The role of CAT in evaluating the response to treatment of patients with AECOPD.
ABSTRACT: Background:The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire is a short patient-completed questionnaire, which is used to assess the health status of patients with stable COPD. However, whether it is a good tool to evaluate the response to treatment in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) has been less studied. Methods:The patients were assessed at two visits, at admission and on the seventh day. Anthropometric variables were collected at admission. CAT and lung function were measured twice at the above time points. At the second visit, the health status of the patients were divided into five groups based on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 to 5, which represents "much better," "slightly better," "no change," "slightly worse," and "much worse." Responders were those who reported "much better" or "slightly better," and nonresponders were those who claimed "no change," "worse," or "much worse." Results:In total, 225 patients were recruited. The average CAT score at admission was 24.82±7.41, which declined to 17.41±7.35 on the seventh day. There were 81.33% responders, whose improvement in CAT score (9.37±5.24) was much higher than that of the nonresponders (-1.36±4.35). A moderate correlation was observed between the changes in CAT score and improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and the length of hospital stay. There was a strong correlation between the changes in CAT score and health status. A 3.5-unit improvement in the CAT score, with highest area under the curve, was the cutoff to differentiate responders from nonresponders. Conclusion:The evolution of CAT scores during exacerbation can provide useful information to assess the health status of patients with AECOPD. A 3.5-unit improvement in CAT score is the best cutoff to differentiate between patients who have a response or no response to treatment, which offers a convenient and easy way for clinicians to monitor the health status of patients with an AECOPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thrombocytosis has been associated with COPD prevalence and increased all-cause mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD); but whether it is associated with morbidity in stable COPD is unknown. This study aims to determine the association of thrombocytosis with COPD morbidity including reported AECOPD, respiratory symptoms and exercise capacity. METHODS:Participants with COPD were included from two multi-center observational studies (SPIROMICS and COPDGene). Cross-sectional associations of thrombocytosis (platelet count ≥350 × 109/L) with AECOPD during prior year (none vs. any), exertional dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) score ≥ 2), COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score ≥ 10, six-minute-walk distance (6MWD), and St. George Respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) were modeled using multivariable logistic or linear regression. A pooled effect estimate for thrombocytosis was produced using meta-analysis of data from both studies. RESULTS:Thrombocytosis was present in 124/1820 (6.8%) SPIROMICS participants and 111/2185 (5.1%) COPDGene participants. In meta-analysis thrombocytosis was associated with any AECOPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.1-2.0), severe AECOPD (aOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), dyspnea (mMRC ≥ 2 aOR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-1.9), respiratory symptoms (CAT ≥ 10 aOR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and higher SGRQ score (β 2.7; 95% CI: 0.5, 5). Thrombocytosis was also associated with classification into Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group D (aOR 1.7 95% CI: 1.2-2.4). CONCLUSIONS:Thrombocytosis was associated with higher likelihood of prior exacerbation and worse symptoms. Platelet count, a commonly measured clinical assay, may be a biomarker for moderate-severe COPD symptoms, guide disease classification and intensity of treatment. Future longitudinal studies investigating the role of platelets in COPD progression may be warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01969344 (SPIROMICS) and NCT00608764 (COPDGene).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a validated, eight-item questionnaire used to quantify the health status of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the CAT questionnaire as a tool to assess the response to treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in an outpatient setting. METHODS:A multicenter, phase 3 randomized controlled trial was conducted previously to examine the efficacy and safety of oral zabofloxacin for the treatment of COPD exacerbations. In the present post hoc analysis of the original study, patients with COPD exacerbation were categorized as responders or non-responders according to the respiratory symptoms persisting on day 10 (visit 3) of treatment. The CAT questionnaire was completed daily by patients at home from the initial visit to the second visit on day 5. Subsequently, the questionnaire was completed in the presence of a physician on days 10 (visit 3) and 36 (visit 4). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the association between CAT scores and the therapeutic response. RESULTS:The CAT scores decreased more rapidly in responders compared to non-responders during the first 5 days (23.3-20.4 vs. 23.5-22). Among responders, patients with higher severity of illness also revealed higher CAT scores on the first day of an exacerbation (mild, 19.8; moderate, 21.4; severe, 23.8; very severe, 28.6). Multivariate analysis revealed that a change in the CAT score during the first 3 days influenced the therapeutic response. A significant decrease in scores in the domains of sputum production, chest tightness, and activities of daily living was seen among responders. CONCLUSION:Early improvement in CAT scores may be associated with a more favorable response to the treatment of COPD exacerbations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01658020. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0000532.