MiR-17-3p Downregulates Mitochondrial Antioxidant Enzymes and Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Radioresistance remains to be a major obstacle in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We have identified a mature miR-17-3p processed from the 3' arm of precursor miR-17, which appeared to be able to inhibit three major antioxidant enzymes located in mitochondria, i.e., manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2), and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2). Here we show that upregulation of miR-17-3p remarkably sensitized PCa cells to ionizing radiation (IR). Reductions of the three antioxidants led to increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation as well as declining mitochondrial respiration. The miR-17-3p-mediated dysfunction of mitochondrial antioxidants apparently sensitizing IR therapy was manifested in vitro and in vivo. Substantially, the miR-17-3p effect on suppression of the antioxidants can be efficiently eliminated or attenuated by transfecting with either an miR-17-3p inhibitor or each of the related antioxidant cDNA expression constructs. Overall, in addition to the insights into the functional assessments for the duplex of miR-17-5p and miR-17-3p, the present study highlights the rigorous evidence that demonstrated suppression of multiple mitochondrial antioxidants by a single microRNA (miRNA), thereby providing a promising approach to improve radiotherapy for advanced PCa by targeting mitochondrial function.
Project description:Clinically, prostate cancer (PCa) exhibits a high avidity to metastasize to bone. miR-141-3p is an extensively studied miRNA in cancers and downregulation of miR-141-3p has been widely reported to be involved in the progression and metastasis of several human cancer types. However, the clinical significance and biological roles of miR-141-3p in bone metastasis of PCa are still unclear.miR-141-3p expression was examined in 89 non-bone metastatic and 52 bone metastatic PCa tissues by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the clinical correlation between miR-141-3p expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics in PCa patients. The biological roles of miR-141-3p in bone metastasis of PCa were evaluated both in vitro and a mouse intracardial model in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, Western blot, luciferase reporter and miRNA immunoprecipitation assays were performed to explore and examine the relationship between miR-141-3p and its potential targets. Clinical correlation of miR-141-3p with its targets was examined in clinical PCa tissues.miR-141-3p expression is reduced in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. Low expression of miR-141-3p positively correlates with serum PSA levels, Gleason grade and bone metastasis status in PCa patients. Furthermore, upregulating miR-141-3p suppresses the EMT, invasion and migration of PCa cells in vitro. Conversely, silencing miR-141-3p yields an opposite effect. Importantly, upregulating miR-141-3p dramatically reduces bone metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo. Our results further show that miR-141-3p inhibits the activation of NF-?B signaling via directly targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5(TRAF5) and 6 (TRAF6), which further suppresses invasion, migration and bone metastasis of PCa cells. The clinical negative correlation of miR-141-3p expression with TRAF5, TRAF6 and NF-?B signaling activity is demonstrated in PCa tissues.Our findings unravel a novel mechanism underlying the bone metastasis of PCa, suggesting that miR-141-3p mimics might represent a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of PCa bone metastasis.
Project description:Bone metastasis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Downexpression of miR-133a-3p has been found to contribute to the progression, recurrence and distant metastasis in PCa. However, clinical significance of miR-133a-3p in bone metastasis of PCa, and the biological role of miR-133a-3p and its molecular mechanisms underlying bone metastasis of PCa remain unclear.miR-133a-3p expression was evaluated in 245 clinical PCa tissues by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical correlation between miR-133a-3p expression and clinicopathological features, and overall and bone metastasis-free survival in PCa patients. The biological roles of miR-133a-3p in the bone metastasis of PCa were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter analysis were applied to demonstrate the relationship between miR-133a-3p and its potential targets. Western blotting and luciferase assays were examined to identify the underlying pathway involved in the anti-tumor role of miR-133a-3p. Clinical correlation of miR-133a-3p with its targets was verified in human PCa tissues.miR-133a-3p expression is reduced in PCa tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues and benign prostate lesion tissues, particularly in bone metastatic PCa tissues. Low expression of miR-133a-3p is significantly correlated with advanced clinicopathological characteristics and shorter bone metastasis-free survival in PCa patients by statistical analysis. Moreover, upregulating miR-133a-3p inhibits cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, as well as attenuates anoikis resistance in vitro in PCa cells. Importantly, administration of agomir-133a-3p greatly suppresses the incidence of PCa bone metastasis in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-133a-3p suppresses bone metastasis of PCa via inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling by directly targeting multiple cytokine receptors, including EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R and MET. The negative clinical correlation of miR-133a-3p with EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, MET and PI3K/AKT signaling activity is determined in clinical PCa tissues.Our results unveil a novel mechanism by which miR-133a-3p inhibits bone metastasis of PCa, providing the evidence that miR-133a-3p may serve as a potential bone metastasis marker in PCa, and delivery of agomir-133a-3p may be an effective anti-bone metastasis therapeutic strategy in PCa.
