Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor up-regulates acetylcholinesterase expression during melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in neurons. However, AChE has been proposed to also have nonneuronal functions in different cell types. Here, we report that AChE is expressed in melanocytes and melanoma cells, and that the tetrameric (G4) form is the major AChE isoform in these cells. During melanogenesis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells, AChE levels decreased markedly. The differentiation of melanoma cells led to (i) an increase in melanin and tyrosinase, (ii) a change in intracellular cAMP levels, and (iii) a decrease in microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We hypothesized that the regulation of AChE during melanogenesis is mediated by two transcription factors: cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and MITF. In melanoma cells, exogenous cAMP suppressed AChE expression and the promoter activity of the ACHE gene. This suppression was mediated by a cAMP-response element (CRE) located on the ACHE promoter, as mutation of CRE relieved the suppression. In melanoma, MITF overexpression induced ACHE transcription, and mutation of an E-box site in human ACHE promoter blocked this induction. An AChE inhibitor greatly enhanced acetylcholine-mediated responses of melanogenic gene expression levels in vitro; however, this enhancement was not observed in the presence of agonists of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that ACHE transcription is regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling during melanogenesis of B16F10 cells, and the effect of this enzyme on melanin production suggests that it has a potential role in skin pigmentation.
Project description:We have previously reported that argan oil and argan press-cake from the kernels of Argania spinosa have an anti-melanogenesis effect. Here, the effect of argan fruit shell ethanol extract (AFSEE) on melanogenesis in B16F10 cells was determined, and the mechanism underlying its effect was elucidated. The proliferation of AFSEE-treated B16F10 cells was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the melanin content was quantified using a spectrophotometric method. The expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blot and real-time PCR, while global gene expression was determined using a DNA microarray. In vitro analysis results showed that the melanin content of B16F10 cells was significantly increased by AFSEE, without cytotoxicity, by increasing the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TRY), tyrosinase related-protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) protein and mRNA expression, as well as upregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, as indicated by the microarray analysis results. AFSEE's melanogenesis promotion effect is primarily attributed to its polyphenolic components. In conclusion, AFSEE promotes melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by upregulating the expression of the melanogenic enzymes through the cAMP-MITF signaling pathway.AFSEE may be used as a cosmetics product component to promote melanogenesis, or as a therapeutic against hypopigmentation disorders.
Project description:Despite the critical role of melanin in the protection of skin against UV radiation, excess production of melanin can lead to hyperpigmentation and skin cancer. Pear fruits are often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of melasma; therefore, we investigated the effects of pear extract (PE) and its component, protocatechuic acid (PCA), on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells. We found that PE and PCA significantly suppressed melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity through a decrease in the expression of melanogenic enzymes and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) in ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated mouse melanoma cells. Moreover, PCA decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, which downregulated Mitf promoter activation and subsequently mediated the inhibition of melanogenesis. These results suggested that pear may be an effective skin lightening agent that targets either a tyrosinase activity or a melanogenic pathway.
Project description:Ethyl linoleate is an unsaturated fatty acid used in many cosmetics for its various attributes, such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and clinically proven to be an effective anti-acne agent. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethyl linoleate on the melanogenesis and the mechanism underlying its action on melanogenesis in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Our results revealed that ethyl linoleate significantly inhibited melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in ?-MSH-induced B16F10 cells, but it did not directly inhibit activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Ethyl linoleate inhibited the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) in governing melanin pigment synthesis. We observed that ethyl linoleate inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and reduced the level of ?-catenin, suggesting that ethyl linoleate inhibits melanogenesis through Akt/GSK3?/?-catenin signal pathway. Therefore, we propose that ethyl linoleate may be useful as a safe whitening agent in cosmetic and a potential therapeutic agent for reducing skin hyperpigmentation in clinics.
Project description:Ultraviolet irradiation-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin is associated with excessive melanin production in melanocytes. Tyrosinase (TYR) is a key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in melanogenesis. TYR expression is controlled by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Sorghum is a cereal crop widely used in a variety of foods worldwide. Sorghum contains many bioactive compounds and is beneficial to human health. However, the effects of sorghum in anti-melanogenesis have not been well characterized. In this study, the biological activity of sorghum ethanolic extract (SEE) on ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-induced TYR expression was evaluated in B16F10 melanoma cells. SEE attenuated ?-MSH-induced TYR gene promoter activity through the downregulation of the transcription factor MITF. We found that paired box gene 3 (Pax3) contributes to the maximal induction of MITF gene promoter activity. Further analysis demonstrated that SEE inhibited ?-MSH-induced Pax3 expression. The collective results indicate that SEE attenuates ?-MSH-induced TYR expression through the suppression of Pax3-mediated MITF gene promoter activity. Targeting the Pax3-MITF axis pathway could be considered a potential strategy to increase the efficacy of anti-melanogenesis.
