ABSTRACT: Although the cause of hypertension among individuals with obesity and insulin resistance is unknown, increased plasma insulin, acting in the kidney to increase sodium reabsorption, has been proposed as a potential mechanism. Insulin may also stimulate glucose uptake, but the contributions of tubular insulin signaling to sodium or glucose transport in the setting of insulin resistance is unknown. To directly study the role of insulin signaling in the kidney, we generated inducible renal tubule-specific insulin receptor-KO mice and used high-fat feeding and mineralocorticoids to model obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin receptor deletion did not alter blood pressure or sodium excretion in mice on a high-fat diet alone, but it mildly attenuated the increase in blood pressure with mineralocorticoid supplementation. Under these conditions, KO mice developed profound glucosuria. Insulin receptor deletion significantly reduced SGLT2 expression and increased urinary glucose excretion and urine flow. These data demonstrate a direct role for insulin receptor-stimulated sodium and glucose transport and a functional interaction of insulin signaling with mineralocorticoids in vivo. These studies uncover a potential mechanistic link between preserved insulin sensitivity and renal glucose handling in obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:ABCG5 and ABCG8 form a complex (G5G8) that opposes the absorption of plant sterols but is also expressed in liver where it promotes the excretion of cholesterol into bile. Hepatic G5G8 is transcriptionally regulated by a number of factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that G5G8 may influence the development of diet-induced obesity phenotypes independently of its role in opposing phytosterol absorption. G5G8 knock-out (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were challenged with a plant sterol-free low fat or high fat (HF) diet. Weight gain and the rise in fasting glucose were accelerated in G5G8 KO mice following HF feeding. HF-fed G5G8 KO mice had increased liver weight, hepatic lipids, and plasma alanine aminotransferase compared with WT controls. Consistent with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, macrophage infiltration, the number of TUNEL-positive cells, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines were also increased in G5G8 KO mice. Hepatic lipid accumulation was associated with increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?, CD36, and fatty acid uptake. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eiF2?) and expression of activating transcription factor 4 and tribbles 3 were elevated in HF-fed G5G8 KO mice, a pathway that links the unfolded protein response to the development of insulin resistance through inhibition of protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor was reduced, whereas serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 was elevated.
Project description:Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent studies have shown a metabolic role of capsaicin that may be mediated via the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel. In this study, TRPV1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice (as controls) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and metabolic studies were performed to measure insulin and leptin action. The TRPV1 KO mice became more obese than the WT mice after HFD, partly attributed to altered energy balance and leptin resistance in the KO mice. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiment showed that the TRPV1 KO mice were more insulin resistant after HFD because of the ?40% reduction in glucose metabolism in the white and brown adipose tissue, compared with that in the WT mice. Leptin treatment failed to suppress food intake, and leptin-mediated hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activity was blunted in the TRPV1 KO mice. We also found that the TRPV1 KO mice were more obese and insulin resistant than the WT mice at 9 mo of age. Taken together, these results indicate that lacking TRPV1 exacerbates the obesity and insulin resistance associated with an HFD and aging, and our findings further suggest that TRPV1 has a major role in regulating glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin's effects in obesity.
