Cytokine and microRNA levels during different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery in rats.
ABSTRACT: Background:Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of homeostasis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery on serum levels of cytokines and miRNAs related to inflammatory responses. Methods:Male Wistar rats were submitted to a PSD of 24, 96, or 192 h, or of 192 h followed by 20 days of recovery (192 h PSD+R). The concentrations of corticosterone, cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-10, Adiponectin) and miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, miR-223, miR-16, miR-126, miR-21) in serum were evaluated. Results:At PSD 24 h a significant increase of IL-6 and decrease of IL-10 were observed. At PSD 96h adiponectin increased. At 192 h of PSD IL-6 increased significantly again, accompanied by a threefold increase of IL-10 and an increase of serum corticosterone. After 20 days of recovery (192 h PSD+R) corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF levels increased significantly, while IL-10 decreased also significantly. Regarding the miRNAs at 24 h of PSD serum miR-146a, miR-155, miR-223, and miR-16 levels all increased. At 96 h of PSD miR-223 decreased. At 192 h of PSD decreases in miR-16 and miR-126 were observed. After recovery serum miR-21 increased and miR-16 decreased. Conclusion:PSD induces a dynamic response likely reflecting the induced cellular stress and manifested as variating hormonal and inflammatory responses. Sleep deprivation disturbed corticosterone, cytokine and miRNA levels in serum related to the duration of sleep deprivation, as short-term PSD produced effects similar to those of an acute inflammatory response and long-term PSD induced long-lasting disturbances of biological mediators.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) after an exercise session in the evening on the endurance exercise-induced hepcidin response the following morning. Ten recreationally trained males participated under two different conditions. Each condition consisted of 2 consecutive days of training (days 1 and 2). On day 1, participants ran for 60 min at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake ( V? O2max ) followed by 100 drop jumps. Sleep duration at night was manipulated, with a normal length of sleep (CON condition, 23:00-07:00 hr) or a shortened length of sleep (PSD condition). On the morning of day 2, the participants ran for 60 min at 65% of V? O2max . Sleep duration was significantly shorter under the PSD condition (141.2 ± 13.3 min) than under the CON condition (469.0 ± 2.3 min, p < .0001). Serum hepcidin, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, serum haptoglobin, iron, and myoglobin levels did not differ significantly between the conditions (p > .05) on the morning (before exercise) of day 2. Additionally, the 3-hr postexercise levels for the hematological variables were not significantly different between the two conditions (p > .05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a single night of PSD after an exercise session in the evening did not affect baseline serum hepcidin level the following morning. Moreover, a 60 min run the following morning increased serum hepcidin and plasma IL-6 levels significantly, but the exercise-induced elevations were not affected by PSD.
Project description:We performed a comparative, whole-transcriptome, analysis to identify stress-induced genes and relevant pathways that may be affected by sleep deprivation. Methods: One day following 12 hours of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation (PSD), mice were restrained for 20 minutes. Gene expression changes in the pituitary were assessed via RNA-Seq and Gene Ontology in PSD and/or restrained groups compared to controls. Results: We show that restraint triggers transcriptional responses involved in hormone secretion, the glucocorticoid response, and apoptosis in both sexes, with 285 differentially expressed genes in females and 93 in males. When PSD preceded restraint stress, the numbers of differentially expressed genes increased to 613 in females and 580 in males. The pituitary transcriptome of restraint+PSD animals was enriched for microglia and macrophage proliferation, cellular response to corticosteroids, and apoptosis, among others. Finally, we show sex-specific differences in restraint-induced genes following PSD. Conclusion: The results indicate striking differences in the male and female stress-induced transcriptome, as well as in the PSD-induced changes. When PSD preceded the restraint stress challenge, the effects on the pituitary transcriptome were striking. While the male and female PSD + restraint-induced transcriptome was similar, we detected remarkable differences, perhaps indicating different strategies used by each sex to cope with challenges to homeostasis. We hope that these data illuminate future research elucidating how sleep deprivation impacts the vital response to stress and motivate the analysis of male and female subjects when designing experiments. Overall design: Gene expression changes in the pituitary were assessed via RNA-Seq and Gene Ontology in Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation and/or restrained groups compared to controls.
