Data on investigating the quantitative and qualitative status of effluent in a petrochemical complex in Iran.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this data was investigating the quantity and quality of the produced effluent by different petrochemical industry units in Iran and comparison of effluent with the present standards. In the present data, 5 effluent channel of the complex with interval of 12?h (in two shifts) were sampled and 28 physical and chemical parameters were analyzed according to the standard methods. These parameters are pH, Temperature, DO, Conductivity, Color, TDS, TSS, TP, PO43-, Oil, BOD5, COD, Turbidity, TKN, Fe, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, Si4+, CO32-, HCO3, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, Na, K+, Mn2+. Then, the average of each parameter was obtained for each channel, and finally, values of these parameters were compared with the standard set by Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to surface water resources. Gathered Data showed that many of these parameters, including Oil, BOD5, COD, Turbidity, PO43-, SO42-, TSS, in effluent of industrials are higher than the permitted amount. Therefore, regarding discharge of the to the surface water (seawater) and in accordance with Environment Protection Agency standards for effluent disposal, it should be purified to about 90% prior to discharge. Due to high concentration of solutes in petrochemical wastewater, it is not possible to use it for agricultural purpose. In this data, due to ethical considerations, we did not mention the name of petrochemical complex.
Project description:Toxicity of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent (MWWTPE) was evaluated using bioassay with Daphnia Magna (D. Magna). Acute toxicity tests were performed on effluent samples of Urmia municipal wastewater treatment plant (Biolac system) according to the USEPA methods and 24, 48, 72, and 96?hr lethal concentration 50% (LC50) were calculated by application of Probit analysis. Also interrelationship between main effluent physicochemical parameters of wastewater (BOD5, COD, and TSS) and 24hr-LC50, were studied. Results showed that the effluent was safe to be discharged to the surface water in regard to physicochemical parameters and acute toxicity unit (TUa), according to the standards of Iranian Department of Environment (DOE). Relationship between effluent COD and 24hr-LC50 show that, increase in effluent COD resulted in increase in wastewater toxicity and there was not relationship between BOD5, TSS and toxicity of effluent.
Project description:Local administrations are increasingly demanding real-time continuous monitoring of pollution in the sanitation system to improve and optimize its operation, to comply with EU environmental policies and to reach European Green Deal targets. The present work shows a full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant field-sampling campaign to estimate COD, BOD5, TSS, P, TN and NO3-N in both influent and effluent, in the absence of pre-treatment or chemicals addition to the samples, resulting in a reduction of the duration and cost of analysis. Different regression models were developed to estimate the pollution load of sewage systems from the spectral response of wastewater samples measured at 380-700 nm through multivariate linear regressions and machine learning genetic algorithms. The tests carried out concluded that the models calculated by means of genetic algorithms can estimate the levels of five of the pollutants under study (COD, BOD5, TSS, TN and NO3-N), including both raw and treated wastewater, with an error rate below 4%. In the case of the multilinear regression models, these are limited to raw water and the estimate is limited to COD and TSS, with less than a 0.5% error rate.
Project description:The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.
Project description:Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) has become a prominent environmental concern in the today's world. Dewatering of sludge and the treatment of wastewater (WW) are the prime spiny issue because of the deleterious essence of faecal sludge (FS) and WW in the environment. The main focus of this study was on FSM by 'Deebag' and 'Jute Bag' through dewatering and filtering. Deebag is a dewatering as well as filtering media which is made with geotextile and polypropylene. Contrariwise, three types of jute bags were made of jute fiber for using as the same purposes of Deebag. A polyacrylamide polymer was used in this study and both filtering and dewatering were done in two ways-with and without the presence of polymer. Biochemical Oxygen Demand at 5 days (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chloride (Cl-), Phosphate (PO43-), Nitrate (NO3-), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) parameters of raw and filtering samples were analyzed to assess the performance of WW treatment by Deebag and jute bags. Only using polymer was observed as one kind of treatment of WW. Deebag has been found to show the maximum dewatering capacity as well as treatment efficiency comparing with the jute bags. However, among three types of jute bags, double jute layered bag has shown the best performance. Maximum dewatering for Deebag and jute bags were found 88% and 83% respectively while using the polymer.
Project description:In this study, four plant-based natural coagulants (banana peel powder, banana stem juice, papaya seed powder and neem leaf powder) were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) from municipal wastewater. The experiments were conducted at room temperature without adjusting the initial pH. The maximum turbidity removal was observed with banana peel powder (59.6%) at 0.4 g/L of dosage. Papaya seed powder and banana stem juice were the most effective for TSS removal (66.66%) and COD removal (66.67%), respectively. Significant linear relationships between turbidity and TSS (R2 = 0.67-0.88) and turbidity removals and COD removals (R2 = 0.68-0.8) were observed. Interestingly, all the natural coagulants tested in the study did not change the pH of the wastewater, which is an added advantage. FTIR analysis of banana peels revealed that functional groups such as carboxylic acid, hydroxyl and aliphatic amines might be responsible for promoting the coagulation-flocculation by neutralizing the charge on impurities in water. Overall, the results suggest the potential of low-cost natural coagulants in municipal wastewater treatment.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of two mostly improvised chemical additives, calcium carbide and lambda super 2.5 EC (LSEC), on the physico–chemical and microbial characteristics of faecal sludge from toilets. The quality of faecal sludge was assessed before and after application of the chemical additives in an experimental setup of ten different treatment units including a control, and treatment replicates. The initial characteristic of the faecal sludge was slightly acidic with high content of slowly degradable organic matter. The experimental control without additives after 30 days showed reduction in BOD5, COD, helminth eggs and sludge mass by a maximum of 30%, 34.7%, 99.8% and 55% respectively. Similarly, calcium carbide additive reduced the BOD5, COD, helminth eggs and the mass of the faecal sludge by 47.4%, 48.3%, 99.6% and 61% respectively. Also, LSEC additive reduced BOD5, COD, helminth eggs and the mass of the sludge by 40.6%, 47.9%, 95.9% and 58% respectively. The two additives showed significant treatment effect on the faecal sludge although the level of treatment could not meet the regulatory discharge limits for the key quality parameters assessed including sanitisation. The study is still a grey area and more research is recommended to enrich the findings. Environmental engineering; Environmental health; Environmental management; Environmental pollution; Microbiology; Public health; Calcium carbide; Lambda-cyhalothrin; Faecal sludge; Toilet additive; Characterisation; Mass loss; Sanitisation; Public toilet; Biodegradation; Helminth eggs.
Project description:Data on the chemical, physical and biological of effluent from wastewater treatment are provided in table format in the current article. Samples were taken in Peak Flows at effluent Treatment Plants. Sampling and tests were conducted according to the standards methods. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and excel program. Nickel metal showed higher amounts than the standards required for irrigation agricultural land. Data could be useful from environmental and agricultural sciences to those concerned about heavy metals, Alkalinity, EC, COD, BOD5 and Microbial concentrations threats.
Project description:In the coming years, water stress is destined to worsen considering that the consumption of water is expected to increase significantly, and climate change is expected to become more evident. Greywater (GW) has been studied as an alternative water source in arid and semiarid zones. Although there is no single optimal solution in order to treat GW, constructed wetlands proved to be effective. In this paper, the results of the treatment of a real GW by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW) for more than four months are shown. In the preliminary laboratory-scale plant, Phragmites australis, Carex oshimensis and Cyperus papyrus were tested separately and showed very similar results. In the second phase, pilot-scale tests were conducted to confirm the performance at a larger scale and evaluate the influence of hydraulic retention time, obtaining very high removal yields on turbidity (>92%), total suspended solids (TSS) (>85%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>89%), and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) (>88%). Based on the results of the pilot-scale HFCW, a comparison with international recommendations by World Health Organization and European Union is discussed.
Project description:Organic materials in fresh-cut produce wash water deplete free chlorine that is required to prevent pathogen survival and cross-contamination. This research evaluated water quality parameters frequently used to describe organic load for their fitness to predict chlorine demand (CLD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are major needs identified by the industry-led produce food safety taskforce. Batches of romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, or carrot of different cut sizes and shapes were washed in 40 liters of water. Physicochemical properties of wash water including CLD, COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total sugar content, and pH, were monitored. Results indicate that pH is primarily commodity dependent, while organic load is additionally impacted by cutting and washing conditions. Significant linear increases in COD, TOC, CLD, TDS, and turbidity resulted from increasing product-to-water ratio, and decreasing cut size. Physicochemical parameters, excluding pH, showed significant positive correlation across different cut sizes within a commodity. High correlations were obtained between CLD and COD and between COD and TOC for pooled products. The convenient measurement of TDS, along with its strong correlation with COD and CLD, suggests the potential of TDS for predicting organic load and chlorine reactivity. Finally, the potential application and limitation of the proposed models in practical produce processing procedures are discussed extensively.
Project description:Saline municipal wastewater treatment is a challenging environmental issue in coastal cities, due to the discharge of saline water into the sewers. The present research article focuses on the phytoremediation of high saline municipal wastewater by Ruppia maritime, a widespread plant which can be found in saline medium such as traditional fish ponds, estuaries, tidal flats, salt pans, coastal paddy fields, coastal lagoons, marsh pools, and mangrove salt marshes in Khuzestan province, Iran. The experimental data was obtained using a pilot plant constructed in Chobeineh wastewater treatment plant in Ahvaz city, fed by activated sludge effluent in 3 levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (10, 15, 20 ms cm-1), during 45 days of the experiment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) were daily monitored in blank and pilot study. The COD removal decreased from 83.26% to 72.39% by increasing the EC level from 10 to 20 ms cm-1, respectively. The experimental data will practically be an appropriate source of information for environmental engineers to design a natural treatment scenario for saline wastewater treatment.