Project description:Peripheral administration of a specific neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist to mice leads to reduced weight gain and circulating levels of insulin and leptin after high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we assessed the contribution of substance P (SP) and NK-1R in diet-induced obesity using NK-1R deficient [knockout (KO)] mice and extended our previous findings to show the effects of SP-NK-1R interactions on adipose tissue-associated insulin signaling and glucose metabolic responses. NK-1R KO and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and obesity-associated responses were determined. Compared with WT, NK-1 KO mice show reduced weight gain and circulating levels of leptin and insulin in response to HFD. Adiponectin receptor mRNA levels are higher in mesenteric fat and liver in NK-1 KO animals compared with WT, after HFD. Mesenteric fat from NK-1R KO mice fed with HFD has reduced stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein kinase C activation compared with WT mice. After glucose challenge, NK-1R KO mice remove glucose from the circulation more efficiently than WT and pair-fed controls, suggesting an additional peripheral effect of NK-1R-mediated signaling on glucose metabolism. Glucose uptake experiments in isolated rat adipocytes showed that SP directly inhibits insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Our results further establish a role for SP-NK-1R interactions in adipose tissue responses, specifically as they relate to obesity-associated pathologies such as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Our results highlight this pathway as an important therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE), leading to blood glucose reductions and weight loss. However, the impacts of SGLT2 inhibition on energy homeostasis and obesity-induced insulin resistance are less well known. Here, we show that empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, enhanced energy expenditure and attenuated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a HFD with empagliflozin for 16weeks. Empagliflozin administration increased UGE in the DIO mice, whereas it suppressed HFD-induced weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, empagliflozin shifted energy metabolism towards fat utilization, elevated AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carbolxylase phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, and increased hepatic and plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Importantly, empagliflozin increased energy expenditure, heat production, and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown fat and in inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, empagliflozin reduced M1-polarized macrophage accumulation while inducing the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype of macrophages within WAT and liver, lowering plasma TNF? levels and attenuating obesity-related chronic inflammation. Thus, empagliflozin suppressed weight gain by enhancing fat utilization and browning and attenuated obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by polarizing M2 macrophages in WAT and liver.
Project description:Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that ?/?-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis. In vitro data reveal that ABHD15 associates with and stabilizes phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B). Accordingly, PDE3B expression is decreased in the WAT of Abhd15-KO mice, mechanistically explaining increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation, and undiminished FA release upon insulin signaling. Ultimately, Abhd15-KO mice develop insulin resistance. Notably, ABHD15 expression is decreased in humans with obesity and diabetes compared to humans with obesity and normal glucose tolerance, identifying ABHD15 as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate insulin resistance.
Project description:SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism in both rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 in mice results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SH2B1 loci and chromosomal deletions of the SH2B1 loci associate with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. In cultured cells, SH2B1 promotes leptin and insulin signaling by binding via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines in Janus kinase 2 and the insulin receptor, respectively. Here we generated three lines of mice to analyze the role of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 in the central nervous system. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type, SH2 domain-defective (R555E), or SH2 domain-alone (DeltaN503) forms of SH2B1 specifically in neurons were crossed with SH2B1 knockout mice to generate KO/SH2B1, KO/R555E, or KO/DeltaN503 compound mutant mice. R555E had a replacement of Arg(555) with Glu within the SH2 domain. DeltaN503 contained an intact SH2 domain but lacked amino acids 1-503. Neuron-specific expression of recombinant SH2B1, but not R555E or DeltaN503, corrected hyperphagia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in SH2B1 null mice. Neuron-specific expression of R555E in wild-type mice promoted obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that in addition to the SH2 domain, N-terminal regions of neuronal SH2B1 are also required for the maintenance of normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Additionally, mutations in the SH2 domain of SH2B1 may increase the susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes in a dominant-negative manner.
