Sialylated keratan sulfate proteoglycans are Siglec-8 ligands in human airways.
ABSTRACT: Human siglecs are a family of 14 sialic acid-binding proteins, most of which are expressed on subsets of immune cells where they regulate immune responses. Siglec-8 is expressed selectively on human allergic inflammatory cells-primarily eosinophils and mast cells-where engagement causes eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell mediator release. Evidence supports a model in which human eosinophils and mast cells bind to Siglec-8 sialoglycan ligands on inflammatory target tissues to resolve allergic inflammation and limit tissue damage. To identify Siglec-8-binding sialoglycans from human airways, proteins extracted from postmortem human trachea were resolved by size-exclusion chromatography and composite agarose-acrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted and probed by Siglec-8-Fc blot overlay. Three size classes of Siglec-8 ligands were identified: 250 kDa, 600 kDa and 1 MDa, each of which was purified by affinity chromatography using a recombinant pentameric form of Siglec-8. Proteomic mass spectrometry identified all size classes as the proteoglycan aggrecan, a finding validated by immunoblotting. Glycan array studies demonstrated Siglec-8 binding to synthetic glycans with a terminal Neu5Ac?2-3(6-sulfo)-Gal determinant, a quantitatively minor terminus on keratan sulfate (KS) chains of aggrecan. Treating human tracheal extracts with sialidase or keratanase eliminated Siglec-8 binding, indicating sialylated KS chains as Siglec-8-binding determinants. Treating human tracheal histological sections with keratanase also completely eliminated the binding of Siglec-8-Fc. Finally, Siglec-8 ligand purified from human trachea extracts induced increased apoptosis of freshly isolated human eosinophils in vitro. We conclude that sialylated KS proteoglycans are endogenous human airway ligands that bind Siglec-8 and may regulate allergic inflammation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Pathologic accumulation and activation of mast cells and eosinophils are implicated in allergic and inflammatory diseases. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is an inhibitory receptor selectively expressed on mast cells, eosinophils and, at a lower extent, basophils. When engaged with an antibody, Siglec-8 can induce apoptosis of activated eosinophils and inhibit mast cell activation. AK002 is a humanized, non-fucosylated IgG1 anti-Siglec-8 antibody undergoing clinical investigation for treatment of allergic, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases. Here we examine the human tissue selectivity of AK002 and evaluate the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo activity of AK002 on eosinophils and mast cells. METHODS:The affinity of AK002 for Siglec-8 and CD16 was determined by biolayer interferometry. Ex vivo activity of AK002 on human eosinophils from blood and dissociated human tissue was tested in apoptosis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. The in vivo activity of a murine precursor of AK002 (mAK002) was tested in a passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) humanized mouse model. RESULTS:AK002 bound selectively to mast cells, eosinophils and, at a lower level, to basophils in human blood and tissue and not to other cell types examined. AK002 induced apoptosis of interleukin-5-activated blood eosinophils and demonstrated potent ADCC activity against blood eosinophils in the presence of natural killer cells. AK002 also significantly reduced eosinophils in dissociated human lung tissue. Furthermore, mAK002 prevented PSA in humanized mice through mast cell inhibition. CONCLUSION:AK002 selectively evokes potent apoptotic and ADCC activity against eosinophils and prevents systemic anaphylaxis through mast cell inhibition.
