Lactobacillus accelerates ISCs regeneration to protect the integrity of intestinal mucosa through activation of STAT3 signaling pathway induced by LPLs secretion of IL-22.
ABSTRACT: The regeneration of intestinal epithelial are maintained by continuous differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) under physiological and pathological conditions. However, little is known about the regulatory effect of intestinal microbiota on its recovery ability to repair damaged mucosal barrier. In this study, we established intestinal organoids and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) co-cultured system, plus mice experiments, to explore the protective effect of Lactobacillus reuteri D8 on integrity of intestinal mucosa. We found that only live L. reuteri D8 was effective in protecting the morphology of intestinal organoids and normal proliferation of epithelial stained with EdU under TNF-? treatment, which was also further verified in mice experiments. L. reuteri D8 colonized in the intestinal mucosa and ameliorated intestinal mucosa damage caused by DSS treatment, including improvement of body weight, colon length, pathological change, and proliferation level. The repair process stimulated by L. reuteri D8 was also accompanied with increased numbers of Lgr5+ and lysozyme+ cells both in intestinal organoids and mice intestine. Furthermore, we demonstrated that D8 metabolite indole-3-aldehyde stimulated LPLs to secret IL-22 through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and then induced phosphorylation of STAT3 to accelerate proliferation of intestinal epithelial, thus recovering damaged intestinal mucosa. Our findings indicate L. reuteri protects intestinal barrier and activates intestinal epithelial proliferation, which sheds light on treatment approaches for intestinal inflammation based on ISCs with probiotics Lactobacillus and daily probiotic consumption in heath foods.
Project description:Intestinal microbiota is necessary for the guarantee of intestinal mucosal barrier. However, the detailed effect of probiotics on porcine intestinal development, especially in the early life, is still unclear. In this study, we treated 3-day-old newborn piglets with Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) D8 and observed its beneficial effect on piglets. The body weights, villus height, and crypt depth of jejunum were all significantly increased after L. reuteri treatment in piglets. L. reuteri also significantly increased the proliferation index of PCNA+ cells in the crypt, as well as c-Myc and Tcf4 expressions. Furthermore, L. reuteri also enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier with the increase of goblet cells and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressions of Muc2, Lyz1, and pBD1. The well development of Peyer's patches and increased number of CD3+ T cells, combined with increased expression of IL-4 and IFN-?, also demonstrated the immune stimulation effect of L. reuteri D8. This study demonstrated that L. reuteri promotes the development of intestine mucosal system and maintains intestinal mucosal barrier in newborn piglets.
Project description:Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are regenerated continuously from intestinal stem cells (ISCs) near the base of intestinal crypts in order to maintain homeostasis and structural integrity of intestinal epithelium. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is thought to be important to drive the proliferation and differentiation of IECs from ISCs, it remains unknown whether other growth factors or lipid mediators are also important for such regulation, however. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), instead of EGF, robustly promoted the development of intestinal organoids prepared from the mouse small intestine. Indeed, LPA exhibited the proliferative activity of IECs as well as induction of differentiation of IECs into goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells in intestinal organoids. Inhibitors for LPA receptor 1 markedly suppressed the LPA-promoted development of intestinal organoids. LPA also promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in intestinal organoids, whereas inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 significantly suppressed the development of, as well as the proliferative activity and differentiation of, intestinal organoids in response to LPA. Our results thus suggest that LPA is a key factor that drives the proliferation and differentiation of IECs.
Project description:Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play indispensable roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, and also in the regeneration of the damaged intestinal epithelia. However, whether the inflammatory environment of Crohn's disease (CD) affects properties of resident small intestinal stem cells remain uncertain.CD patient-derived small intestinal organoids were established from enteroscopic biopsy specimens taken from active lesions (aCD-SIO), or from mucosa under remission (rCD-SIO). Expression of ISC-marker genes in those organoids was examined by immunohistochemistry, and also by microfluid-based single-cell multiplex gene expression analysis. The ISC-specific function of organoid cells was evaluated using a single-cell organoid reformation assay.ISC-marker genes, OLFM4 and SLC12A2, were expressed by an increased number of small intestinal epithelial cells in the active lesion of CD. aCD-SIOs, rCD-SIOs or those of non-IBD controls (NI-SIOs) were successfully established from 9 patients. Immunohistochemistry showed a comparable level of OLFM4 and SLC12A2 expression in all organoids. Single-cell gene expression data of 12 ISC-markers were acquired from a total of 1215 cells. t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis identified clusters of candidate ISCs, and also revealed a distinct expression pattern of SMOC2 and LGR5 in ISC-cluster classified cells derived from aCD-SIOs. Single-cell organoid reformation assays showed significantly higher reformation efficiency by the cells of the aCD-SIOs compared with that of cells from NI-SIOs.aCD-SIOs harbor ISCs with modified marker expression profiles, and also with high organoid reformation ability. Results suggest modification of small intestinal stem cell properties by unidentified factors in the inflammatory environment of CD.