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the correlations between SAA, CRP, and clinical indices of patients with acutely exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS:A total of 120 patients with AECOPD and another 120 with remitted COPD were enrolled in an AECOPD group and a COPD remission group, respectively. Meanwhile, 120 healthy subjects were included as a control group. SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 levels were detected. FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC were measured. RESULTS:Compared with control group, the serum levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 significantly increased in COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The levels of AECOPD group significantly exceeded those of COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The levels of AECOPD patients with different GOLD grades were significantly different (P < 0.05). AECOPD group had significantly lower FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC than those of COPD remission group (P < 0.05). The CAT score of AECOPD patients was (18.41 ± 2.55) points. The levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC, and positively correlated with CAT score. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of SAA was largest (0.931). The cutoff values for SAA, CRP, PCT and Fbg were 18.68 mg/L, 14.70 mg/L, 0.39 ?g/L, 3.91 g/L, 0.46 ?g/L, 24.17 ?g/L, 7.18 mg/L, and 83.19 ng/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Serum levels of SAA, CRP, PCT, Fbg, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-?, and IP-10 in AECOPD patients were elevated, which may undermine pulmonary functions. SAA can be used as an effective index for AECOPD diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Symptom severity is the largest factor in determining subjective health in COPD. Symptoms (eg, chronic cough, dyspnea) are associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of arformoterol on HRQoL in COPD patients, measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Post hoc growth mixture model (GMM) analysis examined symptom response profiles.We examined data from a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 12-month safety trial of twice-daily nebulized arformoterol 15 µg (n=420) versus placebo (n=421). COPD severity was assessed by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) status. GMM analysis identified previously unknown patient subgroups and examined the heterogeneity in response to SGRQ Symptoms scores.SGRQ Total score improved by 4.24 points with arformoterol and 2.02 points with placebo (P=0.006). Significantly greater improvements occurred for arformoterol versus placebo in SGRQ Symptoms (6.34 vs 4.25, P=0.031) and Impacts (3.91 vs 0.97, P=0.001) scores, but not in Activity score (3.57 vs 1.75, P=0.057). GMM identified responders and nonresponders based on the SGRQ Symptoms score. End-of-study mean difference in SGRQ Symptoms scores between these latent classes was 20.7 points (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval: 17.6-23.9). Compared with nonresponders, responders were more likely current smokers (55.52% vs 44.02%, P=0.0021) and had more severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 1.16 vs 1.23 L, P=0.0419), more exacerbations (0.96 vs 0.69, P=0.0018), and worse mean SGRQ Total (59.81 vs 40.57, P<0.0001), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (3.29 vs 2.05, P<0.0001), and Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (3.13 vs 2.75, P<0.0001) scores. Arformoterol-receiving responders exhibited significantly greater improvements in FEV1 (0.09 vs 0.008, P=0.03) and fewer hospitalizations (0.13 vs 0.24, P=0.02) than those receiving placebo.In this study, arformoterol treatment significantly improved HRQoL reflected by SGRQ. For the analysis performed on these data, arformoterol may be particularly effective in improving lung function and reducing hospitalizations among patients who are unable to quit smoking or present with more severe symptoms.
Project description:The association between increases in both systemic and airway inflammation and acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) has been reported by many studies. However, relatively little is known about the dynamics of inflammation resolution and their correlations with the improvement of clinical indices during treatment. In this study, a total of 93 consecutively hospitalized patients with AECOPD were recruited. Sputum and serum inflammatory markers were measured on the day of admission before treatment (day 0), day 4, 7 and 14 during treatment as well as 8 weeks after discharge. Clinical indices (lung function, dyspnea and COPD assessment test (CAT) scores) were also measured at those time points. By day 4, all airway inflammatory measures rapidly decreased and returned to baseline level. Notably, lung function and dyspnea improved to the baseline level by day 4 as well, consistent with the resolution of respiratory inflammation. However, despite the significant decrease by day 4, systemic inflammation did not reach baseline until day 14, concordant with the decrease in CAT score. In summary, we observed a time lag between the resolution of systemic and airway inflammation, which were correlated with the improvements of different clinical indices.
Project description:Pain is a significant problem in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with other symptoms, worse health status and lower functional status. Not much is known about pain in unstable disease. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate prevalence, characteristics and relationships of pain in patients with COPD hospitalized for an acute exacerbation (AECOPD) and indicated for post-acute pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This cross-sectional observational study included 149 patients (mean age 70.8 (±7.9) years, 49% male, mean forced expiratory volume in one second as percentage of predicted value 35.3 (±12.6)). Pain was assessed using the brief pain inventory. Functional status and health status were measured using the six-minute walking test (6MWT), the Barthel index (BI) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ), respectively. Pain was prevalent in 39.6% of all patients. Symptom burden was high, especially in patients with pain. Although we found no difference in objective measurements of functional status (6MWT, BI), patients with pain had clinically relevant lower health status (CCQ), attributed to the functional domain. Pain in patients hospitalized for AECOPD and indicated for post-acute PR is a relevant problem and needs more attention. Incorporation of standard pain assessment during exacerbations and post-acute PR is recommended.