Project description:Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a human cell surface protein expressed exclusively on eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils that, when engaged, induces eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell mediator release. This makes Siglec-8 a promising therapeutic target to treat diseases involving these cell types. However, preclinical studies of Siglec-8 targeting in vivo are lacking because this protein is only found in humans, apes, and some monkeys. Therefore, we have developed a mouse strain in which SIGLEC8 transcription is activated by Cre recombinase and have crossed this mouse with the eoCre mouse to achieve eosinophil-specific expression. We confirmed that Siglec-8 is expressed exclusively on the surface of mature eosinophils in multiple tissues at levels comparable to those on human blood eosinophils. Following ovalbumin sensitization and airway challenge, Siglec-8 knock-in mice generated a pattern of allergic lung inflammation indistinguishable from that of littermate controls, suggesting that Siglec-8 expression within the eosinophil compartment does not alter allergic eosinophilic inflammation. Using bone marrow from these mice, we demonstrated that, during maturation, Siglec-8 expression occurs well before the late eosinophil developmental marker C-C motif chemokine receptor 3, consistent with eoCre expression. Antibody ligation of the receptor induces Siglec-8 endocytosis and alters the phosphotyrosine profile of these cells, indicative of productive signaling. Finally, we demonstrated that mouse eosinophils expressing Siglec-8 undergo cell death when the receptor is engaged, further evidence that Siglec-8 is functional on these cells. These mice should prove useful to investigate Siglec-8 biology and targeting in vivo in a variety of eosinophilic disease models.
Project description:Siglec-8 is a human immune-inhibitory receptor that, when engaged by specific self-glycans, triggers eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell degranulation, providing an endogenous mechanism to down-regulate immune responses of these central inflammatory effector cells. Here we used solution NMR spectroscopy to dissect the fine specificity of Siglec-8 toward different sialylated and sulfated carbohydrate ligands and determined the structure of the Siglec-8 lectin domain in complex with its prime glycan target 6'-sulfo sialyl Lewis(x) A canonical motif for sialic acid recognition, extended by a secondary motif formed by unique loop regions, recognizing 6-O-sulfated galactose dictates tight specificity distinct from other Siglec family members and any other endogenous glycan recognition receptors. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed key contacts of both interfaces to be equally essential for binding. Our work provides critical structural and mechanistic insights into how Siglec-8 selectively recognizes its glycan target, rationalizes the functional impact of site-specific glycan sulfation in modulating this lectin-glycan interaction, and will enable the rational design of Siglec-8-targeted agonists to treat eosinophil- and mast cell-related allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-F is a proapoptotic receptor on mouse eosinophils, but little is known about its natural tissue ligand. OBJECTIVE:We previously reported that the St3gal3 gene product ?2,3 sialyltransferase (ST3Gal-III) is required for constitutive Siglec-F lung ligand synthesis. We therefore hypothesized that attenuation of ST3Gal-III will decrease Siglec-F ligand levels and enhance allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. METHODS:C57BL/6 wild-type mice and St3gal3 heterozygous or homozygous deficient (St3gal3(+/-) and St3gal3(-/-)) mice were used. Eosinophilic airway inflammation was induced through sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) and repeated airway OVA challenge. Siglec-F human IgG1 fusion protein (Siglec-F-Fc) was used to detect Siglec-F ligands. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed for inflammation, as well as various cytokines and chemokines. Serum was analyzed for allergen-specific immunoglobulin levels. RESULTS:Western blotting with Siglec-F-Fc detected approximately 500-kDa and approximately 200-kDa candidate Siglec-F ligands that were less abundant in St3gal3(+/-) lung extracts and nearly absent in St3gal3(-/-) lung extracts. After OVA sensitization and challenge, Siglec-F ligands were increased in wild-type mouse lungs but less so in St3gal3 mutants, whereas peribronchial and BALF eosinophil numbers were greater in the mutants, with the following rank order: St3gal3(-/-) ? St3gal3(+/-) > wild-type mice. Levels of various cytokines and chemokines in BALF were not significantly different among these 3 types of mice, although OVA-specific serum IgG1 levels were increased in St3gal3(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS:After OVA sensitization and challenge, St3gal3(+/-) and St3gal3(-/-) mice have more intense allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation and less sialylated Siglec-F ligands in their airways. One possible explanation for these findings is that levels of sialylated airway ligands for Siglec-F might be diminished in mice with attenuated levels of ST3Gal-III, resulting in a reduction in a natural proapoptotic pathway for controlling airway eosinophilia.