Project description:The primary issue arising from prostate cancer (PCa) is its high prevalence to metastasize to bone, which severely affects the quality of life and survival time of PCa patients. miR-210-3p is a well-documented oncogenic miRNA implicated in various aspects of cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, the clinical significance and biological roles of miR-210-3p in PCa bone metastasis remain obscure.miR-210-3p expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in 68 bone metastatic and 81 non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. The biological roles of miR-210-3p in the bone metastasis of PCa were investigated both in vitro by EMT and Transwell assays, and in vivo using a mouse model of left cardiac ventricle inoculation. Bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter analysis were applied to discern and examine the relationship between miR-210-3p and its potential targets. RT-PCR was performed to identify the underlying mechanism of miR-210-3p overexpression in bone metastasis of PCa. Clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with its targets was examined in human PCa and metastatic bone tissues.miR-210-3p expression is elevated in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. Overexpression of miR-210-3p positively correlates with serum PSA levels, Gleason grade and bone metastasis status in PCa patients. Upregulating miR-210-3p enhances, while silencing miR-210-3p represses the EMT, invasion and migration of PCa cells in vitro. Importantly, silencing miR-210-3p significantly inhibits bone metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-210-3p maintains the sustained activation of NF-?B signaling via targeting negative regulators of NF-?B signaling (TNF-? Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1) TNIP1 and (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1) SOCS1, resulting in EMT, invasion, migration and bone metastasis of PCa cells. Moreover, our results further indicate that recurrent gains (amplification) contribute to miR-210-3p overexpression in a small number of PCa patients. The clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with SOCS1, TNIP1 and NF-?B signaling activity is verified in PCa tissues.Our findings unravel a novel mechanism for constitutive activation of NF-?B signaling pathway in the bone metastasis of PCa, supporting a functional and clinical significance of epigenetic events in bone metastasis of PCa.
Project description:This study was intended to analyze effects of miR-199a-3p and Smad1 on proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa) cells.MiR-199a-3p was significantly decreased in PCa tissues in comparison to that in adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05). Over-expressed miR-199a-3p markedly suppressed proliferation and invasion of PCa cells (P < 0.05). MiR-199a-3p was negatively correlated with Smad1 expression, and overexpression of Smad1 could antagonize the effects of miR-199a-3p on PCa cells.The PCa tissues and their adjacent normal tissues were collected from 54 PCa patients. Expressions of miR-199a-3p and Smad1 mRNA in tissues and cells were evaluated with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry assay was used to detect Smad1 protein expressions. The target relationship between miR-199a-3p and Smad1 was assessed by luciferase reporter assay. The PCa cell lines (i.e. PC-3 cells) were transfected with miR-199a-3p mimics and Smad1-cDNA. MTT and Transwell assays were applied to detect proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of PCa cells.MiR-199a-3p suppressed proliferation and invasion of PCa cells by targeting Smad1.
Project description:miR-532-3p is a widely documented microRNA (miRNA) involved in multifaceted processes of cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the clinical significance and biological functions of miR-532-3p in bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa) remain largely unknown. Herein, we report that miR-532-3p was downregulated in PCa tissues with bone metastasis, and downexpression of miR-532-3p was significantly associated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and predicted poor bone metastasis-free survival in PCa patients. Upregulating miR-532-3p inhibited invasion and migration abilities of PCa cells in vitro, while silencing miR-532-3p yielded an opposite effect on invasion and migration abilities of PCa cells. Importantly, upregulating miR-532-3p repressed bone metastasis of PCa cells in vivo. Our results further demonstrated that overexpression of miR-532-3p inhibited activation of nuclear facto ?B (NF-?B) signaling via simultaneously targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, and TRAF4, which further promoted invasion, migration, and bone metastasis of PCa cells. Therefore, our findings reveal a novel mechanism contributing to the sustained activity of NF-?B signaling underlying the bone metastasis of PCa.
Project description:Exosomes from cancer cells, which contain microRNA and reach metastasis loci prior to cancer cells, stimulate the formation of a metastatic microenvironment. Previous studies have shown that exosomal miR-141-3p is associated with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role and regulatory mechanism of miR-141-3p in the microenvironment of bone metastases require further study. In this study, we performed a series of experiments in vivo and in vitro to determine whether exosomal miR-141-3p from MDA PCa 2b cells regulates osteoblast activity to promote osteoblastic metastasis. We demonstrate that extracts obtained from cell culture supernatants contained exosomes and that miR-141-3p levels were significantly higher in MDA PCa 2b cell exosomes. Via confocal imaging, numerous MDA PCa 2b exosomes were observed to enter osteoblasts, and miR-141-3p was transferred to osteoblasts through MDA PCa 2b exosomes in vitro. Exosomal miR-141-3p from MDA PCa 2b promoted osteoblast activity and increased osteoprotegerin OPG expression. miR-141-3p suppressed the protein levels of the target gene DLC1, indicating its functional significance in activating the p38MAPK pathway. In animal experiments, exosomal miR-141-3p had bone-target specificity and promoted osteoblast activity. Mice injected with miR-141-3p-mimics exosomes developed apparent osteoblastic bone metastasis. Exosomal miR-141-3p from MDA PCa 2b cells promoted osteoblast activity and regulated the microenvironment of bone metastases, which plays an important role in the formation of bone metastases and osteogenesis damage in PCa. Clarifying the specific mechanism of bone metastasis will help generate new possibilities for the treatment of PCa.
