Conserved and differential transcriptional responses of peroxisome associated pathways to drought, dehydration and ABA.
ABSTRACT: Plant peroxisomes are important components of cellular antioxidant networks, dealing with ROS generated by multiple metabolic pathways. Peroxisomes respond to environmental and cellular conditions by changing their size, number, and proteomic content. To investigate the role of peroxisomes in response to drought, dehydration and ABA treatment we took an evolutionary and comparative genomics approach. Colonisation of land required evolution of dehydration tolerance in the absence of subsequent anatomical adaptations. Therefore, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat (Tricitcum aestivum), a globally important cereal crop were compared. Three sets of genes namely 'PTS1 genes' (a proxy for genes encoding peroxisome targeted proteins), PEX genes (involved in peroxisome biogenesis) and genes involved in plant antioxidant networks were identified in all 3 species and their expression compared under drought (dehydration) and ABA treatment. Genes encoding enzymes of ?-oxidation and gluconeogenesis, antioxidant enzymes including catalase and glutathione reductase and PEX3 and PEX11 isoforms showed conserved up-regulation, and peroxisome proliferation was induced by ABA in moss. Interestingly, expression of some of these genes differed between drought sensitive and resistant genotypes of wheat in line with measured photosynthetic and biochemical differences. These results point to an underappreciated role for peroxisomes in drought response.
Project description:We have analyzed the role of the three members of the Pex11 protein family in peroxisome formation in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Two of these, Pex11 and Pex11C, are components of the peroxisomal membrane, while Pex11B is present at the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that Pex11 is a major factor involved in peroxisome proliferation. We also demonstrate that P. chrysogenum cells deleted for known peroxisome fission factors (all Pex11 family proteins and Vps1) still contain peroxisomes. Interestingly, we find that, unlike in mammals, Pex16 is not essential for peroxisome biogenesis in P. chrysogenum, as partially functional peroxisomes are present in a pex16 deletion strain. We also show that Pex16 is not involved in de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes, as peroxisomes were still present in quadruple ?pex11 ?pex11B ?pex11C ?pex16 mutant cells. By contrast, pex3 deletion in P. chrysogenum led to cells devoid of peroxisomes, suggesting that Pex3 may function independently of Pex16. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of intact peroxisomes is important for the efficiency of ß-lactam antibiotics production by P. chrysogenum. Remarkably, distinct from earlier results with low penicillin producing laboratory strains, upregulation of peroxisome numbers in a high producing P. chrysogenum strain had no significant effect on penicillin production.
Project description:Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic to peroxisomes by two mechanisms: direct insertion from the cytosol into the peroxisomal membrane and indirect trafficking to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammals and yeast, several PMPs traffic via the ER in a Pex3- and Pex19-dependent manner. In Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) specifically, the indirect traffic of Pex2, but not of Pex11 or Pex17, depends on Pex3, but all PMPs tested for indirect trafficking require Pex19. In mammals, the indirect traffic of PMPs also requires PEX16, a protein that is absent in most yeast species. In this study, we isolated PEX36, a new gene in K. phaffii, which encodes a PMP. Pex36 is required for cell growth in conditions that require peroxisomes for the metabolism of certain carbon sources. This growth defect in cells lacking Pex36 can be rescued by the expression of human PEX16, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex34, or by overexpression of the endogenous K. phaffii Pex25. Pex36 is not an essential protein for peroxisome proliferation, but in the absence of the functionally redundant protein, Pex25, it becomes essential and less than 20% of these cells show import-incompetent, peroxisome-like structures (peroxisome remnants). In the absence of both proteins, peroxisome biogenesis and the intra-ER sorting of Pex2 and Pex11C are seriously impaired, likely by affecting Pex3 and Pex19 function.
