Novel anti-inflammatory film as a delivery system for the external medication with bioactive phytochemical "Apocynin".
ABSTRACT: Recently, Apocynin (APO) has emerged as a bioactive phytochemical with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No reports have been published so far concerning its topical application as a pharmaceutical dosage form for prospective use. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to fabricate novel anti-inflammatory film for external medication with APO.APO film was prepared using casein (CAS) as a natural protein film former by solvent casting technique. The medicated film was extensively evaluated in terms of its various physicochemical characteristics, ex vivo skin permeation profile, stability, and finally in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.The film represented satisfactory mechanical properties along with good flexibility. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry revealed possible solubility of APO in the amorphous CAS and inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the film components. The ex vivo skin permeation results of the medicated film demonstrated non-Fickian diffusion mechanism of the permeated drug. Application of APO film to rat paw before carrageenan-induced paw edema or after induction disclosed eminent anti-inflammatory activity expressed by marked decrease in paw swelling (%) and increase in edema inhibition rate (%). In addition, histopathologic examination revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory scores. The immunohistochemical expression levels of both nuclear factor kappa B and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly suppressed.These results indicated that CAS film could be applied as a promising external delivery system for the anti-inflammatory APO.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anacardium occidentale L. is a medicinal plant with powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Acute inflammatory events cause tissue alterations, decrease of anti-oxidative endogenous enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione, neutrophils infiltration, increase in the activities of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and pro-inflammatory release. METHODS:Paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw in rats, but 30 min before a group of animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg of cashew nuts to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative response. RESULTS:In the present work, we found that (1) cashew nuts reduced the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema limiting the formation of edema and pain; (2) cashew nuts ameliorated the diminutions of the anti-oxidative enzymes caused by carrageenan injection; (3) cashew nuts decreased myeloperoxidase malondialdehyde activity induced by carrageenan; and (4) cashew nuts acted by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines response and nitrate/nitrite formation stimulated by carrageenan injection. CONCLUSIONS:The mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects exerted by cashew nuts were relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI) were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine). Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1?, TNF-? and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.
Project description:Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the major organosulfur constituent in garlic, with a variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined the potential antiedematous impact of DADS- versus carrageenan-mediated paw edema in mice. Carrageenan injection potentiated an inflammatory reaction as presented by the elevated serological C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, Tnf?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?, Il1b), interleukin-2 (IL-2, Il2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, Ptgs2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, Ccl1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was declined in the injured paw tissue. Additionally, carrageenan elevated lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione content (GSH). Remarkably, DADS was found to inhibit the inflammatory signaling, suppressed the developed oxidative damage, and protected the histopathological alterations in the inflamed paw tissue in response to carrageenan injection. Our findings suggest that DADS could be used as an alternative therapy used to alleviate the pathophysiological changes associated with the genesis of paw edema through its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant impacts.
Project description:Curcumin (CUR), a promising naturally occurring dietary compound, is commonly recognized as the potential anti-inflammatory agent. While the application of CUR was hampered by its low stability and poor systemic bioavailability, it has been suggested that the biological activities of CUR are intimately related to its metabolites. In the current investigation, we aimed to comparatively explore the anti-inflammatory effects of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), octahydrocurcumin (OHC), and CUR, and to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e., xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that THC and OHC exerted significant and dose-dependent inhibitions on the formation of ear edema induced by xylene and paw edema provoked by carrageenan and inhibited the Evans blue dye leakage in peritoneal cavity elicited by acetic acid. Moreover, THC and OHC treatments were more effective than CUR in selectively inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathways via transforming growth factor ? activated kinase-1 (TAK1) inactivation in the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model.
Project description:According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted. Results demonstrated that PAO significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by xylene, lowered vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, PAO markedly decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO), but increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). PAO was also shown to significantly downregulate the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot analysis revealed that PAO remarkably inhibited p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation. In conclusion, PAO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity probably by suppressing the activation of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Project description:Houttuynia cordata Thunb. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments in Asian countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. In Thailand, H. cordata fermentation products (HCFPs) are commercially produced and popularly consumed throughout the country without experimental validation. Anti-inflammatory activity of H. cordata fresh leaves or aerial parts has previously been reported, however, the anti-inflammatory activity of the commercially available HCFPs produced by the industrialized process has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of the selected industrialized HCFP. LPS-induced RAW264.7 and carrageenan-induced paw edema models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of HCFP. The phenolic acid components of HCFP aqueous and methanolic extracts were investigated using HPLC analysis. In RAW264.7 cells, the HCFP aqueous and methanolic extracts reduced NO production and suppressed LPS-stimulated expression of PGE2, iNOS, IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 levels in a concentration-dependent manner, however, less effect on COX-2 level was observed. In Wistar rats, 3.08 and 6.16 mL/kg HCFP reduced paw edema after 2 h carrageenan stimulation, suggesting the second phase anti-edematous effect similar to diclofenac (150 mg/kg). Whereas, 6.16 mL/kg HCFP also reduced paw edema after 1 h carrageenan stimulation, suggesting the first phase anti-edematous effect. Quantitative HPLC revealed the active phenolic compounds including syringic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, which possess anti-inflammatory activity. Our results demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of the industrialized HCFP both in vitro and in vivo, thus validating its promising anti-inflammation potential.
Project description:Research so far has only shown that edible red macroalgae, Sarcodia ceylanica has the ability to eliminate free radicals and anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial properties. This study was conducted both in vitro and in vivo on the ethyl acetate extract (PD1) of farmed red macroalgae in order to explore its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PD1, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. For evaluating the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of PD1, we used carrageenan-induced rat paw edema to produce inflammatory pain. The in vitro results indicated that PD1 inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Oral PD1 can reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and inflammatory nociception. PD1 can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced leukocyte infiltration, as well as the protein expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, interleukin-1?, and myeloperoxidase) in inflammatory tissue. The above results indicated that PD1 has great potential to be turned into a functional food or used in the development of new anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The results from this study are expected to help scientists in the continued development of Sarcodia ceylanica for other biomedical applications.
Project description:We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of (+)-syringaresinol (SGRS), a lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using enzyme-based immuno assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses. Additionally, in vivo effects of SGRS in the acute inflammatory state were examined by using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay in experimental mice. As a result, treatment with SGRS (25, 50, and 100??M) inhibited protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1beta (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by LPS. Moreover, SGRS also reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2, including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 cytokines in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, carrageenan-induced paw edema assay validated the in vivo anti-edema effect of SGRS. Interestingly, SGRS (30?mg/kg) suppressed carrageenan-induced elevation of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 mRNA levels as well as COX-2 and NF-?B protein levels, suggesting SGRS may possess anti-inflammatory activities.
Project description:Medicinal plants have been used as a source of effective and safe alternative therapeutic agents for various ailments including inflammation. In fact, the aim of this study is to assess the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential effects of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin), Linum usitatissimum (linseed), and Opuntia ficus indica (prickly pear) oils on acute inflammation using carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The study was conducted on 36 rats splitted in 6 groups: a normal control group and 5 carrageenan-treated groups (1%), each treated with either a normal saline, the reference drug ("Inflocine®" 2?mg/paw), pumpkin, linseed, or prickly pear oils (25??l/paw). The response to these treatments was mainly assessed by the measuring of edema paw size, hematological and biochemical analysis, oxidative stress testing, and histological study. All the studied seed oils especially prickly pear oil proved to be efficient in treating acute inflammation. The oil-treated groups revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the clinical signs of inflammation, hematological parameters (white blood cells and platelets), concentrations of CRP and fibrinogen, and congestion compared to the normal saline-treated group. The results also showed that the tested oils, endowed with a radical scavenging ability, could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in carrageenan-treated skin by reducing the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (TBARS, AOPP). The anti-inflammatory effect of the tested oils was closely related to both their antioxidant properties as well as their bioactive compounds (polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytosterols). For the first time, the findings of the current study highlight the "in vivo" anti-inflammatory property of pumpkin, linseed, and prickly pear oils on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation by regulating inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers.
Project description:Mallotus philippensis L.(MP) commonly known as Kamala tree in Hindi,is a small to medium-sized monoecious tree.The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of MPand a new flavanoneisolated from it by using in vivo models of inflammation.Albino wistar rats of either sex weighing 150-200g were used. Seven groups were made (n = 6), namely normal control group (normal saline, 1 ml/kg), standard control group (acetylsalicylic acid, 100 mg/kg), methanol crude extract (300 and 500 mg/kg), ethylacetate fraction (300 and 500 mg/kg) and active compound 4 (new flavanone, 50 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1and IL-6) and activity of antioxidant enzymeslike catalase and glutathione peroxidase were estimated. It was found that the methanol extract, ethylacetate fraction and Flavanonedemonstrated significant reduction in paw edema in carrageenan induced paw edema method as compared to control. They also diminished the serum TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1 levels. Significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde levels and increased the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue. Similarly there was asignificant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. In conclusion, MP extracts and the newflavanonepossess anti-inflammatory activity and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines and increased free radical scavenging activity.