Project description:Aberrant accumulation and activation of eosinophils and potentially mast cells (MCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs), including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis (EG), and gastroenteritis (EGE). Current treatment options, such as diet restriction and corticosteroids, have limited efficacy and are often inappropriate for chronic use. One promising new approach is to deplete eosinophils and inhibit MCs with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 8 (Siglec-8), an inhibitory receptor selectively expressed on MCs and eosinophils. Here, we characterize MCs and eosinophils from human EG and EoE biopsies using flow cytometry and evaluate the effects of an anti-Siglec-8 mAb using a potentially novel Siglec-8-transgenic mouse model in which EG/EGE was induced by ovalbumin sensitization and intragastric challenge. MCs and eosinophils were significantly increased and activated in human EG and EoE biopsies compared with healthy controls. Similar observations were made in EG/EGE mice. In Siglec-8-transgenic mice, anti-Siglec-8 mAb administration significantly reduced eosinophils and MCs in the stomach, small intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes and decreased levels of inflammatory mediators. In summary, these findings suggest a role for both MCs and eosinophils in EGID pathogenesis and support the evaluation of anti-Siglec-8 as a therapeutic approach that targets both eosinophils and MCs.
Project description:CD33-related Siglecs (CD33rSiglecs) are a family of sialic acid-recognizing lectins on immune cells whose biologic functions are unknown. We studied in vivo functions of Siglec-F, the CD33rSiglec expressed on mouse eosinophils, which are prominent in allergic processes. Induction of allergic lung inflammation in mice caused up-regulation of Siglec-F on blood and bone marrow eosinophils, accompanied by newly induced expression on some CD4(+) cells, as well as quantitative up-regulation of endogenous Siglec-F ligands in the lung tissue and airways. Taken together with the tyrosine-based inhibitory motif in the cytosolic tail of Siglec-F, the data suggested a negative feedback loop, controlling allergic responses of eosinophils and helper T cells, via Siglec-F and Siglec-F ligands. To pursue this hypothesis, we created Siglec-F-null mice. Allergen-challenged null mice showed increased lung eosinophil infiltration, enhanced bone marrow and blood eosinophilia, delayed resolution of lung eosinophilia, and reduced peribronchial-cell apoptosis. Anti-Siglec-F antibody cross-linking also enhanced eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. These data support the proposed negative feedback role for Siglec-F, represent the first in vivo demonstration of biologic functions for any CD33rSiglec, and predict a role for human Siglec-8 (the isofunctional paralog of mouse Siglec-F) in regulating the pathogenesis of human eosinophil-mediated disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) F is a glycan-binding protein selectively expressed on mouse eosinophils. Its engagement induces apoptosis, suggesting a pathway for ameliorating eosinophilia in the setting of asthma and other eosinophil-associated diseases. Siglec-F recognizes sialylated sulfated glycans in glycan-binding assays, but the identities of endogenous sialoside ligands and their glycoprotein carriers in vivo are unknown. OBJECTIVES:To use mouse lung-derived materials to isolate, biochemically identify, and biologically characterize naturally occurring endogenous glycan ligands for Siglec-F. METHODS:Lungs from normal and mucin-deficient mice, as well as mouse tracheal epithelial cells, were investigated in vitro and in vivo for the expression of Siglec-F ligands. Western blotting and cytochemistry used Siglec-F-Fc as a probe for directed purification, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of recognized glycoproteins. Purified components were tested in mouse eosinophil-binding assays and flow cytometry-based cell death assays. RESULTS:We detected mouse lung glycoproteins that bound to Siglec-F; binding was sialic acid dependent. Proteomic analysis of Siglec-F binding material identified Muc5b and Muc4. Cross-affinity enrichment and histochemical analysis of lungs from mucin-deficient mice assigned and validated the identity of Muc5b as one glycoprotein ligand for Siglec-F. Purified mucin preparations carried sialylated and sulfated glycans, bound to eosinophils and induced their death in vitro. Mice conditionally deficient in Muc5b displayed exaggerated eosinophilic inflammation in response to intratracheal installation of IL-13. CONCLUSIONS:These data identify a previously unrecognized endogenous anti-inflammatory property of airway mucins by which their glycans can control lung eosinophilia through engagement of Siglec-F.