Disparities in survival by insurance status in follicular lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma and most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lower socioeconomic status is associated with poor outcomes in FL, suggesting that access to care is an important prognostic factor; however, the association between insurance status and FL survival has not been sufficiently examined. The National Cancer Database, a nationwide cancer registry, was used to evaluate 43 648 patients with FL diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. All analyses were performed on 2 cohorts segmented at age 65 years to account for changes in insurance status with Medicare eligibility. Cox proportional hazard models calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between insurance status and overall survival (OS) controlling for the available sociodemographic and prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves display outcomes by insurance status for patients covered by private insurance, no insurance, Medicaid, or Medicare. When compared with patients younger than age 65 years with private insurance, patients younger than age 65 years with no insurance (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.69-2.28), with Medicaid (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.57-2.12), and with Medicare (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.71-2.24) had significantly worse OS after adjusting for sociodemographic and prognostic factors. Compared with patients age 65 years or older with private insurance, those with Medicare only (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17-1.4) had significantly worse OS. For adults with FL, expanding access to care through insurance has the potential to improve outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Numerous studies across a variety of malignancies have demonstrated that health insurance status is associated with differences in clinical presentation, type of treatments received, and survival. The effect of insurance status on the management of soft tissue sarcoma is unknown. We assessed the association of insurance on (a) stage at diagnosis, (b) receipt of neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy, and (c) overall survival (OS) in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. METHODS:The study cohort was identified from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) and consisted of patients with stage I-IV soft tissue sarcoma of various histologies diagnosed from 2004 to 2015. The patients were stratified by age (<65 and ?65 years) and by insurance status (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid and uninsured). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the association between insurance status and (a) stage at diagnosis (Stage I-III vs IV), and (b) receipt of neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced disease. The association of insurance status on OS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. A propensity score matched survival analysis was performed to account for measured confounders. RESULTS:49 754 patients were identified of whom 23 677 (48%) had commercial insurance, 20 867 (42%) had Medicare, 3229 (6%) had Medicaid, and 1981 (4%) were uninsured. In patients <65 years, those with Medicaid (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.57-1.93, P < .001) and the uninsured (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.51-1.94, P < .001) were more likely to present with stage IV vs Stage I-III disease. Furthermore, among patients with locally advanced disease treated with limb sparing surgery, those with Medicaid (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77- 0.98, P = .021) and the uninsured (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.63-0.85, P < .001) were less likely to receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy as compared to those with commercial insurance. Lastly, having Medicaid (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.17-1.34, P < .001) and no insurance (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.20-1.41, P < .001) was associated with worse OS compared to having commercial insurance, a finding which remained significant after propensity score matching. In contrast, in patients ?65 years, there were no statistically significant differences between those with Medicare and commercial insurance with regards to disease presentation, receipt of radiotherapy, or survival. CONCLUSIONS:In a large modern cohort identified from the NCDB, commercial insurance status in patients <65 years was associated early diagnosis, receipt of neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy, and overall survival for patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Further efforts are warranted to understand disparities in care based on health insurance in the United States.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression. METHODS:We used existing cohort data from the HIV-infected participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the time from 2006 to unsuppressed HIV viral load (>200 copies/mL) among those with Medicaid, private, Medicare, or other public insurance, and no insurance, stratified by the use of ADAP. RESULTS:In 2006, 65% of women had Medicaid, 18% had private insurance, 3% had Medicare or other public insurance, and 14% reported no health insurance. ADAP coverage was reported by 284 women (20%); 56% of uninsured participants reported ADAP coverage. After accounting for study site, age, race, lowest observed CD4, and previous health insurance, the hazard ratio (HR) for unsuppressed viral load among those privately insured without ADAP, compared with those on Medicaid without ADAP (referent group), was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.48 to 0.77). Among the uninsured, those with ADAP had a lower relative hazard of unsuppressed viral load compared with the referent group (HR, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.28 to 0.85) than those without ADAP (HR, 95% CI: 1.00, 0.63 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS:Although women with private insurance are most likely to be virally suppressed, ADAP also contributes to viral load suppression. Continued support of this program may be especially critical for states that have not expanded Medicaid.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients, non-VA-using veterans, and nonveterans, separated by urban/rural residence and age group, on their use of major categories of medical care and payment sources. DATA SOURCE: Expenditures for health care-using men in Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys from 1996 through 2004. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Controlling for demographics, health status, and insurance, we compared groups on population-weighted expenditures for inpatient, hospital-based outpatient, office-based, pharmacy, and other care, by major payers (self/family, private insurance, Medicare, other sources, and VA). RESULTS: VA users received most of their health care outside of the VA system, paid through private insurance or Medicare; self-payments were substantial. VA users under 65 reported worse health if they were rural residents but also lower expenditures overall and less care through private insurance. CONCLUSIONS: VA health care users get most of their medical care from non-VA providers. Working-age VA users have less insurance coverage and rely more on VA care if they live in rural areas.