Project description:Repeated nicotine administration has been associated with increased paradoxical sleep in rats and antinociceptive properties, whereas paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) elicits pronociceptive and inflammatory responses. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated nicotine administration and its withdrawal combined with PSD on pain sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to repeated injections of saline (SAL) or nicotine (NIC) for 12 days or 7 days of nicotine followed by acute mecamylamine administration on day 8 to precipitate nicotine abstinence (ABST). On day 9, the animals were submitted to PSD for 72?h or remained in control condition (CTRL); on day 12, thermal pain threshold was assessed by the hot plate test. PSD significantly decreased the latency to paw withdrawal in all groups compared to their respective controls. ABST-PSD animals presented higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared to all groups, except ABST-CTRL. After adjustment for weight loss, IL-6, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, ABST-PSD was associated with the lowest pain threshold. Nicotine and IL-4 levels were predictors of higher pain threshold. Hyperalgesia induced by PSD prevailed over the antinociceptive action of nicotine, while the association between PSD and ABST synergistically increased IL-6 concentrations and decreased pain threshold.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders of still largely unknown etiology. Canine IBD diagnosis is time-consuming and costly as other diseases with similar signs should be initially excluded. In human IBD microRNA (miR) expression changes have been reported in GI mucosa and blood. Thus, there is a possibility that miRs may provide insight into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and even treatment of canine IBD. The aim of this study was to determine the colonic mucosal and serum relative expression of a miRs panel in dogs with large intestinal IBD and healthy control dogs. RESULTS:Compared to healthy control dogs, dogs with large intestinal IBD showed significantly increased relative expression of miR-16, miR-21, miR-122 and miR-147 in the colonic mucosa and serum, while the relative expression of miR-185, miR-192 and miR-223 was significantly decreased. Relative expression of miR-146a was significantly increased only in the serum of dogs with large intestinal IBD. Furthermore, serum miR-192 and miR-223 relative expression correlated to disease activity and endoscopic score, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest the existence of dysregulated miRs expression patterns in canine IBD and support the potential future use of serum miRs as useful noninvasive biomarkers.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:The sleep-deprivation-induced changes in delta power, an electroencephalographical correlate of sleep need, and brain transcriptome profiles have importantly contributed to current hypotheses on sleep function. Because sleep deprivation also induces stress, we here determined the contribution of the corticosterone component of the stress response to the electrophysiological and molecular markers of sleep need in mice. DESIGN:N/A SETTINGS: Mouse sleep facility. PARTICIPANTS:C57BL/6J, AKR/J, DBA/2J mice. INTERVENTIONS:Sleep deprivation, adrenalectomy (ADX). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Sleep deprivation elevated corticosterone levels in 3 inbred strains, but this increase was larger in DBA/2J mice; i.e., the strain for which the rebound in delta power after sleep deprivation failed to reach significance. Elimination of the sleep-deprivation-associated corticosterone surge through ADX in DBA/2J mice did not, however, rescue the delta power rebound but did greatly reduce the number of transcripts affected by sleep deprivation. Genes no longer affected by sleep deprivation cover pathways previously implicated in sleep homeostasis, such as lipid, cholesterol (e.g., Ldlr, Hmgcs1, Dhcr7, -24, Fkbp5), energy and carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., Eno3, G6pc3, Mpdu1, Ugdh, Man1b1), protein biosynthesis (e.g., Sgk1, Alad, Fads3, Eif2c2, -3, Mat2a), and some circadian genes (Per1, -3), whereas others, such as Homer1a, remained unchanged. Moreover, several microRNAs were affected both by sleep deprivation and ADX. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that corticosterone contributes to the sleep-deprivation-induced changes in brain transcriptome that have been attributed to wakefulness per se. The study identified 78 transcripts that respond to sleep loss independent of corticosterone and time of day, among which genes involved in neuroprotection prominently feature, pointing to a molecular pathway directly relevant for sleep function.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) has posed a great health threat to a growing number of people all over the world. Detection of serum miRNAs, being sensitive, noninvasive, and easy to obtain, has a great potential of being a novel screening method for PC patients. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression levels in serum by qRT-PCR. The study was divided into four phases: the screening, training, testing, and external validation stage. We firstly chose candidate miRNAs using Exiqon panels in the screening phase. Then, a total of 129 PC serum samples and 107 normal controls (NCs) were further analyzed in the following training and testing phases to identify differently expressed miRNAs. A cohort of 30 PC serum samples vs 30 NCs was used to confirm the diagnostic value of the identified miRNAs in the external validation phase. Moreover, miRNA expressions in additional 44 PC tumor tissue samples and the matched adjacent normal tissue samples as well as 32 pairs of serum-derived exosomes samples were also further explored. As a result, we identified six significantly upregulated miRNAs in the serum of PC: let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p. A six-miRNA panel in serum was then established. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for the panel was 0.910 for the combined training and testing phases, which showed higher diagnostic value than the individual miRNA. Prognostic value prediction using Cox's proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves showed that increased serum miR-19a-3p was closely related to worse overall survival (OS). In addition, significant upregulation of miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, and miR-19b-3p was observed in both PC tissue and serum-derived exosomes samples. In conclusion, we identified a six-miRNA (let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p) panel in the serum for PC early and noninvasive diagnosis.
