Short Lifespans of Memory T-cells in Bone Marrow, Blood, and Lymph Nodes Suggest That T-cell Memory Is Maintained by Continuous Self-Renewal of Recirculating Cells.
ABSTRACT: Memory T-cells are essential to maintain long-term immunological memory. It is widely thought that the bone marrow (BM) plays an important role in the long-term maintenance of memory T-cells. There is controversy however on the longevity and recirculating kinetics of BM memory T-cells. While some have proposed that the BM is a reservoir for long-lived, non-circulating memory T-cells, it has also been suggested to be the preferential site for memory T-cell self-renewal. In this study, we used in vivo deuterium labeling in goats to simultaneously quantify the average turnover rates-and thereby expected lifespans-of memory T-cells from BM, blood and lymph nodes (LN). While the fraction of Ki-67 positive cells, a snapshot marker for recent cell division, was higher in memory T-cells from blood compared to BM and LN, in vivo deuterium labeling revealed no substantial differences in the expected lifespans of memory T-cells between these compartments. Our results support the view that the majority of memory T-cells in the BM are self-renewing as fast as those in the periphery, and are continuously recirculating between the blood, BM, and LN.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a progressive malignancy of mature B-cells that involves the peripheral blood (PB), lymph nodes (LNs) and bone marrow (BM). Although the majority of CLL cells are in a resting state, small populations of proliferating cells exist; however, the anatomical site of active cell proliferation remains to be definitively determined. Based on findings that CLL cells in LNs have increased expression of B-cell activation genes, we tested the hypothesis that the fraction of 'newly born' cells would be highest in the LNs. Using a deuterium oxide (2H) in vivo labeling method in which patients consumed deuterated (heavy) water (2H2O), we determined CLL cell kinetics in concurrently obtained samples from LN, PB and BM. The LN was identified as the anatomical site harboring the largest fraction of newly born cells, compared to PB and BM. In fact, the calculated birth rate in the LN reached as high a 3.3% of the clone per day. Subdivision of the bulk CLL population by flow cytometry identified the subpopulation with the CXCR4dimCD5bright phenotype as containing the highest proportion of newly born cells within each compartment, including the LN, identifying this subclonal population as an important target for novel treatment approaches.
Project description:BM has been put forward as a major reservoir for memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells. In order to fulfill that function, BM should "store" memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, which in biological terms would require these "stored" memory cells to be in disequilibrium with the circulatory pool. This issue is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we unequivocally demonstrate that murine and human BM harbors a population of tissue-resident memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T (T<sub>RM</sub> ) cells. These cells develop against various pathogens, independently of BM infection or local antigen recognition. BM CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>RM</sub> cells share a transcriptional program with resident lymphoid cells in other tissues; they are polyfunctional cytokine producers and dependent on IL-15, Blimp-1, and Hobit. CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>RM</sub> cells reside in the BM parenchyma, but are in close contact with the circulation. Moreover, this pool of resident T cells is not size-restricted and expands upon peripheral antigenic re-challenge. This works extends the role of the BM in the maintenance of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell memory to include the preservation of an expandable reservoir of functional, non-recirculating memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, which develop in response to a large variety of peripheral antigens.
Project description:Sepsis survivors suffer from increased vulnerability to infections, and lymphopenia presumably contributes to this problem. The mechanisms of the recovery of memory CD4+ T cells after sepsis remain elusive. We used the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model of sepsis to study the restoration of the memory CD4+ T cells during recovery from sepsis. Then, adoptive transfer of antigen-specific naive CD4+ T cells followed by immunization and BrdU labeling were performed to trace the proliferation and migration of memory CD4+ T cells. We revealed that the bone marrow (BM) is the primary site of CD4+ memory T cell homing and proliferation after sepsis-induced lymphopenia. Of interest, BM CD4+ T cells had a higher basal proliferation rate in comparison with splenic T cells. These cells also show features of resident memory T cells yet have the capacity to migrate outside the BM niche and engraft secondary lymphoid organs. The BM niche also sustains viability and functionality of CD4+ T cells. We also identified IL-7 as the major inducer of proliferation of the BM memory CD4+ T cells and showed that recombinant IL-7 improves the recovery of these cells. Taken together, we provide data on the mechanism and location of memory CD4+ T cell proliferation during recovery from septic lymphopenia, which are of relevance in studying immunostimulatory therapies in sepsis.
Project description:The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human-engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All nonrecirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but most were CD4(+), CD103(-), and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD103(+) TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions, and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103(-) TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7(+)/L-selectin(+) central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7(+)/L-selectin(-) T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions, and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting that TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities.
Project description:Non-recirculating resident memory (TRM) and recirculating T cells mount vigorous immune responses to both self and foreign antigens in barrier tissues like the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract. Using impression cytology followed by flow cytometry we identified two TRM subsets and four recirculating T-subsets in the healthy human ocular surface. In dry eye disease, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed two clusters of patients with distinct T-cell signatures. Increased conjunctival central memory and naïve T cells characterized Cluster-1 patients, and increased CD8+ TRMs and CD4+ recirculating memory T cells characterized Cluster-2 patients. Interestingly these T-cell signatures are associated with different clinical features: the first signature correlated with increased ocular redness, and the second with reduced tear break up times. These findings open the door to immune-based characterization of dry eye disease and T-subset specific immunotherapies to suppress T-subsets involved in disease. They may also help with patient stratification during clinical trials of immunomodulators.