Project description:The role of positron emission tomography (PET) in the initial assessment of follicular lymphoma (FL) has been a topic of debate. We examined the patterns of utilization of PET staging in FL and assessed the association of PET with survival. Using the SEER-Medicare database, we identified 5712 patients diagnosed with first primary FL between 2000 and 2009. Older age, African-American race, poor performance status, B-symptoms and history of anemia were negatively associated with PET staging. Receipt of PET staging was positively associated with treatment at institutions affiliated with research networks and with residence in areas with higher concentrations of nuclear medicine specialists. PET was associated with improved lymphoma-related (HR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58-0.82) and overall (HR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.68-0.83) survival. Our findings substantiate the use of PET as the standard of care for imaging in FL patients. Further investigation is warranted to identify mechanisms underlying the apparent survival advantage associated with PET staging in FL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Temporal changes in the readmission rates for patient groups and conditions that were not directly under the purview of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) can help assess whether efforts to lower readmissions extended beyond targeted patients and conditions. METHODS:Using the Nationwide Readmissions Database (2010-2015), we assessed trends in all-cause readmission rates for 1 of the 3 HRRP conditions (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia) or conditions not targeted by the HRRP in age-insurance groups defined by age group (?65 years or <65 years) and payer (Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance). RESULTS:In the group aged ?65 years, readmission rates for those covered by Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance decreased annually for acute myocardial infarction (risk-adjusted odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval] among Medicare patients, 0.94 [0.94-0.95], among Medicaid patients, 0.93 [0.90-0.97], and among patients with private-insurance, 0.95 [0.93-0.97]); heart failure (ORs, 0.96 [0.96-0.97], 0.96 [0.94-0.98], and 0.97 [0.96-0.99], for the 3 payers, respectively), and pneumonia (ORs, 0.96 [0.96-0.97), 0.94 [0.92-0.96], and 0.96 [0.95-0.97], respectively). Readmission rates also decreased in the group aged <65 years for acute myocardial infarction (ORs: Medicare 0.97 [0.96-0.98], Medicaid 0.94 [0.92-0.95], and private insurance 0.93 [0.92-0.94]), heart failure (ORs, 0.98 [0.97-0.98]: 0.96 [0.96-0.97], and 0.97 [0.95-0.98], for the 3 payers, respectively), and pneumonia (ORs, 0.98 [0.97-0.99], 0.98 [0.97-0.99], and 0.98 [0.97-1.00], respectively). Further, readmission rates decreased significantly for non-target conditions. CONCLUSIONS:There appears to be a systematic improvement in readmission rates for patient groups beyond the population of fee-for-service, older, Medicare beneficiaries included in the HRRP.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Community-level socioeconomic status, particularly insurance status, is increasingly becoming important as a possible determinant in patient outcomes.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the association of insurance and community-level socioeconomic status with outcome for patients with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This study extracted data from more than 1500 Commission on Cancer-accredited facilities collected in the National Cancer Database. A total of 35?559 patients diagnosed with SCC of the pharynx from 2004 through 2013 were identified. The ?2 test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were used to analyze data from April 1, 2016, through April 16, 2017.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Overall survival was defined as time to death from the date of diagnosis.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 35?559 patients identified (75.6% men and 24.4% women; median age, 61 years [range, 18-90 years]), 15?146 (42.6%) had Medicare coverage; 13?061 (36.7%), private insurance; 4881 (13.7%), Medicaid coverage; and 2471 (6.9%), no insurance. Uninsured patients and Medicaid recipients were more likely to be younger, black, or Hispanic; to have lower median household income and lower educational attainment; to present with higher TNM stages of disease; and to start primary treatment at a later time from diagnosis. Those with private insurance (reference group) had significantly better overall survival than uninsured patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.59-1.87), Medicaid recipients (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.88-2.12), or Medicare recipients (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.99-2.16), as did those with median household income of at least $63?000 (reference) vs $48?000 to $62?999 (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.26), $38?000 to $47?999 (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.24-1.38), and less than $38?000 (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.43-1.59). On multivariable analysis, insurance status and median household income remained independent prognostic factors for overall survival even after accounting for educational attainment, race, Charlson/Deyo comorbidity score, disease site, and TNM stage of disease.