The TNF receptor family member Fn14 is highly expressed in recurrent glioblastoma and in GBM patient-derived xenografts with acquired temozolomide resistance.
ABSTRACT: Background:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a difficult to treat brain cancer that nearly uniformly recurs, and recurrent tumors are largely therapy resistant. Our prior work has demonstrated an important role for the tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) in GBM pathobiology. In this study, we investigated Fn14 expression in recurrent GBM and in the setting of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. Methods:Fn14 mRNA expression levels in nonneoplastic brain, primary (newly diagnosed) GBM, and recurrent GBM (post-chemotherapy and radiation) specimens were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas data portal. Immunohistochemistry was performed using nonneoplastic brain, patient-matched primary and recurrent GBM, and gliosarcoma (GSM) specimens to examine Fn14 protein levels. Western blot analysis was used to compare Fn14 expression in parental TMZ-sensitive or matched TMZ-resistant patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) established from primary or recurrent tumor samples. The migratory capacity of control and Fn14-depleted TMZ-resistant GBM cells was assessed using the transwell migration assay. Results:We found that Fn14 is more highly expressed in recurrent GBM tumors than their matched primary GBM counterparts. Fn14 expression is also significantly elevated in GSM tumors. GBM PDX cells with acquired TMZ resistance have higher Fn14 levels and greater migratory capacity than their corresponding parental TMZ-sensitive cells, and the migratory difference is due, at least in part, to Fn14 expression in the TMZ-resistant cells. Conclusions:This study demonstrates that the Fn14 gene is highly expressed in recurrent GBM, GSM, and TMZ-resistant GBM PDX tumors. These findings suggest that Fn14 may be a valuable therapeutic target or drug delivery portal for treatment of recurrent GBM and GSM patients.
Project description:Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and a poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we investigated the role of the oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 in GBM cells' resistance to alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) and its potential molecular mechanism.FoxM1 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemical analysis in 38 pairs of primary and recurrent GBM tumor samples. Expression levels were also measured in primary recurrent GBM cell lines, and their responses to TMZ were characterized. In a mechanistic study, an siRNA array was used to identify downstream genes, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to confirm transcriptional regulation.Recurrent tumors that were TMZ resistant expressed higher levels of FoxM1 than did primary tumors. Recurrent GBM cell lines expressed higher levels of FoxM1 and the DNA damage repair gene Rad51 and were resistant to TMZ. TMZ treatment led to increased FoxM1 and Rad51 expression. FoxM1 knockdown inhibited Rad51 expression and sensitized recurrent GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. FoxM1 directly regulated Rad51 expression through 2 FoxM1-specific binding sites in its promoter. Rad51 reexpression partially rescued TMZ resistance in FoxM1-knockdown recurrent GBM cells. A direct correlation between FoxM1 expression and Rad51 expression was evident in recurrent GBM tumor samples.Targeting the FoxM1-Rad51 axis may be an effective method to reverse TMZ resistance in recurrent GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy, particularly due to temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (RT) resistance. To better understand resistance mechanisms, we examined global kinase activity (kinomic profiling) in both treatment sensitive and resistant human GBM patient-derived xenografts (PDX or "xenolines").Thirteen orthotopically-implanted xenolines were examined including 8 with known RT sensitivity/resistance, while 5 TMZ resistant xenolines were generated through serial TMZ treatment in vivo. Tumors were harvested, prepared as total protein lysates, and kinomically analyzed on a PamStation®12 high-throughput microarray platform with subsequent upstream kinase prediction and network modeling.Kinomic profiles indicated elevated tyrosine kinase activity associated with the radiation resistance phenotype, including FAK and FGFR1. Furthermore, network modeling showed VEGFR1/2 and c-Raf hubs could be involved. Analysis of acquired TMZ resistance revealed more kinomic variability among TMZ resistant tumors. Two of the five tumors displayed significantly altered kinase activity in the TMZ resistant xenolines and network modeling indicated PKC, JAK1, PI3K, CDK2, and VEGFR as potential mediators of this resistance.GBM xenolines provide a phenotypic model for GBM drug response and resistance that when paired with kinomic profiling identified targetable pathways to inherent (radiation) or acquired (TMZ) resistance.