Project description:Obesity is prevalent in the United States; however, the impact of obesity on COPD morbidity is unclear. We hypothesized that obesity is associated with worse outcomes in COPD.We examined 3,631 participants from the multicenter prospective cohort study Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) who had spirometry-confirmed COPD, a postbronchodilator FEV1 < 80% predicted, and a BMI ? 18.5 kg/m2. We conducted logistic and linear regression analyses to determine the association between COPD outcomes and obesity class, adjusting for relevant confounders. The referent for obesity classes included normal/overweight individuals (BMI range, 18.5-29.9 kg/m2).Overall, 35% of participants were obese, with 21% class I (BMI range, 30-34.9 kg/m2), 9% class II (BMI range, 35-39.9 kg/m2), and 5% class III (BMI ? 40 kg/m2). The number of comorbidities increased with increasing obesity class (P < .001). Increasing obesity class was independently associated with worse respiratory-specific and general quality of life (QOL) (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and Short Form-36 score version 2, respectively), reduced 6-min walk distance (6MWD), increased dyspnea (Modified Medical Research Council score ? 2), and greater odds of severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). The associations between obesity and worse outcomes were independent of the presence of comorbidities, except in the case of SF-36 and severe exacerbations.Obesity is prevalent among individuals with COPD and associated with worse COPD-related outcomes, ranging from QOL and dyspnea to 6MWD and severe AECOPD. These associations were strengthened when obesity was analyzed as a dose-dependent response. Obesity in patients with COPD may contribute to a worse COPD-related course.
Project description:Background: Despite receiving treatment, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often continue to experience symptoms that impact their health status. We determined the relationship between overall symptom burden and health status, and assessed the treatments patients were receiving. Methods: Data from 3 cross-sectional surveys of U.S. patients with COPD (2011-2013) were analyzed. Patients receiving inhaled COPD treatment for ?3 months completed the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) symptom burden and respiratory health status measure, EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D-3L) general health status questionnaire, and Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (JSEQ). CAT scores were used to identify high- (CAT ?24) and low-symptom patients (CAT <24), who were matched using 1:1 propensity score matching with replacement. Match balance was assessed with standardized mean differences. EQ-5D-3L and JSEQ scores, and current treatment were compared between groups post-matching. Sensitivity was assessed with Rosenbaum bounds. Results: A total of 638 patients were included. Compared with low-symptom patients, high-symptom patients had worse health status and greater sleep disturbance by EQ-5D utility index (0.85 versus 0.71, respectively; p<0.0001) and JSEQ scores (3.73 versus 7.35, respectively; p<0.0001). High-symptom patients were prescribed single-maintenance bronchodilators ± inhaled corticosteroids (46.0%), triple therapy (40.5%), and short-acting therapy only (8.2%). Results were robust and insensitive to unobserved confounders. Conclusions: Increased COPD symptom burden is associated with worse general health status in patients receiving COPD treatment. High-symptom patients frequently received single inhaled medication. The results suggest that health care providers should monitor and tailor therapy, based on level of symptom burden to improve symptom control and health status.
Project description:Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates.This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2-12. Responders were defined by ?100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ?4-point decrease in SGRQ total score.Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0-2- and 0-12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2-12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14-7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83-5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk.Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is potentially useful in clinical practice, although more sensitive and specific markers of favorable treatment response are required.
Project description:Herbal medicine (HM) as an adjunct therapy has been shown to be promising for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of herbs in COPD remains largely unexplored. In this present study, we conducted the systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbs in COPD. 176 clinical studies with reporting pulmonary function were retrieved from English and Chinese database. Commonly used herbs for acute exacerbations stage (AECOPD) and stable COPD stage (SCOPD) were identified. A meta-analysis conducted from 15 high quality studies (18 publications) showed that HM as an adjunct therapy had no significant improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FEV%, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) compared to conventional medicine. The efficacy of the adjunct HM on improving the arterial blood gas (PaCO2 and PaO2) for AECOPD and SCOPD remains inconclusive due to the heterogeneity among the studies. However, HM as an adjunct therapy improved clinical symptoms and quality of life (total score, activity score, and impact score of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Studies with large-scale and double-blind randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the role of the adjunct HM in the management of COPD.