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Insurance status and household income level are associated with outcome in patients with SCC of the pharynx. Those without insurance and with lower household income may significantly benefit from improving access to adequate, timely medical care. Additional investigations are necessary to develop targeted interventions to optimize access to standard medical treatments, adherence to physician management recommendations, and subsequently, prognosis in these patients at risk.
Project description:Few studies have examined rates and causes of short-term readmissions among adults across age and insurance types. We compared rates, characteristics, and costs of 30-day readmission after all-cause hospitalizations across insurance types in the US. We retrospectively evaluated alive patients ?18 years old, discharged for any cause, 1/1/13-11/31/13, 2006 non-federal hospitals in 21 states in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. The primary stratification variable of interest was primary insurance. Comorbid conditions were assessed based on Elixhauser comorbidities, as defined by administrative billing codes. Additional measures included diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models, with hospital site as a random effect, were used to calculate the adjusted odds of 30-day readmissions by age group and insurance categories. Cost and discharge estimates were weighted per NRD procedures to reflect a nationally representative sample. Diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization were determined. Among 12,533,551 discharges, 1,818,093 (14.5%) resulted in readmission within 30 days. Medicaid insurance was associated with the highest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for readmission both in those ?65 years old (AOR 1.12, 95%CI 1.10-1.14; p <0.001), and 45-64 (AOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.66-1.69; p < 0.001), and Medicare in the 18-44 group (Medicare vs. private insurance: AOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.96-2.01; p <0.001). Discharges for psychiatric or substance abuse disorders, septicemia, and heart failure accounted for the largest numbers of readmissions, with readmission rates of 24.0%, 17.9%, 22.9% respectively. Total costs for readmissions were 50.7 billion USD, highest for Medicare (29.6 billion USD), with non-Medicare costs exceeding 21 billion USD. While Medicare readmissions account for more than half of the total burden of readmissions, costs of non-Medicare readmissions are nonetheless substantial. Medicaid patients have the highest odds of readmission in individuals older than age 44, commonly due to hospitalizations for psychiatric illness and substance abuse disorders. Medicaid patients represent a population at uniquely high risk for readmission.
Project description:Genetic variation in the 6p21 chromosomal region, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has been linked to both etiology and clinical outcomes of lymphomas. We estimated the effects of HLA class I (A, B, and C), class II DRB1 alleles, and the ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1 (HLAA*01-B*08-DRB1*03-TNF-308A) on overall survival (OS) among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) in a population-based study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. During a median followup of 89 months, 31% (52 of 166) DLBCL and 28% (46 of 165) FL patients died. Using multivariate Cox regression models, we observed statistically significant associations between genetic variants and survival: HLA-Cw*07:01 was associated with poorer OS among DLBCL patients (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-3.05); HLA-A*01:01 was associated with poorer OS (HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.24-4.01), and HLA-DRB1*13 (HR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.90) and HLA-B Bw4 (HR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.20-0.63) with better OS among FL patients. These results support a role for HLA in the prognosis of DLBCL and FL and represent a promising class of prognostic factors that warrants further evaluation.