Project description:Despite the importance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) for epithelial maintenance, there is limited understanding of how immune-mediated damage affects ISCs and their niche. We found that stem cell compartment injury is a shared feature of both alloreactive and autoreactive intestinal immunopathology, reducing ISCs and impairing their recovery in T cell-mediated injury models. Although imaging revealed few T cells near the stem cell compartment in healthy mice, donor T cells infiltrating the intestinal mucosa after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) primarily localized to the crypt region lamina propria. Further modeling with ex vivo epithelial cultures indicated ISC depletion and impaired human as well as murine organoid survival upon coculture with activated T cells, and screening of effector pathways identified interferon-? (IFN?) as a principal mediator of ISC compartment damage. IFN? induced JAK1- and STAT1-dependent toxicity, initiating a proapoptotic gene expression program and stem cell death. BMT with IFN?-deficient donor T cells, with recipients lacking the IFN? receptor (IFN?R) specifically in the intestinal epithelium, and with pharmacologic inhibition of JAK signaling all resulted in protection of the stem cell compartment. In addition, epithelial cultures with Paneth cell-deficient organoids, IFN?R-deficient Paneth cells, IFN?R-deficient ISCs, and purified stem cell colonies all indicated direct targeting of the ISCs that was not dependent on injury to the Paneth cell niche. Dysregulated T cell activation and IFN? production are thus potent mediators of ISC injury, and blockade of JAK/STAT signaling within target tissue stem cells can prevent this T cell-mediated pathology.
Project description:Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in small intestinal epithelial cells and in the ileum of newborn rats. IPEC-J2 cells (derived from the jejunal epithelium of a neonatal piglet) and IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt) were treated with L. reuteri. Newborn rat pups were gavaged cow milk formula supplemented with L. reuteri strains in the presence or absence of LPS. Protein and mRNA levels of cytokines and histological changes were measured. We demonstrate that even though one L. reuteri strain (DSM 17938) did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-8 production in cultured intestinal cells, all strains significantly reduced intestinal mucosal levels of KC/GRO (?IL-8) and IFN-? when newborn rat pups were fed formula containing LPS ± L. reuteri. Intestinal histological damage produced by LPS plus cow milk formula was also significantly reduced by all four strains. Cow milk formula feeding (without LPS) produced mild gut inflammation, evidenced by elevated mucosal IFN-? and IL-13 levels, a process that could be suppressed by strain 17938. Other cytokines and chemokines were variably affected by the different strains, and there was no toxic effect of L. reuteri on intestinal cells or mucosa. In conclusion, L. reuteri strains differentially modulate LPS-induced inflammation. Probiotic interactions with both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in vivo must be instrumental in modulating intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. We suggest that the terms anti- and proinflammatory be used only to describe the effects of a probiotic in the living host.
Project description:Oral mucositis (OM) is a common complication of cancer therapy, however OM management remains unsatisfactory. There is a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics in OM due to positive findings of its use in intestinal mucositis. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of the probiotic combination Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 strains in chemotherapy-induced OM. Mice were divided into 4 groups. PBS/water and PBS/LR groups comprised of mice injected with PBS intraperitoneally (i.p.), and were given water or the mixture of L. reuteri (LR) DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in water respectively. The 5-FU/water and 5-FU/LR groups comprised of mice injected with 5-FU i.p., and were given water or L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in water respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed that the oral epithelia of the 5-FU/water and 5-FU/LR groups were thinner compared to PBS/water and PBS/LR groups. However, epithelial damage was significantly reduced in the 5-FU/LR compared to 5-FU/water group. Additionally, the 5-FU/LR group showed reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the oral mucosa. We further showed that L. reuteri reduced oxidative stress through the nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) signalling. There was no evidence of translocation of L. reuteri systemically. This study demonstrated for the first time that L. reuteri protected oral mucosa against damage induced by chemotherapy.
Project description:Dietary patterns and psychosocial factors, ubiquitous part of modern lifestyle, critically shape the gut microbiota and human health. However, it remains obscure how dietary and psychosocial inputs coordinately modulate the gut microbiota and host impact. Here, we show that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells (ISC) renewal and epithelial homeostasis. Chow diet (CD) and purified diet (PD) confer distinct vulnerability to gut epithelial injury, microbial alternation and ISC dysfunction in chronically restrained mice. CD preferably enriches Lactobacillus reuteri, and its colonization is sufficient to rescue stress-triggered epithelial injury. Mechanistically, dietary raffinose sustains Lactobacillus reuteri growth, which in turn metabolizes raffinose to fructose and thereby constituting a feedforward metabolic loop favoring ISC maintenance during stress. Fructose augments and engages glycolysis to fuel ISC proliferation. Our data reveal a diet-stress interplay that dictates microbial metabolism-shaped ISC turnover and is exploitable for alleviating gut disorders.
Project description:In the small intestine, a niche of accessory cell types supports the generation of mature epithelial cell types from intestinal stem cells (ISCs). It is unclear, however, if and how immune cells in the niche affect ISC fate or the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify MHC class II (MHCII) machinery enrichment in two subsets of Lgr5+ ISCs. We show that MHCII+ Lgr5+ ISCs are non-conventional antigen-presenting cells in co-cultures with CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. Stimulation of intestinal organoids with key Th cytokines affects Lgr5+ ISC renewal and differentiation in opposing ways: pro-inflammatory signals promote differentiation, while regulatory cells and cytokines reduce it. In vivo genetic perturbation of Th cells or MHCII expression on Lgr5+ ISCs impacts epithelial cell differentiation and IEC fate during infection. These interactions between Th cells and Lgr5+ ISCs, thus, orchestrate tissue-wide responses to external signals.