Project description:The protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 negatively regulates insulin action on glucose homeostasis in liver and muscle, but its potential role in obesity-linked insulin resistance has not been examined. To investigate the role of Shp1 in hepatic insulin resistance, we generated hepatocyte-specific Shp1 knockout mice (Ptpn6(H-KO)), which were subjected to extensive metabolic monitoring throughout an 8-week standard chow diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. We report for the first time that Shp1 expression is upregulated in metabolic tissues of HFD-fed obese mice. When compared with their Shp1-expressing Ptpn6(f/f) littermates, Ptpn6(H-KO) mice exhibited significantly lowered fasting glycemia and heightened hepatic insulin sensitivity. After HFD feeding, Ptpn6(H-KO) mice developed comparable levels of obesity as Ptpn6(f/f) mice, but they were remarkably protected from liver insulin resistance, as revealed by euglycemic clamps and hepatic insulin signaling determinations. Although Ptpn6(H-KO) mice still acquired diet-induced peripheral insulin resistance, they were less hyperinsulinemic during a glucose tolerance test because of reduced insulin secretion. Ptpn6(H-KO) mice also exhibited increased insulin clearance in line with enhanced CC1 tyrosine phosphorylation in liver. These results show that hepatocyte Shp1 plays a critical role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and represents a novel therapeutic target for obesity-linked diabetes.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is the major site of postprandial peripheral glucose uptake, but in obesity-induced insulin-resistant states insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is markedly impaired. Despite the importance of skeletal muscle in regulating glucose homeostasis, the specific transcriptional changes associated with insulin-sensitive vs. -resistant states in muscle remain to be fully elucidated. Herein, using an RNA-seq approach we identified 20 genes differentially expressed in an insulin-resistant state in skeletal muscle, including cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 3 ( Csrp3), which was highly expressed in insulin-sensitive conditions but significantly reduced in the insulin-resistant state. CSRP3 has diverse functional roles including transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal organization, but its role in glucose homeostasis has yet to be explored. Thus, we investigated the role of CSRP3 in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance in vivo. High-fat diet-fed CSRP3 knockout (KO) mice developed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance as well as increased inflammation in skeletal muscle compared with wild-type (WT) mice. CSRP3-KO mice had significantly impaired insulin signaling, decreased GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane, and enhanced levels of phospho-PKC? in muscle, which all contributed to reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in muscle in HFD-fed KO mice compared with WT mice. CSRP3 is a highly inducible protein and its expression is acutely increased after fasting. After 24h fasting, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in WT mice, but this effect was blunted in CSRP3-KO mice. In summary, we identify a novel role for Csrp3 expression in skeletal muscle in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:Susceptibility to toxic effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) depends, in part, on efficiency of iAs methylation by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). As3mt-knockout (KO) mice that cannot efficiently methylate iAs represent an ideal model to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure, including effects on metabolic phenotype. The present study compared measures of glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and obesity in male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO mice during a 24-week exposure to iAs in drinking water (0.1 or 1 mg As/L) and in control WT and As3mt-KO mice drinking deionized water. Results show that effects of iAs exposure on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance in either WT or KO mice were relatively minor and varied during the exposure. The major effects were associated with As3mt KO. Both male and female control KO mice had higher body mass with higher percentage of fat than their respective WT controls. However, only male KO mice were insulin resistant as indicated by high FBG, and high plasma insulin at fasting state and 15 min after glucose challenge. Exposure to iAs increased fat mass and insulin resistance in both male and female KO mice, but had no significant effects on body composition or insulin resistance in WT mice. These data suggest that As3mt KO is associated with an adverse metabolic phenotype that is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance, and that the extent of the impairment depends on sex and exposure to iAs, including exposure to iAs from mouse diet.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Insulin regulates renal glucose production and utilization; both these fluxes are increased in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether insulin also controls urinary glucose excretion is not known. METHODS:We applied the pancreatic clamp technique in 12 healthy subjects and 13 T2D subjects. Each participant received a somatostatin infusion and a variable glucose infusion to achieve (within 1 hour) and maintain glycemia at 22 mmol/L for 3 hours; next, a constant insulin infusion (240 pmol/min/kg) was added for another 3 hours. Urine was collected separately in each period for glucose and creatinine determination. RESULTS:During saline, glucose excretion was lower in T2D than controls in absolute terms (0.49 (0.32) vs 0.69 (0.18) mmol/min, median (IQR), p=0.01) and as a fraction of filtered glucose (16.2 (6.4) vs 19.9 (7.5)%, p<0.001). With insulin, whole-body glucose disposal rose more in controls than T2D (183 (48) vs 101 (48) µmol/kgFFM/min, p<0.0003). Insulin stimulated absolute and fractional glucose excretion in controls (p<0.01) but not in T2D. Sodium excretion paralleled glucose excretion. In the pooled data, fractional glucose excretion was directly related to whole-body glucose disposal and to fractional sodium excretion (r=0.52 and 0.54, both p<0.01). In another group of healthy controls, empagliflozin was administered before starting the pancreatic clamp to block sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). Under these conditions, insulin still enhanced both glucose and sodium excretion. CONCLUSIONS:Acute exogenous insulin infusion jointly stimulates renal glucose and sodium excretion, indicating that the effect may be mediated by SGLTs. This action is resistant in patients with diabetes, accounting for their increased retention of glucose and sodium, and is not abolished by partial SGLT2 inhibition by empagliflozin.