Project description:Memory CD8 T cells protect against intracellular pathogens by scanning host cell surfaces; thus, infection detection rates depend on memory cell number and distribution. Population analyses rely on cell isolation from whole organs, and interpretation is predicated on presumptions of near complete cell recovery. Paradigmatically, memory is parsed into central, effector, and resident subsets, ostensibly defined by immunosurveillance patterns but in practice identified by phenotypic markers. Because isolation methods ultimately inform models of memory T cell differentiation, protection, and vaccine translation, we tested their validity via parabiosis and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of a mouse memory CD8 T cell population. We report three major findings: lymphocyte isolation fails to recover most cells and biases against certain subsets, residents greatly outnumber recirculating cells within non-lymphoid tissues, and memory subset homing to inflammation does not conform to previously hypothesized migration patterns. These results indicate that most host cells are surveyed for reinfection by segregated residents rather than by recirculating cells that migrate throughout the blood and body.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM) has been put forward as a major reservoir for memory CD8+ T cells. In order to fulfill that function, BM should "store" memory CD8+ T cells, which in biological terms would require these "stored" memory cells to be in disequilibrium with the circulatory pool. This issue is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we unequivocally demonstrate that murine and human BM harbors a population of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (TRM ) cells. These cells develop against various pathogens, independently of BM infection or local antigen recognition. BM CD8+ TRM cells share a transcriptional program with resident lymphoid cells in other tissues; they are poly-functional cytokine producers and dependent on IL-15, Blimp-1 and Hobit. CD8+ TRM cells reside in the BM parenchyma, but are in close contact with the circulation. Moreover, this pool of resident T cells is not size-restricted and expands upon peripheral antigenic re-challenge. This works extends the role of the BM in the maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory to include the preservation of an expandable reservoir of functional, non-recirculating memory CD8+ T cells, which develop in response to a large variety of peripheral antigens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Overall design: In total 3 sorts were done, and for each sort the 8 T cell populations were isolated from a pool of 6 mice. The quality of the RNA sample of RM T cells of sort 4 was poor and therefore removed from analysis.
Project description:Regulated activation of the cytokine TGF-? by integrins ?v?6 and ?v?8 expressed on keratinocytes is required for residence of epidermal-resident memory T cells, but whether skin-derived signals also affect recirculating memory cells in the skin remains unclear. Here, we show that after resolution of skin vaccinia virus (VV) infection, antigen-specific circulating memory CD8+ T cells migrated into skin. In mice lacking ?v?6 and ?v?8 integrins (Itgb6-/-Itgb8fl/fl-K14-cre), the absence of epidermal-activated TGF-? resulted in a gradual loss of E- or P-selectin-binding central and peripheral memory populations, which were rescued when skin entry was inhibited. Skin recirculating memory cells were required for optimal host defense against skin VV infection. These data demonstrate that skin migration can persist after resolution of local skin infection and that the cytokine environment within this nonlymphoid tissue shapes the differentiation state and persistence of the central and peripheral memory-T-cell pool.
Project description:Inflammation promotes granulopoiesis over B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM). We studied B cell homeostasis in two murine models of T cell mediated chronic inflammation, namely calreticulin-deficient fetal liver chimeras (FLC), which develop severe blepharitis and alopecia due to T cell hyper responsiveness, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) caused by injection of CD4(+) naïve T cells into lymphopenic mice. We show herein that despite the severe depletion of B cell progenitors during chronic, peripheral T cell-mediated inflammation, the population of BM mature recirculating B cells is unaffected. These B cells are poised to differentiate to plasma cells in response to blood borne pathogens, in an analogous fashion to non-recirculating marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen. MZ B cells nevertheless differentiate more efficiently to plasma cells upon polyclonal stimulation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, and are depleted during chronic T cell mediated inflammation in vivo. The preservation of mature B cells in the BM is associated with increased concentration of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in serum and BM plasma. MIF produced by perivascular dendritic cells (DC) in the BM provides a crucial survival signal for recirculating B cells, and mice treated with a MIF inhibitor during inflammation showed significantly reduced mature B cells in the BM. These data indicate that MIF secretion by perivascular DC may promote the survival of the recirculating B cell pool to ensure responsiveness to blood borne microbes despite loss of the MZ B cell pool that accompanies depressed lymphopoiesis during inflammation.
Project description:Follicular Tregs (Tfr cells) inhibit antibody production, whereas follicular Th cells (Tfh cells) stimulate it. Tfr cells are found in blood; however, relatively little is known about the developmental signals for these cells or their functions. Here we demonstrated that circulating Tfr and Tfh cells share properties of memory cells and are distinct from effector Tfr and Tfh cells found within lymph nodes (LNs). Circulating memory-like Tfh cells were potently reactivated by DCs, homed to germinal centers, and produced more cytokines than did effector LN Tfh cells. Circulating memory-like Tfr cells persisted for long periods of time in vivo and homed to germinal centers after reactivation. Effector LN Tfr cells suppressed Tfh cell activation and production of cytokines, including IL-21, and inhibited class switch recombination and B cell activation. The suppressive function of this population was not dependent on specific antigen. Similar to LN effector Tfr cells, circulating Tfr cells also suppressed B and Tfh cells, but with a much lower capacity. Our data indicate that circulating memory-like Tfr cells are less suppressive than LN Tfr cells and circulating memory-like Tfh cells are more potent than LN effector Tfh cells; therefore, these circulating populations can provide rapid and robust systemic B cell help during secondary antigen exposure.