Project description:Flumequine is a well-known second generation quinolone antibiotic that induces phototoxicity. However, the effect of flumequine on skin melanogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we, for the first time, investigated whether flumequine regulates melanogenesis. The present study showed that flumequine slightly inhibited in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity but significantly increased extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and promoted the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. Additionally, flumequine remarkably increased melanin pigmentation in zebrafish larvae without any toxicity. We also found that flumequine stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK resulted in significant downregulation of extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and pigmentation of zebrafish larvae accompanied with suppression of MITF and tyrosinase expression, indicating that flumequine-mediated p38 and JNK promote melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. According to the molecular docking prediction, flumequine targeted dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase 16 (DUSP16), which is a major negative regulator of p38 MAPK and JNK. Our findings demonstrate that flumequine induces an increase in melanin content in B16F10 cells and zebrafish larvae by activating p38 MAPK and JNK. These data show the potential of flumequine for use as an anti-vitiligo agent.
Project description:Fisetin is found in many fruits and plants such as grapes and onions, and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anticancer activity. However, whether fisetin regulates melanogenesis has been rarely studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of fisetin on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cell and zebrafish larvae. The current study revealed that fisetin slightly suppressed in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity; however, molecular docking data showed that fisetin did not directly bind to mushroom tyrosinase. Unexpectedly, fisetin significantly increased intracellular and extracellular melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells regardless of the presence or absence of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH). We also found that the expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), were highly increased 48 h after fisetin treatment. Pigmentation of zebrafish larvae by fisetin treatment also increased at the concentrations up to 200 µM and then slightly decreased at 400 µM, with no alteration in the heart rates. Molecular docking data also revealed that fisetin binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Therefore, we evaluated whether fisetin negatively regulated GSK-3?, which subsequently activates ?-catenin, resulting in melanogenesis. As expected, fisetin increased the expression of ?-catenin, which was subsequently translocated into the nucleus. In the functional assay, FH535, a Wnt/?-catenin inhibitor, significantly inhibited fisetin-mediated melanogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Our data suggested that fisetin inhibits GSK-3?, which activates ?-catenin, resulting in melanogenesis through the revitalization of MITF and tyrosinase.
Project description:To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on melanin synthesis and related regulatory mechanisms.B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to DHA for 3 d, and melanin content and tyrosinase activity were measured. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the protein levels in DHA-mediated signal transduction pathways.DHA (1-25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of B16F10 cells, but decreased α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. DHA concentration-dependently reduced tyrosinase activity in the cells, but did not affect mushroom tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system. Furthermore, DHA treatment significantly reduced tyrosinase level without affecting microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in the cells. DHA did not activate ERK and Akt in the cells. Pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (80 nmol/L) abolished DHA-induced tyrosinase reduction.DHA inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 cells in vitro through increasing tyrosinase degradation. The results suggest that DHA may be a potential agent for treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders of skin.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Sageretia thea is traditionally used as a medicinal herb to treat various diseases, including skin disorders, in China and Korea. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Sageretia thea fruit on melanogenesis and its underlying mechanisms in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The active chemical compounds in anti-melanogenesis were determined in Sageretia thea. MATERIALS/METHODS:Solvent fractions from the crude extract were investigated for anti-melanogenic activities. These activities and the mechanism of anti-melanogenesis in B16F10 cells were examined by determining melanin content and tyrosinase activity, and by performing western blotting. RESULTS:The n-hexane fraction of Sageretia thea fruit (HFSF) exhibited significant anti-melanogenic activity among the various solvent fractions without reducing viability of B16F10 cells. The HFSF suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1). The reduction of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression by the HFSF was mediated by the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) signaling pathway, which promotes the reduction of ?-catenin. Treatment with the GSK3? inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) restored HFSF-induced inhibition of MITF expression. The HFSF bioactive constituents responsible for anti-melanogenic activity were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis as methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that HFSF and its constituents, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, could be used as whitening agents in cosmetics and have potential for treating hyperpigmentation disorders in the clinic.
Project description:The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-melanogenic activity of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and its derivatives in B16F10 murine melanoma cells and zebrafish embryos. Twenty five (1E,3E,5E)-1,6-bis(substituted phenyl)hexa-1,3,5-triene analogs were synthesized and their non-cytotoxic effects were predictively analyzed using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship approach. Inhibitory activities of these synthetic compounds against melanin synthesis were determined by evaluating melanin content and melanogenic regulatory enzyme expression in B16F10 cells. The anti-melanogenic activity was verified by observing body pigmentation in zebrafishes treated with these compounds. Compound #2, #4, and #6 effectively decreased melanogenesis induced by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. In particular, compound #2 remarkably lowered the mRNA and protein expression levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and TYRP2 in B16F10 cells and substantially reduced skin pigmentation in the developed larvae of zebrafish. These findings suggest that compound #2 may be used as an anti-melanogenic agent for cosmetic purpose.
Project description:The individual parts of Morus alba L. including root bark, branches, leaves, and fruits are used as a cosmetic ingredient in many Asian countries. This study identified several anti-melanogenesis constituents in a 70% ethanol extract of M. alba leaves. The ethyl acetate fraction of the initial ethanol extract decreased the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Twelve compounds were isolated from this fraction and their structures were identified based on spectroscopic spectra. Then, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenesis effects of the isolated compounds in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 8 significantly inhibited not only melanin production but also intracellular tyrosinase activity in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone (?-MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These same compounds also inhibited melanogenesis-related protein expression such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Compound 3 modulated the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 signaling pathways in ?-MSH-activated B16-F10 melanoma cells, which resulted in the anti-melanogenesis effects. These results suggest that compound 3, isolated from M. alba leaves, could be used to inhibit melanin production via the regulation of melanogenesis-related protein expression.