assessed between exposure to PQ; the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy; outcomes at delivery including placental malaria, low birth weight, and preterm birth; and risks for toxicity. Simulations of new dosing scenarios were performed. Results:Model-defined PQ target venous plasma concentrations of 13.9 ng/mL provided 99% protection from P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. Each 10-day increase in time above target PQ concentrations was associated with reduced odds of placental parasitemia, preterm birth, and low birth weight, though increases in PQ concentrations were associated with QT interval prolongation. Modeling suggests that daily or weekly administration of lower dosages of PQ, compared to standard dosing, will maintain PQ trough levels above target concentrations with reduced PQ peak levels, potentially limiting toxicity. Conclusions:The protective efficacy of IPTp with DHA-PQ was strongly associated with higher drug exposure. Studies of the efficacy and safety of alternative DHA-PQ IPTp dosing strategies are warranted. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT02163447.

SUBMITTER: Savic RM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6137112 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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