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Siglec-8 is present at a high level on human blood eosinophils and low level on blood basophils. Engagement of Siglec-8 on blood eosinophils causes its internalization and results in death. Siglec-8 is a potential therapeutic target in eosinophilic asthma. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine Siglec-8 levels on eosinophils and basophils recruited during lung inflammation. METHOD:We analyzed surface Siglec-8 by flow cytometry on cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 48 h after segmental lung allergen challenge of human subjects with mild allergic asthma and used confocal microscopy to compare Siglec-8 distribution on BAL and blood eosinophils. RESULTS:Like their blood counterparts, BAL eosinophils had high unimodal surface Siglec-8, while BAL basophils had lower but detectable surface Siglec-8. BAL macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells did not express surface Siglec-8. Microscopy of freshly isolated blood eosinophils demonstrated homogeneous Siglec-8 distribution over the cell surface. Upon incubation with IL-5, Siglec-8 on the surface of eosinophils became localized in patches both at the nucleopod tip and at the opposite cell pole. BAL eosinophils also had a patchy Siglec-8 distribution. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that 48 h after segmental allergen challenge, overall levels of Siglec-8 expression on airway eosinophils resemble those on blood eosinophils, but with a patchier distribution, a pattern consistent with activation. Thus, therapeutic targeting of Siglec-8 has the potential to impact blood as well as lung eosinophils, which may be associated with an improved outcome in eosinophilic lung diseases.
Project description:Immunochemical methods have been used to detect and characterize two classes of polypeptide-associated keratan sulphate (KS) in epithelial secretions from human endometrium. Monoclonal antibody D9B1 binds to a hormonally regulated sialylated epitope associated with KS in a high relative molecular mass (250,000-350,000) component that bands as a doublet in SDS/PAGE. These KS chain(s) are sensitive to keratanase, endo-beta-galactosidase and N-glycanase. A second, more highly sulphated, type of KS is also present, that is resistant to all three enzymes. This can be detected using monoclonal antibody 5D4. It is present throughout the menstrual cycle and is associated principally with a component of Mr 140,000. Thus secretory KS contributes to the environment of the implanting embryo, may be used as a molecular index of endometrial function and could be important in the establishment of pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) 8 is selectively expressed on eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils and, when engaged on eosinophils, can cause cell death. OBJECTIVE:We sought to characterize surface and soluble Siglec-8 (sSiglec-8) levels in normal donors (NDs) and eosinophilic donors (EOs) and assess the efficacy of anti-Siglec-8 antibodies in inducing eosinophil cell death in vitro. METHODS:Eosinophil expression of Siglec-8 was assessed by using flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Serum sSiglec-8 levels were measured by means of ELISA. Induction of eosinophil death by IgG4 (chimeric 2E2 IgG4) and afucosylated IgG1 (chimeric 2E2 IgG1 [c2E2 IgG1]) anti-Siglec-8 antibodies was evaluated in vitro by using flow cytometry and in vivo in humanized mice. RESULTS:Siglec-8 was consistently expressed on eosinophils from NDs and EOs and did not correlate with absolute eosinophil count or disease activity. sSiglec-8 levels were measurable in sera from most donors unrelated to absolute eosinophil counts or Siglec-8 surface expression. c2E2 IgG1 and chimeric 2E2 IgG4 were equally effective at inducing cell death (Annexin-V positivity) of purified eosinophils from NDs and EOs after overnight IL-5 priming. In contrast, killing of purified eosinophils without IL-5 was only seen in EOs, and natural killer cell-mediated eosinophil killing was seen only with c2E2 IgG1. Finally, treatment of humanized mice with anti-Siglec antibody led to robust depletion of IL-5-induced eosinophilia in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Siglec-8 is highly expressed on blood eosinophils from EOs and NDs and represents a potential therapeutic target for eosinophilic disorders. Enhanced killing of eosinophils in the presence of IL-5 might lead to increased efficacy in patients with IL-5-driven eosinophilia.