Survey dataset on leadership styles and job satisfaction: The Perspective of employees of hospitality providers.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at establishing the relationship between the dimensions of leadership styles and employees' job satisfaction in hospitality industry in Nigeria. This study was prompted by reports of high labour turnover in this sector of the economy (especially in the guesthouses), because of reduction in the satisfaction of the workforce. Cross-sectional research design which is quantitative in nature, was the methodology adopted for this study to assess the trends of relationships between the constructs. Questionnaire was used as the measuring instrument, and reliability and validity test for the instrument were established using cronbach alpha, for all the variables ranging between 71% and 89%. The study population comprises 410 employees in the six selected functioning guesthouses, which also represents the study sample. Total enumeration sampling technique was adopted. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package (version 22) was used for the analysis of the data. The field dataset is available to the public for more rigorous, extensive, critical and extended analysis.
Project description:Introduction: Numerous studies conducted in Europe and worldwide have indicated that employees of hospitality venues are the most exposed professional group to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of employees of hospitality venues to ETS in the light of changes in anti-tobacco legislation in Poland. Materials and methods: The study consisted of two stages. The first stage was conducted in 2010, while the second in 2015. The study was conducted among employees of 300 randomly selected hospitality venues in the city of ?ód? (Poland). In total, 2607 questionnaires were analysed. The study used two survey questionnaires created and recommended by the Institute for Global Tobacco Control to study exposure to ETS. Statistical analysis was made with Statistica 13.1 PL (StatSoft, Poland). Results: In the group of all nonsmoking employees, individuals exposed to ETS at work in 2010 accounted for 72.6%; while in 2015 it was 51.8%. Factors affecting exposure to ETS in the workplace included, among others: age, marital status, education, position held, presence of a smoking room on the premises, and noncompliance with the provisions of the anti-tobacco laws. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among employees of hospitality venues decreased in 2010-2015, however, it remained high. More than half of nonsmoking employees were exposed to ETS at work.
Project description:The relevance of organisational culture on job satisfaction and performance particularly within the hospitality sector cannot be over-emphasized. The culture of an organization goes a long way in distinguishing it from other organizations because it shows its ability to either be successful or to fail. To however achieve excellence and high-level performance, it is important to note that for effective and efficient operation, an organization would need a formal approach of communication as well as for making decisions and completing the tasks to match the needs of the organization. The managerial implications drawn from the study is that organizations should take advantage of their culture and inculcate values that will enhance performance.
Project description:BackgroundNurses and midwives are a critical part of the healthcare team and make up the largest section of health professionals. Leadership styles are believed to be an important determinant of job satisfaction and retention making effective leadership within nursing and midwifery crucial to health systems success. In Rwanda, there are gaps in knowledge of managerial leadership styles of nurses and midwives and the influence of these styles on job satisfaction and retention for nurses and midwives who report to them, as well as their influence on the provision of health services. This study describes the managerial leadership styles adopted by nurses/midwives and examines the relationship between managerial leadership styles and job satisfaction, intention to stay, and service provision.MethodsThe Path-Goal Leadership questionnaire was adopted and used to collect data on leadership styles while other questionnaires with high validity and reliability were used to collect data on job satisfaction, intention to stay and service provision. The study involved 162 full-time nurses and midwives practicing in 5 selected hospitals with a minimum of 6 months of experience working with their current direct managers. Regression analysis was used to draw conclusions on relationships between variables.ResultsNurses and midwives managers were more inclined to the directive leadership style followed by a supportive leadership style, and the participative leadership style. The nurse and midwife’s managerial leadership styles together significantly explained 38, 10 and 23% of the variance in job satisfaction, intention to stay and service provision, respectively.ConclusionThe findings of this study indicate that managerial leadership styles play a substantial role in enhancing job satisfaction, intention to stay and service provision.The implication for nursing and midwifery managementThere is a need to develop a comprehensive formal professional continuous development course on leadership styles and ensure that all nurses and midwives managers benefit from this course prior to or immediately after being appointed as a manager. Having such a course may even prepare future leaders for their role early in their career. Effective leadership in nursing and midwifery should be enhanced at all levels to improve the job satisfaction of nurses and midwives, address the issue of retention in their respective health facilities and strengthen service provision.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) was classified as human carcinogen (K1) by the German Research Council in 1998. According to epidemiological studies, the relative risk especially for lung cancer might be twice as high in persons who have never smoked but who are in the highest exposure category, for example hospitality workers. In order to implement these results in the German regulations on occupational illnesses, a valid method is needed to retrospectively assess the cumulative ETS exposure in the hospitality environment. METHODS: A literature-based review was carried out to locate a method that can be used for the German hospitality sector. Studies assessing ETS exposure using biological markers (for example urinary cotinine, DNA adducts) or questionnaires were excluded. Biological markers are not considered relevant as they assess exposure only over the last hours, weeks or months. Self-reported exposure based on questionnaires also does not seem adequate for medico-legal purposes. Therefore, retrospective exposure assessment should be based on mathematical models to approximate past exposure. RESULTS: For this purpose a validated model developed by Repace and Lowrey was considered appropriate. It offers the possibility of retrospectively assessing exposure with existing parameters (such as environmental dimensions, average number of smokers, ventilation characteristics and duration of exposure). The relative risk of lung cancer can then be estimated based on the individual cumulative exposure of the worker. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, having adapted it to the German hospitality sector, an existing mathematical model appears to be capable of approximating the cumulative exposure. However, the level of uncertainty of these approximations has to be taken into account, especially for diseases with a long latency period such as lung cancer.