Project description:We demonstrate that the peroxin Pex3 is not required for the formation of peroxisomal membrane structures in yeast pex3 mutant cells. Notably, pex3 mutant cells already contain reticular and vesicular structures that harbor key proteins of the peroxisomal receptor docking complex-Pex13 and Pex14-as well as the matrix proteins Pex8 and alcohol oxidase. Other peroxisomal membrane proteins in these cells are unstable and transiently localized to the cytosol (Pex10, Pmp47) or endoplasmic reticulum (Pex11). These reticular and vesicular structures are more abundant in cells of a pex3 atg1 double deletion strain, as the absence of Pex3 may render them susceptible to autophagic degradation, which is blocked in this double mutant. Contrary to earlier suggestions, peroxisomes are not formed de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum when the PEX3 gene is reintroduced in pex3 cells. Instead, we find that reintroduced Pex3 sorts to the preperoxisomal structures in pex3 cells, after which these structures mature into normal peroxisomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peroxisomes are organelles whose roles in fatty acid metabolism and reactive oxygen species elimination have contributed much attention in understanding their origin and biogenesis. Many studies have shown that de novo peroxisome biogenesis is an important regulatory process, while yeast studies suggest that total peroxisome numbers are in part regulated by proteins such as Pex11, which can facilitate the division of existing peroxisomes. Although de novo biogenesis and divisions are likely important mechanisms, the regulation of peroxisome numbers during embryonic development is poorly understood. Peroxisome number and function are particularly crucial in oviparous animals such as frogs where large embryonic yolk and fatty acid stores must be quickly metabolized, and resulting reactive oxygen species eliminated. Here we elucidate the role of Pex11? in regulating peroxisomal gene expression and number in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. RESULTS:Microinjecting haemagglutinin (HA) tagged Pex11? in early embryos resulted in increased RNA levels for peroxisome related genes PMP70 and catalase at developmental stages 10 and 20, versus uninjected embryos. Catalase and PMP70 proteins were found in punctate structures at stage 20 in control embryos, whereas the injection of ectopic HA-Pex11? induced their earlier localization in punctate structures at stage 10. Furthermore, the peroxisomal marker GFP-SKL, which was found localized as peroxisome-like structures at stage 20, was similarly found at stage 10 when co-microinjected with HA-Pex11?. CONCLUSIONS:Overexpressed Pex11? altered peroxisomal gene levels and induced the early formation of peroxisomes-like structures during development, both of which demonstrate that Pex11? may be a key regulator of peroxisome number in early Xenopus embryos.
Project description:In humans, defects in peroxisome biogenesis are the cause of lethal diseases typified by Zellweger syndrome. Here, we show that inactivating mutations in human PEX3 cause Zellweger syndrome, abrogate peroxisome membrane synthesis, and result in reduced abundance of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) and/or mislocalization of PMPs to the mitochondria. Previous studies have suggested that PEX3 may traffic through the ER en route to the peroxisome, that the COPI inhibitor, brefeldin A, leads to accumulation of PEX3 in the ER, and that PEX3 overexpression alters the morphology of the ER. However, we were unable to detect PEX3 in the ER at early times after expression. Furthermore, we find that inhibition of COPI function by brefeldin A has no effect on trafficking of PEX3 to peroxisomes and does not inhibit PEX3-mediated peroxisome biogenesis. We also find that inhibition of COPII-dependent membrane traffic by a dominant negative SAR1 mutant fails to block PEX3 transport to peroxisomes and PEX3-mediated peroxisome synthesis. Based on these results, we propose that PEX3 targeting to peroxisomes and PEX3-mediated peroxisome membrane synthesis may occur independently of COPI- and COPII-dependent membrane traffic.
Project description:Peroxisomes are a critical rheostat of reactive oxygen species (ROS), yet their role in drug sensitivity and resistance remains unexplored. Gene expression analysis of clinical lymphoma samples suggests that peroxisomes are involved in mediating drug resistance to the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Vorinostat (Vor), which promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis. Vor augments peroxisome numbers in cultured lymphoma cells, concomitant with increased levels of peroxisomal proteins PEX3, PEX11B, and PMP70. Genetic inhibition of peroxisomes, using PEX3 knockdown, reveals that peroxisomes protect lymphoma cells against Vor-mediated cell death. Conversely, Vor-resistant cells were tolerant to elevated ROS levels and possess upregulated levels of (1) catalase, a peroxisomal antioxidant, and (2) plasmalogens, ether glycerophospholipids that represent peroxisome function and serve as antioxidants. Catalase knockdown induces apoptosis in Vor-resistant cells and potentiates ROS-mediated apoptosis in Vor-sensitive cells. These findings highlight the role of peroxisomes in resistance to therapeutic intervention in cancer, and provide a novel modality to circumvent drug resistance.
Project description:Pex11 is a peroxin that regulates the number of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells. Recently, it was found that a mutation in one of the three mammalian paralogs, PEX11?, results in a neurological disorder. The molecular function of Pex11, however, is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex11 has been shown to recruit to peroxisomes the mitochondrial fission machinery, thus enabling proliferation of peroxisomes. This process is essential for efficient fatty acid ?-oxidation. In this study, we used high-content microscopy on a genome-wide scale to determine the subcellular localization pattern of yeast Pex11 in all non-essential gene deletion mutants, as well as in temperature-sensitive essential gene mutants. Pex11 localization and morphology of peroxisomes was profoundly affected by mutations in 104 different genes that were functionally classified. A group of genes encompassing MDM10, MDM12 and MDM34 that encode the mitochondrial and cytosolic components of the ERMES complex was analyzed in greater detail. Deletion of these genes caused a specifically altered Pex11 localization pattern, whereas deletion of MMM1, the gene encoding the fourth, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated component of the complex, did not result in an altered Pex11 localization or peroxisome morphology phenotype. Moreover, we found that Pex11 and Mdm34 physically interact and that Pex11 plays a role in establishing the contact sites between peroxisomes and mitochondria through the ERMES complex. Based on these results, we propose that the mitochondrial/cytosolic components of the ERMES complex establish a direct interaction between mitochondria and peroxisomes through Pex11.