Project description:About 95% of patients with Glioblastoma (GBM) show tumor relapse, leaving them with limited therapeutic options as recurrent tumors are most often resistant to the first line chemotherapy standard Temozolomide (TMZ). To identify molecular pathways involved in TMZ resistance, primary GBM Stem-like Cells (GSCs) were isolated, characterized, and selected for TMZ resistance in vitro. Subsequently, RNA sequencing analysis was performed and revealed a total of 49 differentially expressed genes (|log2-fold change| > 0.5 and adjusted p-value < 0.1) in TMZ resistant stem-like cells compared to their matched DMSO control cells. Among up-regulated genes, we identified carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) as a candidate gene correlated with glioma malignancy and patient survival. Notably, we describe consistent up-regulation of CA2 not only in TMZ resistant GSCs on mRNA and protein level, but also in patient-matched clinical samples of first manifest and recurrent tumors. Co-treatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamid (ACZ) sensitized cells to TMZ induced cell death. Cumulatively, our findings illustrate the potential of CA2 as a chemosensitizing target in recurrent GBM and provide a rationale for a therapy associated inhibition of CA2 to overcome TMZ induced chemoresistance.
Project description:Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains dismal despite maximal surgical resection followed by aggressive chemo-radiation therapy. Almost every GBM, regardless of genotype, relapses as aggressive recurrent disease. Sensitization of GBM cells to chemo-radiation is expected to extend survival of patients with GBM by enhancing treatment efficacy. The PARP family of enzymes has a pleiotropic role in DNA repair and metabolism and has emerged as an attractive target for sensitization of cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. However, despite promising results from a number of preclinical studies, progress of clinical trials involving PARP inhibitors (PARPI) has been slower in GBM as compared to other malignancies. Preclinical in vivo studies have uncovered limitations of PARPI-mediated targeting of base excision repair, considered to be the likely mechanism of sensitization for temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM. Nevertheless, PARPI remain a promising sensitizing approach for at least a subset of GBM tumors that are inherently sensitive to TMZ. Our PDX preclinical trial has helped delineate MGMT promoter hyper-methylation as a biomarker of the PARPI veliparib-mediated sensitization. In clinical trials, MGMT promoter hyper-methylation now is being studied as a potential predictive biomarker not only for response to TMZ therapy alone, but also PARPI-mediated sensitization of TMZ therapy. Besides the combination approach being investigated, IDH1/2 mutant gliomas associated with 2-hydroxygluterate (2HG)-mediated homologous recombination (HR) defect may potentially benefit from PARPI monotherapy. In this article, we discuss existing results and provide additional data in support of potential alternative mechanisms of sensitization that would help identify potential biomarkers for PARPI-based therapeutic approaches to GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, in combination with maximal safe resection and radiotherapy, is the current standard of care for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Despite this multimodal approach, GBM inevitably relapses primarily due to resistance to chemo-radiotherapy, and effective treatment is not available for recurrent disease. In this study we identified TMZ resistant patient-derived primary and previously treated recurrent GBM stem cells (GSC), and investigated the therapeutic activity of a pro-apoptotic variant of oHSV (oHSV-TRAIL) in vitro and in vivo. We show that oHSV-TRAIL modulates cell survival and MAP Kinase proliferation signaling pathways as well as DNA damage response pathways in both primary and recurrent TMZ-resistant GSC. Utilizing real time in vivo imaging and correlative immunohistochemistry, we show that oHSV-TRAIL potently inhibits tumor growth and extends survival of mice bearing TMZ-insensitive recurrent intracerebral GSC tumors via robust and selective induction of apoptosis-mediated death in tumor cells, resulting in cures in 40% of the treated mice. In comparison, the anti-tumor effects in a primary chemoresistant GSC GBM model exhibiting a highly invasive phenotype were significant but less prominent. This work thus demonstrates the ability of oHSV-TRAIL to overcome the therapeutic resistance and recurrence of GBM, and provides a basis for its testing in a GBM clinical trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care and is most effective in GBMs that lack the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Moreover, even initially responsive tumors develop a secondary resistance to TMZ and become untreatable. Since aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is widespread in GBM, EGFR inhibition has been tried in multiple clinical trials without success. We recently reported that inhibiting EGFR leads to increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and activation of a survival pathway in GBM. Here, we compare the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. METHODS:We use an orthotopic model to examine the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in multiple subsets of GBMs, including MGMT methylated and unmethylated primary GBMs, recurrent GBMs, and GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ. RESULTS:The efficacy of the 2 treatments was similar in MGMT methylated GBMs. However, in MGMT unmethylated GBMs, a combination of EGFR plus TNF inhibition was more effective. We demonstrate that the 2 treatment approaches target distinct and non-overlapping pathways. Thus, importantly, EGFR plus TNF inhibition remains effective in TMZ-resistant recurrent GBMs and in GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ. CONCLUSION:EGFR inhibition combined with a blunting of the accompanying TNF-driven adaptive response could be a viable therapeutic approach in MGMT unmethylated and recurrent EGFR-expressing GBMs.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) was used for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) for over a decade, but its treatment benefits are limited by acquired resistance, a process that remains incompletely understood. Here we report that an enhancer, located between the promoters of marker of proliferation Ki67 (MKI67) and O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) genes, is activated in TMZ-resistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines and recurrent tumor samples. Activation of the enhancer correlates with increased MGMT expression, a major known mechanism for TMZ resistance. We show that forced activation of the enhancer in cell lines with low MGMT expression results in elevated MGMT expression. Deletion of this enhancer in cell lines with high MGMT expression leads to a dramatic reduction of MGMT and a lesser extent of Ki67 expression, increased TMZ sensitivity, and impaired proliferation. Together, these studies uncover a mechanism that regulates MGMT expression, confers TMZ resistance, and potentially regulates tumor proliferation.