Project description:Background:We examined the effects of supportive neighboring behavior on mental health and career satisfaction among Chinese low-income employees. We further examined the mediating roles of work interference with family (WIF) and of family interference with work (FIW) in this relationship. Methods:A total of 220 Chinese low-income employees were selected via two-wave longitudinal survey in China; the time distance was five weeks. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported supportive neighboring behavior, work-family conflict, general mental health and career satisfaction. Afterwards, we adopted a structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine our hypotheses by R (Version 3.5.3) and Lavaan Package (Version 0.6-3). Results:Supportive neighboring behavior (Time 1) improved good mental health (Time 2) and career satisfaction (Time 2). Work interference with family (Time 1) mediated the effect of neighboring behavior on mental health while family interference with work (Time 1) mediated the effect of neighboring behavior on mental health and career satisfaction. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that supportive neighboring behavior is vital in mitigating mental health problems and enhancing career satisfaction by decreasing work interference with family and family interference with work. Our research expands the scope of current literature on community support by incorporating bi-directional supportive neighboring behavior. By adopting family interference with work and work interference with family as mediators, our research examines the spillover mechanisms through which career satisfaction and mental health are influenced by supportive neighboring behavior.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. DESIGN:This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2?months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). SETTING:Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. PROCEDURE AND PARTICIPANTS:A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. OUTCOME MEASURES:Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM2.5) in both indoor and outdoor venues. RESULTS:Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6?µg/m3) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6?µg/m3) in smoke-free establishments. CONCLUSIONS:In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the media have strong potential to inform and educate the hospitality industry and smokers of the benefits and requirements of the smoke-free law.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ghana has a partial smoking ban with smoking allowed in designated smoking areas. Studies evaluating smoke-free laws are scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa. Evaluation of smoke-free laws is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. This study assessed the level of compliance to the provisions of the current smoke-free policy using air quality measurements for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in hospitality venues in Ghana. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in 2019 using a structured observational checklist complemented with air quality measurements using Dylos monitors across 152 randomly selected hospitality venues in three large cities in Ghana. RESULTS:Smoking was observed in a third of the venues visited. The median indoor PM2.5 concentration was 14.6 ?g/m3 (range: 5.2-349). PM2.5 concentrations were higher in venues where smoking was observed (28.3 ?g/m3) compared to venues where smoking was not observed (12.3 ?g/m3) (p<0.001). Hospitality locations in Accra, Ghana's capital city, had the lowest compliance levels (59.5%) and poorer air quality compared to the cities of Kumasi and Tamale. CONCLUSIONS:The study shows that while smoking and SHS exposure continues in a substantial number of hospitality venues, there is a marked improvement in PM2.5 concentrations compared to earlier studies in Ghana. There is still a considerable way to go to increase compliance with the law. Efforts are needed to develop an action plan to build upon recent progress in providing smoke-free public spaces in Ghana.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01). Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068) among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475) among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml) and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml). In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05) among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.
Project description:Forms of collective leadership, such as distributed leadership, have become increasingly important. The need for measurement of the variables involved in the delegation processes represents a new challenge for organizations that want to ensure high-level working. The present study aimed to validate the Italian version of the distributed leadership agency (DLA). The study was carried out on 704 employees (doctors, nurses, clerks, staff workers, healthcare assistants, consultants, management) of an Italian public hospital, who were selected to complete a survey on organizational perceptions. Multiple confirmatory factor analyses (maximum likelihood) have been computed to explore the factorial structure of the DLA, along with associations with other work outcomes. Results about the Italian DLA confirmed the original trifactorial structure of the construct, suggested by Yukl (2002), through good fit indexes and reliability scores; moreover, consistent with the literature, DLA was strongly related to satisfaction, commitment, and trust. Results contribute to underline the robustness of the construct of DLA in different cultural sectors and provide a useful tool to be adopted in the Italian context.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Servant Leadership Scale and to clarify the relationship between servant leadership (SL) and well-being among Japanese workers. Methods:After the Japanese version of the SLS (SLS-J) and of its short form (SLS-J-short) were developed in conformity with the guidelines (Wild et al., 2005), a web-based survey was administered to 516 Japanese employees (20 or older and have a supervisor). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate a construct validation of the SLS-J and the SLS-J-short. Convergent validity was estimated with theoretically related constructs (e.g., transformational leadership, supervisory support, and interpersonal justice) and potential consequences of SL (e.g., affective commitment, work engagement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), psychological distress, and work performance). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using the test-retest method was conducted with 104 of the initial respondents to assess internal consistency reliability. Additionally, the effects of SL on employees' work engagement and the mediating role of employees' affective commitment were estimated. Results:CFA confirmed that an eight-factor model (SLS-J) and a five-factor model (SLS-J-short) had the most satisfactory fits for the two scales with Japanese workers. Tests of convergent validity and reliability showed sufficiency for each of the dimensions of SLS-J and SLS-J-short. Additionally, it was revealed that SL has an impact on employees' work engagement through a mediation of affective commitment at a cross-sectional level, and the indirect association between SL and work engagement via affective commitment remained afterward. Conclusion:SLS-J and SLS-J-short were confirmed to have good reliability and validity for Japanese workers. Also, this study found that SL has an important role in enhancing the engagement of workers.