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Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor up-regulates acetylcholinesterase expression during melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells.


ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in neurons. However, AChE has been proposed to also have nonneuronal functions in different cell types. Here, we report that AChE is expressed in melanocytes and melanoma cells, and that the tetrameric (G4) form is the major AChE isoform in these cells. During melanogenesis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells, AChE levels decreased markedly. The differentiation of melanoma cells led to (i) an increase in melanin and tyrosinase, (ii) a change in intracellular cAMP levels, and (iii) a decrease in microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We hypothesized that the regulation of AChE during melanogenesis is mediated by two transcription factors: cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and MITF. In melanoma cells, exogenous cAMP suppressed AChE expression and the promoter activity of the ACHE gene. This suppression was mediated by a cAMP-response element (CRE) located on the ACHE promoter, as mutation of CRE relieved the suppression. In melanoma, MITF overexpression induced ACHE transcription, and mutation of an E-box site in human ACHE promoter blocked this induction. An AChE inhibitor greatly enhanced acetylcholine-mediated responses of melanogenic gene expression levels in vitro; however, this enhancement was not observed in the presence of agonists of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that ACHE transcription is regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling during melanogenesis of B16F10 cells, and the effect of this enzyme on melanin production suggests that it has a potential role in skin pigmentation.

SUBMITTER: Wu Q 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6139571 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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