Copper-catalyzed methylative difunctionalization of alkenes.
ABSTRACT: Trifluoromethylative difunctionalization and hydrofunctionalization of unactivated alkenes have been developed into powerful synthetic methodologies. On the other hand, methylative difunctionalization of olefins remains an unexplored research field. We report in this paper the Cu-catalyzed alkoxy methylation, azido methylation of alkenes using dicumyl peroxide (DCP), and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as methyl sources. Using functionalized alkenes bearing a tethered nucleophile (alcohol, carboxylic acid, and sulfonamide), methylative cycloetherification, lactonization, and cycloamination processes are subsequently developed for the construction of important heterocycles such as 2,2-disubstituted tetrahydrofurans, tetrahydropyrans, ?-lactones, and pyrrolidines with concurrent generation of a quaternary carbon center. The results of control experiments suggest that the 1,2-alkoxy methylation of alkenes goes through a radical-cation crossover mechanism, whereas the 1,2-azido methylation proceeds via a radical addition and Cu-mediated azide transfer process.
Project description:Difunctionalization of alkenes has become a powerful tool for quickly increasing molecular complexity in synthesis. Despite significant progress in the area of alkene difunctionalization involving the incorporation of a nitrogen atom across the C-C double bonds, approaches for the direct 1,2-carboamination of alkenes to produce linear N-containing molecules are scarce and remain a formidable challenge. Here we describe a radical-mediated oxidative intermolecular 1,2-alkylamination of alkenes with alkyl nitriles and amines involving C(sp3)-H oxidative functionalization catalysed by a combination of Ag2CO3 with iron Lewis acids. This three-component alkene 1,2-alkylamination method is initiated by the C(sp3)-H oxidative radical functionalization, which enables one-step formation of two new chemical bonds, a C-C bond and a C-N bond, to selectively produce ?-amino alkyl nitriles.
Project description:We report a novel method for the chlorothiolation of alkenes using HCl and sulfoxides to achieve the 1,2-difunctionalization of unactivated alkenes. The combination of our new HCl reagent (HCl/DMPU) with sulfoxides forms a unique chlorothiolation system. Both terminal and internal alkenes are suitable substrates. This method works at gram scale and is applicable in further synthetic elaborations.
Project description:A three-component coupling of vinyl triflates and boronic acids to alkenes catalyzed by palladium is reported. Using 1,3-dienes, selective 1,2-alkene difunction-alization is observed, whereas the use of terminal alkenes results in 1,1-alkene difunctionalization. The reaction outcome is attributed to the formation of stabilized, cationic Pd-?-allyl intermediates to regulate ?-hydride elimination.
Project description:An efficient protocol for the synthesis of β-hydroxy(alkoxy)selenides was developed through the electrochemical iodide-catalyzed oxyselenation of styrene derivatives with dialkyl(aryl)diselenides under mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies showed that the cation I+ is involved during the whole process, and accelerates the formation of seleniranium ion via substitution and addition reaction with dialkyl(aryl)diselenides and styrene derivatives. The corresponding products are formed in good to excellent yields. This electrochemical oxyselenation provides an efficient strategy for difunctionalization of alkenes.
Project description:We report the development of palladium(0)-catalyzed syn-selective 1,2-carboboration and -silylation reactions of alkenes containing cleavable directing groups. With B2 pin2 or PhMe2 Si-Bpin as nucleophiles and aryl/alkenyl triflates as electrophiles, a broad range of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes are compatible in these transformations. We further describe a directed dearomative 1,2-carboboration of electron-rich heteroarenes by employing this approach. Through use of a removable chiral directing group, we demonstrate the viability of achieving stereoinduction in Heck-type alkene 1,2-difunctionalization. This work introduces new avenues to access highly functionalized boronates and silanes with precise regio- and stereocontrol.
Project description:Efficient difunctionalization of alkenes allows the rapid construction of molecular complexity from simple building blocks in organic synthesis. We present herein a nickel-catalyzed dicarbofunctionalization of alkenes using readily available organoboronic acids and organic halides in a three-component fashion. In particular, an unprecedented regioselectivity of the 1,3-dicarbofunctionalization of N-allylpyrimidin-2-amine is achieved when aryl and methyl iodides are utilized. In contrast, the use of alkyl bromides with ?-hydrogens results in 1,3-hydroarylation or oxidative 1,3-diarylation. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest an isomerization involving nickel hydride in the 1,3-difunctionalization reactions. On the other hand, the use of alkenyl or alkynyl halides promotes alternative regioselectivities to deliver 1,2-alkenylcarbonation or intriguing 2,1-alkynylcarbonation products. Such 2,1-alkynylarylation is also applicable to N-allylbenzamide as a different class of substrates. Overall, this nickel-catalyzed process proves to be powerful in delivering versatile difunctionalized compounds using readily available reagents/catalysts and a simple procedure.
Project description:A versatile method for the rapid synthesis of diverse enantiomerically enriched lactones has been developed based on Cu-catalyzed enantioselective radical oxyfunctionalization of alkenes. The scope of this strategy encompasses a series of enantioselective difunctionalization reactions: oxyazidation, oxysulfonylation, oxyarylation, diacyloxylation, and oxyalkylation. These reactions provide straightforward access to a wide range of useful chiral lactone building blocks containing tetrasubstituted stereogenic centers, which are hard to access traditionally.
Project description:We developed a direct vicinal difunctionalization of alkenes with iodine and TBHP at room temperature. This iodination and peroxidation in a one-pot synthesis produces 1-(tert-butylperoxy)-2-iodoethanes, which are inaccessible through conventional synthetic methods. This method generates multiple radical intermediates in situ and has excellent regioselectivity, a broad substrate scope and mild conditions. The iodine and peroxide groups of 1-(tert-butylperoxy)-2-iodoethanes have several potential applications and allow further chemical modifications, enabling the preparation of synthetically valuable molecules.
Project description:Catalytic difunctionalization of alkenes has been an ideal strategy to generate structurally complex molecules with diverse substitution patterns. Although both phosphonyl and carboxyl groups are valuable functional groups, the simultaneous incorporation of them via catalytic difunctionalization of alkenes, ideally from abundant, inexpensive and easy-to-handle raw materials, has not been realized. Herein, we report the phosphonocarboxylation of alkenes with CO2 via visible-light photoredox catalysis. This strategy is sustainable, general and practical, providing facile access to important ?-phosphono carboxylic acids, including structurally complex unnatural ?-amino acids. Diverse alkenes, including enamides, styrenes, enolsilanes and acrylates, undergo such reactions efficiently under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, this method represents a rare example of redox-neutral difunctionalization of alkenes with H-P(O) compounds, including diaryl- and dialkyl- phosphine oxides and phosphites. Importantly, these transition-metal-free reactions also feature low catalyst loading, high regio- and chemo-selectivities, good functional group tolerance, easy scalability and potential for product derivatization.
Project description:Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation conditions were employed to promote the C-C bond cleavage of ?-alkoxy alcohols and ?-1 compounds (lignin model compounds). Besides these compounds, various 1,2 and 1,3-diols were successfully converted to aldehydes. We propose the Cu(I)-catalyzed mechanism explaining the C-C cleavage of these 1,2 and 1,3-dihydroxy compounds and ?-alkoxy alcohols based on XPS data. Although our reaction conditions do not include large excess of bases and elaborated ligand-modified catalysts, copper salts with/without Me-TBD show good catalytic activities for C-C bond cleavage of various lignin model compounds.