Project description:Peroxisomes are degraded by a selective type of autophagy known as pexophagy. Several different types of pexophagy have been reported in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms underlying how peroxisomes are recognized by autophagy-related machinery remain elusive. PEX3 is a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) that functions in the import of PMPs into the peroxisomal membrane and has been shown to interact with pexophagic receptor proteins during pexophagy in yeast. Thus, PEX3 is important not only for peroxisome biogenesis, but also for peroxisome degradation. However, whether PEX3 is involved in the degradation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells is unclear. Here, we report that high levels of PEX3 expression induce pexophagy. In PEX3-loaded cells, peroxisomes are ubiquitinated, clustered, and degraded in lysosomes. Peroxisome targeting of PEX3 is essential for the initial step of this degradation pathway. The degradation of peroxisomes is inhibited by treatment with autophagy inhibitors or siRNA against NBR1, which encodes an autophagic receptor protein. These results indicate that ubiquitin- and NBR1-mediated pexophagy is induced by increased expression of PEX3 in mammalian cells. In addition, another autophagic receptor protein, SQSTM1/p62, is required only for the clustering of peroxisomes. Expression of a PEX3 mutant with substitution of all lysine and cysteine residues by arginine and alanine, respectively, also induces peroxisome ubiquitination and degradation, hence suggesting that ubiquitination of PEX3 is dispensable for pexophagy and an endogenous, unidentified peroxisomal protein is ubiquitinated on the peroxisomal membrane.
Project description:Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that divide continuously in growing cell cultures and expand extensively in lipid-rich medium. Peroxisome population control is achieved in part by Pex11p-dependent regulation of peroxisome size and number. Although the production of Pex11p in yeast is tightly linked to peroxisome biogenesis by transcriptional regulation of the PEX11 gene, it remains unclear if and how Pex11p activity could be modulated by rapid signaling. We report the reversible phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex11p in response to nutritional cues and delineate a mechanism for phosphorylation-dependent activation of Pex11p through the analysis of phosphomimicking mutants. Peroxisomal phenotypes in the PEX11-A and PEX11-D strains expressing constitutively dephosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of Pex11p resemble those of PEX11 gene knock-out and overexpression mutants, although PEX11 transcript and Pex11 protein levels remain unchanged. We demonstrate functional inequality and differences in subcellular localization of the Pex11p forms. Pex11Dp promotes peroxisome fragmentation when reexpressed in cells containing induced peroxisomes. Pex11p translocates between endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas Pex11Ap and Pex11Dp are impaired in trafficking and constitutively associated with mature and proliferating peroxisomes, respectively. Overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p results in hyperphosphorylation of Pex11p and peroxisome proliferation. This study provides the first evidence for control of peroxisome dynamics by phosphorylation-dependent regulation of a peroxin.
Project description:Two groups of six spring bread wheat varieties with either high or low grain yield under the dry conditions of Central and Northern Kazakhstan were selected for analysis. Experiments were set up with the selected wheat varieties in controlled environments as follows: (1) slowly progressing drought imposed on plants in soil, (2) rapid dehydration of whole plants grown in hydroponics, (3) dehydration of detached leaves, and (4) ABA treatment of whole plants grown in hydroponics. Representatives of two different families of transcription factors (TFs), TaDREB5 and TaNFYC-A7, were found to be linked to yield-under-drought using polymorphic Amplifluor-like SNP marker assays. qRT-PCR revealed differing patterns of expression of these genes in the leaves of plants subjected to the above treatments. Under drought, TaDREB5 was significantly up-regulated in leaves of all high-yielding varieties tested and down-regulated in all low-yielding varieties, and the level of expression was independent of treatment type. In contrast, TaNFYC-A7 expression levels showed different responses in the high- and low-yield groups of wheat varieties. TaNFYC-A7 expression under dehydration (treatments 2 and 3) was higher than under drought (treatment 1) in all high-yielding varieties tested, while in all low-yielding varieties the opposite pattern was observed: the expression levels of this gene under drought were higher than under dehydration. Rapid dehydration of detached leaves and intact wheat plants grown in hydroponics produced similar changes in gene expression. ABA treatment of whole plants caused rapid stomatal closure and a rise in the transcript level of both genes during the first 30 min, which decreased 6 h after treatment. At this time-point, expression of TaNFYC-A7 was again significantly up-regulated compared to untreated controls, while TaDREB5 returned to its initial level of expression. These findings reveal significant differences in the transcriptional regulation of two drought-responsive and ABA-dependent TFs under slowly developing drought and rapid dehydration of wheat plants. The results obtained suggest that correlation between grain yield in dry conditions and TaNFYC-A7 expression levels in the examined wheat varieties is dependent on the length of drought development and/or strength of drought; while in the case of TaDREB5, no such dependence is observed.