Project description:Although there is a relationship between DNA repair deficiency and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioblastoma (GBM), it remains unclear which molecule is associated with GBM recurrence. We isolated three TMZ-resistant human GBM cell lines and examined the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and mismatch repair (MMR) components. We used immunohistochemical analysis to compare MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2) and MGMT expression in primary and recurrent GBM specimens obtained from GBM patients during TMZ treatment. We found a reduction in MLH1 expression and a subsequent reduction in PMS2 protein levels in TMZ-resistant cells. Furthermore, MLH1 or PMS2 knockdown confered TMZ resistance. In recurrent GBM tumours, the expression of MLH1 and PMS2 was reduced when compared to primary tumours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent used to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which causes significant DNA damage to highly proliferative cells. Our observations have added to accumulating evidence that TMZ induces stress-responsive cellular programs known to promote cell survival, including autophagy. As such, targeting these survival pathways may represent new vulnerabilities of GBM after treatment with TMZ. METHODS:Using the T98G human glioma cell line, we assessed the molecular signaling associated with TMZ treatment, the cellular consequences of using the pan-PI3K inhibitor PX-866, and performed clonogenic assays to determine the effect sequential treatment of TMZ and PX-866 had on colony formation. Additionally, we also use subcutaneous GBM patient derived xenograft (PDX) tumors to show relative LC3 protein expression and correlations between survival pathways and molecular markers which dictate clinical responsiveness to TMZ. RESULTS:Here, we report that TMZ can induce autophagic flux in T98G glioma cells. GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors treated with TMZ also display an increase in the autophagosome marker LC3 II. Additionally, O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) expression correlates with PI3K/AKT activity, suggesting that patients with inherent resistance to TMZ (MGMT-high) would benefit from PI3K/AKT inhibitors in addition to TMZ. Accordingly, we have identified that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrant pan-PI3K inhibitor, PX-866, is an early-stage inhibitor of autophagic flux, while maintaining its ability to inhibit PI3K/AKT signaling in glioma cells. Lastly, due to the induction of autophagic flux by TMZ, we provide evidence for sequential treatment of TMZ followed by PX-866, rather than combined co-treatment, as a means to shut down autophagy-induced survival in GBM cells and to enhance apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:The understanding of how TMZ induces survival pathways, such as autophagy, may offer new therapeutic vulnerabilities and opportunities to use sequential inhibition of alternate pro-survival pathways that regulate autophagy. As such, identification of additional ways to inhibit TMZ-induced autophagy could enhance the efficacy of TMZ.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor of the central nervous system, is characterized by a relentless disease recurrence despite continued advancement in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), a standard chemotherapeutic agent for GBM, remains a major challenge. Understanding the mechanisms behind TMZ resistance can direct the development of novel strategies for the prevention, monitoring, and treatment of tumor relapse.Our research platform, based on the establishment of 2 pairs of TMZ-sensitive/resistant GBM cells (D54-S and D54-R; U87-S and U87-R), has successfully identified prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB) over-expression to be associated with an increased IC50 of TMZ. Elevated P4HB expression was verified using in vivo xenografts developed from U87-R cells. Clinically, we found that P4HB was relatively up-regulated in the recurrent GBM specimens that were initially responsive to TMZ but later developed acquired resistance, when compared with treatment-naive tumors. Functionally, P4HB inhibition by RNAi knockdown and bacitracin inhibition could sensitize D54-R and U87-R cells to TMZ in vitro and in vivo, whereas over-expression of P4HB in vitro conferred resistance to TMZ in both D54-S and U87-S cells. Moreover, targeting P4HB blocked its protective function and sensitized glioma cells to TMZ through the PERK arm of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.Our study identified a novel target together with its functional pathway in the development of TMZ resistance. P4HB inhibition may be used alone or in combination with TMZ for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM.