Maternal feeding practices in relation to dietary intakes and BMI in 5 year-olds in a multi-ethnic Asian population.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In Asia, little is known about how maternal feeding practices are associated with dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) in preschoolers. OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationships between maternal feeding practices with dietary intakes and BMI in preschoolers in Asia using cross-sectional analysis in the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. PARTICIPANT SETTINGS:Mothers (n = 511) who completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) when children were 5 years old. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Associations between 12 maternal feeding practices (mean scores divided into tertiles) and children's dietary intakes of seven food groups and BMI z-scores were examined using the general linear regression model. Weight and height of the child were measured, and dietary intakes derived from the FFQ. RESULTS:Compared to those in the low tertile, mothers in the high tertile of modelling healthy food intakes had children with higher intakes of vegetables[+20.0g/day (95%CI:11.6,29.5)] and wholegrains[+ 20.9g/day (9.67,31.1)] but lower intakes of sweet snacks[-10.1g/day (-16.3,-4.94)] and fast-foods[-5.84g/day (-10.2,-1.48)]. Conversely, children of mothers in the high tertile for allowing child control (lack of parental control) had lower intake of vegetables[-15.2g/day (-26.6,-5.21)] and wholegrains[-13.6g/day (-22.9,-5.27)], but higher intakes of sweet snacks[+13.7g/day (7.7, 19.8)] and fast-foods[+6.63g/day (3.55,9.72)]. In relation to BMI at 5 years, food restrictions for weight was associated with higher BMI z-scores [0.86SD (0.61,1.21)], while use of pressure was associated with lower BMI z-scores[-0.49SD(-0.78,-0.21)]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Modelling healthy food intakes by mothers was the key feeding practice associated with higher intakes of healthy foods and lower intakes of discretionary foods. The converse was true for allowing child control. Only food restrictions for weight and use of pressure were associated with BMI z-scores.
Project description:In the first two years of life, exposure to wholegrain foods may help establish life?long consumption patterns associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, yet intake data are lacking for this age group. This cross?sectional analysis aimed to determine intakes and food sources of wholegrains in a cohort of 828 Australian children aged 12-14 months, and to identify determinants of wholegrain intake. Three non?consecutive days of dietary intake data were collected using a 24?h recall and 2?day estimated food record. The multiple source method was used to estimate usual wholegrain intake, and the multivariable general linear model procedure used to identify associations between usual wholegrain intake and socio?demographic determinants. The mean wholegrain intake was 19.5 (±14) g/day, and the major food sources were ready to eat breakfast cereals (40%) breads and bread rolls (26.6%), flours and other cereal grains (9.4%), and commercial infant foods (8.3%). Lower wholegrain intakes were observed for children whose mothers were born in China (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and other Asian countries (<i>p</i> < 0.001), with the exception of India (<i>p</i> = 0.193); those with mothers aged less than 25 years (<i>p</i> = 0.001) and those with two or more siblings (<i>p</i> = 0.013). This study adds to the weight of global evidence highlighting the need to increase children's intake of foods high in wholegrain, including in the first few years of life.
Project description:The first two years of life is a period of rapid growth and development. During this time a lack of key nutrients, including iron, can have long-lasting effects on motor and cognitive performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine intake and sources of iron in a cohort of 828 toddlers (mean age; 13.1 mo) participating in the Adelaide-based Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE), and to identify determinants of iron intake. At approximately 12 months of age, 3 non-consecutive days of dietary intake data were collected using a 24-h recall and 2-days food record. The Multiple Source Method was used to combine data from the 24-h recall and each day of the food record to estimate usual iron intake and descriptive statistics were used to report sources of iron. Linear regression was used to identify associations between iron intake and non-dietary determinants (maternal age, education, country of birth, BMI, socioeconomic position, parity, toddler sex) and primary milk feeding method at 12 months. The mean intake of iron was 7.0 (95% CI 6.7?7.2) mg/day and 18.2% of children had usual intakes below the estimated average requirement of 4 mg/day. The main sources of iron included infant and toddler cereals and formulas. Milk feeding method and parity were significantly associated with iron intake. Toddlers with siblings and those who received breast milk as their primary milk feed had significantly lower iron intakes than only children and those who received formula, respectively. The Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines promote the importance of iron-iron-rich complementary foods such as meat and meat alternatives. However, low intakes of this food group suggest that parents do not recognize the importance of these foods or understand the specific foods that toddlers should be eating.
Project description:PURPOSE:To examine the associations of energy, macronutrient and food intakes with GWG on 960 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort. METHODS:Dietary intake was assessed at 26-28 weeks' gestation with a 24-hour recall and 3-day food diary. GWG z-scores were calculated from first (4-13 weeks' gestation) and last (30-40 weeks gestation) measured weights; inadequate and excessive GWG were defined using the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on weights between 15 and 35 weeks' gestation. Associations were examined using substitution models for macronutrient composition, with linear or multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS:Mean ± SD daily energy intake was 1868 ± 598 kcal, and percentage energy intakes were 51.8 ± 8.9% from carbohydrate, 15.7 ± 3.9% from protein and 32.6 ± 7.7% from fat. Higher energy intake (per 500 kcal increment) was associated with 0.18 SD higher GWG. In isocaloric diets, higher-carbohydrate and lower-fat intakes (at 5% energy substitution) were associated with 0.07 SD higher GWG, and 14% higher likelihood of excessive GWG. Concordantly, the highest tertile of carbohydrate-rich foods intake was associated with 0.20 SD higher GWG, but the highest tertile of fruit and vegetable intake was independently associated with 60% lower likelihood of inadequate GWG. Additionally, the highest tertile of dairy intake was associated with 0.18 SD lower GWG; and the highest tertile of plant-based protein foods intake was associated with 60% and 34% lower likelihood of inadequate and excessive GWG. CONCLUSIONS:Balancing the proportions of carbohydrates and fat, and a higher intake of plant-based protein foods may be beneficial for achieving optimal GWG.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study evaluated the food and nutrient intakes of selected breastfeeding mothers and identified the top food sources of nutrient intakes.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a cross-sectional, non-interventional study conducted in one of the private medical centers in Metro Manila, Philippines.<h4>Participants</h4>The sample size included 70 mothers of healthy, term, exclusively breastfed infants aged 21-26 days at enrollment. Mothers were scheduled to visit the clinic at days 1, 22, 57, and day 90.Similarly, food diaries were obtained during these periods with a 3-day food record per clinic visit totaling to 12 records per mother at the end of 90 days. At every clinic visit, the records were validated face - to - face by the registered nutritionist - dietitians. An extension of the mother's participation until day 155 was implemented for the collection of clinical outcomes used by Pediatricians. Mean food intakes were calculated. A PC-Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program was used in the estimation of inadequate intakes. Socio-economic status was collected using standard questionnaires. Weight and height were measured using standard techniques to compute for BMI.<h4>Results</h4>Anthropometric results for the breastfeeding mothers reported a mean weight of 56.9 kg (SE = 1.3) and a mean height of 152.4 cm (SE = 0.6). In terms of body mass index (BMI), 8.6% were chronic energy deficient, and 34.3% were overweight while 12.9% were obese. Mean energy intake of breastfeeding mothers was 2516.7 kcal/day, which was 28.6% higher than the EER of 1957 kcal/day. Mean protein intake was 78.4 g/day, which was 37% inadequate while fat intake as percentage of total energy was excessive by 4%. Nutrient inadequacy is high for almost all nutrients: iron (99%), folate (96%), riboflavin (39%), vitamin B6 (63%), vitamin B12 (46%) and thiamine (22%). The top 5-food sources with highest percent contribution to energy are rice (43.1%), bread (8.1%), pork (7.7%), powdered milk (5.9%), and sweet bakery products (5%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>There is a high prevalence of protein and micronutrient inadequacies in the diet of breastfeeding mothers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among breastfeeding mothers. These findings might be explained by the low variety and nutrient-poor foods consumed by the breastfeeding mothers. Understanding the major food sources of nutrient intake of breastfeeding mothers could be used to intensify if not craft interventions to address the nutrient gaps. Improving the maternal nutrition may contribute to having quality breastmilk to infants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Food insecurity has been associated with dietary intake and weight status in UK adults and children although results have been mixed and ethnicity has not been explored. We aimed to compare prevalence and trajectories of weight and dietary intakes among food secure and insecure White British and Pakistani-origin families.<h4>Methods</h4>At 12 months postpartum, mothers in the Born in Bradford cohort completed a questionnaire on food security status and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing their child's intake in the previous month; at 18 months postpartum, mothers completed a short-form FFQ assessing dietary intake in the previous 12 months. Weights and heights of mothers and infants were assessed at 12-, 24-, and 36-months postpartum, with an additional measurement of children taken at 4-5 years. Associations between food security status and dietary intakes were assessed using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney for continuous variables and ?<sup>2</sup> or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. Quantile and logistic regression were used to determine dietary intakes adjusting for mother's age. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) in mothers and BMI z-scores in children.<h4>Results</h4>At 12 months postpartum, White British mothers reported more food insecurity than Pakistani-origin mothers (11% vs 7%; p?<?0.01) and more food insecure mothers were overweight. Between 12 and 36 months postpartum, BMI increased more among food insecure Pakistani-origin mothers (??=?0.77 units, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.40, 1.10]) than food secure (??=?0.44 units, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.55). This was also found in Pakistani-origin children (BMI z-score: food insecure ??=?0.40 units, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.59; food secure ??=?0.25 units, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.29). No significant increases in BMI were observed for food secure or insecure White British mothers while BMI z-score increased by 0.17 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.21) for food secure White British children. Food insecure mothers and children had dietary intakes of poorer quality, with fewer vegetables and higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Food security status is associated with body weight and dietary intakes differentially by ethnicity. These are important considerations for developing targeted interventions.
Project description:Mother's body mass index (BMI) is a strong predictor of child BMI. Whether mother's BMI correlates with child's food intake is unclear. We investigated associations between mother's BMI/overweight and child's food intake using data from two German birth cohorts.Food intakes from 3230 participants were derived from parent-completed food frequency questionnaires. Intakes of 11 food groups were categorized into three levels using group- and sex-specific tertile cutoffs. Mother's BMI and overweight were calculated on the basis of questionnaire data. Multinomial regression models assessed associations between a child's food intake and mother's BMI/overweight. Linear regression models assessed associations between a child's total energy intake and mother's BMI. Models were adjusted for study region, maternal education, child's age, sex, pubertal status and energy intake and the BMIs of the child and father.Mothers' BMI was associated with high meat intake in children (adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR (95% confidence interval))=1.06 (1.03; 1.09)). Mothers' overweight was associated with the meat intake (medium versus low RRR=1.30 (1.07; 1.59); high versus low RRR=1.50 (1.19; 1.89)) and egg intake (medium versus low RRR=1.24 (1.02; 1.50); high versus low RRR=1.30 (1.07; 1.60)) of children. There were no consistent associations for rest of the food groups. For every one-unit increase in mothers' BMI, the total energy intake in children increased by 9.2 kcal (3.7; 14.7). However, this effect was not significant after adjusting for children's BMI.Our results suggest that mother's BMI and mother's overweight are important correlates of a child's intake of energy, meat and eggs.
Project description:Little is known about the impact of less healthy snack foods on weight trajectories during infancy. This secondary analysis of data from the Nurture cohort explored prospective associations of less healthy snack foods with infant weight trajectories. Pregnant women were recruited and, upon delivery of a single live infant, 666 mothers agreed to participate. Mothers completed sociodemographic and infant feeding questionnaires, and infant anthropometrics were collected during home visits at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Less healthy snack food consumption was assessed by asking how frequently baby snacks and sweets were consumed each day during the previous three months. Multilevel growth curve models explored associations of baby snacks and sweets with infant weight-for-length (WFL) z-scores. On average, mothers were 27 years old, 71.5% were non-Hispanic Black, and 55.4% had household incomes of ?$20,000/year. Consumption of less healthy snack foods increased during infancy with a median intake of 3.0 baby snacks/day and 0.7 sweets/day between 10 and 12 months. Growth curve models showed that infants who consumed sweets >2 times/day had significantly higher WFL z-scores during the second half of infancy compared to infants who never consumed sweets. Less healthy snacks may contribute to the risk of obesity during infancy and promoting healthy snack food choices during this critical time is important.
Project description:Breakfast choice is correlated with daily nutrient intakes, but this association may not be solely explained by the breakfast meal. We profiled breakfast consumer groups among Australian adults and compared the role that breakfast versus the rest of the day had on daily intakes of the Five Food Groups, discretionary foods, and nutrients. Breakfast groups were breakfast cereal consumers, non-cereal breakfast consumers, and breakfast skippers. One-day dietary recall data from the 2011?2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 9341, ?19 years), as well as socio-demographic and anthropometric measures. Twelve per cent of adults were breakfast skippers, 41% were breakfast cereal consumers, and 47% were non-cereal breakfast consumers. Females were more likely to have a non-cereal breakfast than males, and the non-cereal breakfast was predominantly bread-based. Breakfast skipping decreased with age (p < 0.001), while breakfast cereal consumption increased with age (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers were more likely to be male, had a lower socio-economic status, and lower physical activity levels (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers had the highest mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (p < 0.001), the lowest intake of wholegrain foods, fruits and vegetables, and the highest intake of discretionary foods (p < 0.001). Breakfast cereal consumers had the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.001) and had healthier diets at both breakfast and throughout the rest of the day. They were the most likely to meet the daily recommended serves for grain foods, fruit, dairy, and vegetables, had the highest wholegrain food intake, and the lowest discretionary intake (p < 0.001). Additionally, breakfast cereal consumers had the most favourable daily nutrient intakes, including the lowest added sugars intakes. Differences in daily diet between breakfast groups were attributed to differences in food choices both at breakfast and throughout the rest of the day.
Project description:Supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LiNS) is promoted as an approach to prevent child undernutrition and growth faltering. Previous LiNS studies have not tested the effects of improving the underlying diet prior to providing LiNS. Formative research was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to develop feeding messages to improve complementary feeding with and without LiNS. Two rounds of Trials of Improved Practices were conducted with mothers of infants aged 6-12 months to assess the feasibility of improving infant diets using (1) only locally available resources and (2) locally available resources plus 20 g of LiNS as Nutributter®/day. Common feeding problems were poor dietary diversity and low energy density. Popular improved practices were to process locally available foods so that infants could swallow them and add processed local foods to enrich porridges. Consumption of beans, fruits, green leafy vegetables, and peanut/seed butters increased after counselling (P < 0.05). Intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron and zinc from complementary foods increased significantly after counselling with or without the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). Intakes of fat, folate, iron, and zinc increased only (fat) or more so (folate, iron, and zinc) with the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). While provision of LiNS was crucial to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc, educational messages that were barrier-specific and delivered directly to mothers were crucial to improving the underlying diet.
Project description:Oral processing behaviours associated with faster eating rates have been consistently linked to increased energy intakes, but little is known about their links to children's appetitive traits. This study used the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to explore cross-sectional and prospective associations between parent-reported appetitive traits and observed oral processing behaviours. Participants were 195 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, who participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 (Time 1) and 6 years (Time 2). Their mothers completed the CEBQ around the same time points. Children's bites, chews and swallows were coded, and used to calculate their eating rate, bite size, chews per bite, chew rate, oral exposure time and oral exposure per bite. At Time 1, children with higher scores in slowness in eating had lower eating and chew rates. At Time 2, higher scores for food enjoyment and lower for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and food fussiness were linked with higher eating rates and greater energy intakes (r?>?0.16, p?<?0.05). Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were moderated by BMI and only present among children with higher BMI. Faster eating rates mediated the associations between greater food enjoyment, lower slowness in eating, lower food fussiness and higher intakes of energy. Children with higher slowness in eating scores had lower increases in eating rates over time, and children with higher BMI who had greater food enjoyment and food responsiveness scores had greater increases in eating rates over time. The findings suggest that oral processing behaviours linked with increased obesity risk may be underpinned by appetitive traits and may be one of the behavioural pathways through which these appetitive traits influence energy intakes.