Project description:Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (p<.05) and DDR (p=.08) gene expression were elevated from baseline to PSD nights. Gene expression changes were also observed from baseline to PSD in NFKB2, NBS1 and CHK2 (all p's<.05). The senescence marker p16(INK4a) (CDKN2A) was increased 1day after PSD compared to baseline (p<.01), however confirmatory RT-PCR did not replicate this finding. One night of partial sleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging.
Project description:Disturbed sleep is a common subjective complaint among individuals with anxiety disorders. Sleep deprivation increases general and specific anxiety symptoms among healthy individuals. The amygdala is critical for regulating anxiety and also involved in mediating the effects of emotions on sleep. Neuropeptide S (NPS) and NPS receptors (NPSR) are reported as a novel endogenous arousal and anxiolytic system, but it is unclear yet whether this system is involved in anxiety-like behavior and sleep caused by sleep deprivation, and how it plays anxiolytic effect underlying the comorbid condition. In the present study, we demonstrate that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) induced by modified multiple platform method (MMPM) for 24 h caused anxiety-like behavior, a prolonged sleep latency and subsequent paradoxical sleep (PS) rebound accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram (EEG) theta (4.5-8.5 Hz) activities across light and dark phase in rats. The increase of PS after PSD was due to an increase of episode number during light phase and both episode number and duration during dark phase. Central action of NPS (1 nmol) attenuated PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior, and altered PSD-induced sleep-wake disturbances through increasing wakefulness, and suppressing PS and EEG theta activities. The reduction in PS time following NPS administration during light phase was because of a decreased episode number. Furthermore, sleep amount in 24 h in PSD rats given NPS was lesser than that given saline. PSD significantly enhanced NPSR mRNA expression level in the amygdala. NPS remarkably increased the number of Fos-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the central amygdala (CeA) and medial amygdala (MeA). The majority of Fos-ir neurons induced by NPS also expressed NPSR. These results suggest that NPSR upregulation in the amygdala is presumably related to the PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances, and that NPS counteracts PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances possibly through activating the neurons bearing NPSR in the amygdala. In addition, the little sleep increase in PSD rats treated with NPS suggests that NPS can function as an anxiolytic without causing a subsequent sleep rebound.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sleep restriction, leading to deprivation of sleep, is common in modern 24-h societies and is associated with the development of health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the immunological effects of prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep, by simulating a working week and following recovery weekend in a laboratory environment.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>After 2 baseline nights of 8 hours time in bed (TIB), 13 healthy young men had only 4 hours TIB per night for 5 nights, followed by 2 recovery nights with 8 hours TIB. 6 control subjects had 8 hours TIB per night throughout the experiment. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured after the baseline (BL), sleep restriction (SR) and recovery (REC) period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected at these time points, counted and stimulated with PHA. Cell proliferation was analyzed by thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by ELISA and RT-PCR. CRP was increased after SR (145% of BL; p<0.05), and continued to increase after REC (231% of BL; p<0.05). Heart rate was increased after REC (108% of BL; p<0.05). The amount of circulating NK-cells decreased (65% of BL; p<0.005) and the amount of B-cells increased (121% of BL; p<0.005) after SR, but these cell numbers recovered almost completely during REC. Proliferation of stimulated PBMC increased after SR (233% of BL; p<0.05), accompanied by increased production of IL-1beta (137% of BL; p<0.05), IL-6 (163% of BL; p<0.05) and IL-17 (138% of BL; p<0.05) at mRNA level. After REC, IL-17 was still increased at the protein level (119% of BL; p<0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>5 nights of sleep restriction increased lymphocyte activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta IL-6 and IL-17; they remained elevated after 2 nights of recovery sleep, accompanied by increased heart rate and serum CRP, 2 important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, long-term sleep restriction may lead to persistent changes in the immune system and the increased production of IL-17 together with CRP may increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, abundant, non-coding RNA fragments that regulate gene expression and silencing at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNAs each control various downstream targets and play established roles in different biological processes. Given that miRNAs were recently proposed to contribute to the molecular control of sleep-wake regulation in animal models and narcoleptic patients, we investigated the impact of acute sleep deprivation on blood miRNA expression in healthy adult men of two different age groups. Twenty-two young (mean age: 24 ± 3 years) and nine older (65 ± 1 years) volunteers completed a controlled in-lab study, consisting of 8 h baseline sleep, followed by 40 h of extended wakefulness, and a 10-h recovery sleep opportunity. At the same circadian time in all three conditions (at 4:23 p.m. ± 23 min), qPCR expression profiling of 86 miRNAs was performed in blood serum. Thirteen different miRNAs could be reliably quantified and were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVAs. It was found that miR-30c and miR-127 were reliably affected by previous sleep and wakefulness, such that expression of these miRNAs was upregulated after extended wakefulness and normalized after recovery sleep. Together with previous findings in narcolepsy patients, our preliminary data indicate that miR-30c and its target proteins may provide a biomarker of elevated sleep debt in humans.