Project description:A number of studies have reported that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) closely correlates with the bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, clinical significance and functional roles of both strands of a single miRNA in bone metastasis of PCa remain undefined. Here, we reported that miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p expression were simultaneously reduced in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. Downexpression of miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p strongly and positively correlated with advanced clinicopathological characteristics and shorter bone metastasis-free survival in PCa patients. Upregulating miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p inhibited invasion and migration abilities of PCa cells in vitro, as well as repressed bone metastasis in vivo. Our results further revealed that miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p attenuated bone metastasis of PCa via inhibiting transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling by simultaneously targeting several components of TGF-? signaling, including SMAD2, SMAD4, TGF-? receptor I (TGFBRI), and TGFBRII. Moreover, deletion contributes to miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p downexpression in PCa tissues. Finally, clinical negative correlations of miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p with SMAD2, SMAD4, TGFBRI, and TGFBRII were demonstrated in PCa tissues. Thus, our findings explore a novel tumor-suppressive miRNA with its both strands implicated in bone metastasis of PCa, suggesting its potential therapeutic value in treatment of PCa bone metastasis.
Project description:Accumulating investigations have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising efficient targets for the next generation of molecular therapeutics. The development of miRNA-based therapies requires the identification and validation of cancer-associated miRNAs. Herein, we identified that miR-197-3p regulates the carcinogenesis and development of prostate cancer (PCa) via bioinformatics analysis. Next, we investigated the function and regulatory mechanisms of miR-197-3p in PCa. Overexpression of miR-197-3p suppressed PCa cell proliferation and colony formation. In contrast, inhibition of miR-197-3p activity enhanced PCa cell proliferation and colony formation. Mechanistic investigations identified that voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is a direct target of miR-197-3p. miR-197-3p targeting of VDAC1 resulted in downregulation of p-Akt and ?-catenin. Subsequently, we found that restoration of VDAC1 abolished the effects of miR-197-3p on PCa cell proliferation and AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-197-3p suppressed tumor xenograft growth in <i>vivo</i>. In conclusion, our study offers an empirical investigation of miR-197-3p, a tumor suppressor that may be a potential therapeutic target in PCa.
Project description:RNA-based therapeutics could represent a new avenue of cancer treatment. miRNA 331-3p (miR-331-3p) is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) as a putative tumor suppressor, but its functional activity and synergy with other anti-tumor agents is largely unknown. We found miR-331-3p expression in PCa tumors was significantly decreased compared to non-malignant matched tissue. Analysis of publicly available PCa gene expression data sets showed miR-331-3p expression negatively correlated with Gleason Score, tumor stage, lymph node involvement and PSA value, and was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue relative to normal prostate tissue. Overexpression of miR-331-3p reduced PCa cell growth, migration and colony formation, as well as xenograft tumor initiation, proliferation and survival of mice. Microarray analysis identified seven novel targets of miR-331-3p in PCa. The 3'-untranslated regions of PLC?1 and RALA were confirmed as targets of miR-331-3p, with mutation analyses confirming RALA as a direct target. Expression of miR-331-3p or RALA siRNA in PCa cells reduced RALA expression, proliferation, migration and colony formation in vitro. RALA expression positively correlated with Gleason grade in two separate studies, as well as in a PCa tissue microarray. Co-treatment using siRALA with an Aurora Kinase inhibitor (AKi-II) decreased colony formation of PCa cells while the combination of AKi-II with miR-331-3p resulted in significant reduction of PCa cell proliferation in vitro and PCa xenograft growth in vivo. Thus, miR-331-3p directly targets the RALA pathway and the addition of the AKi-II has a synergistic effect on tumor growth inhibition, suggesting a potential role as combination therapy in PCa.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant heterogeneous tumor that threatens men's health. Long non-coding RNA activated by DNA damage (NORAD) and microRNA-495-3p (miR-495-3p) have been revealed to be concerned with the tumorigenesis and progression of diverse cancers. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanism between NORAD and miR-495-3p in PCa is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of NORAD, miR-495-3p, and thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) mRNA was detected with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved-casp-3, TRIP13, cyclin D1, and PCNA were detected through western blot analysis. The proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of PCa cells were assessed through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, or transwell assays. The relationship between NORAD or TRIP13 and miR-495-3p was confirmed via dual-luciferase reporter, RIP, or RNA pull-down assays.<h4>Results</h4>NORAD and TRIP13 were upregulated while miR-495-3p was downregulated in PCa tissues and cells. Both NORAD silencing and miR-495-3p upregulation accelerated cell apoptosis and curbed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in PCa cells. Also, NORAD silencing repressed tumor growth in vivo. Notably, NORAD modulated TRIP13 expression by competitively binding to miR-495-3p. Furthermore, miR-495-3p repression reversed NORAD knockdown-mediated effects on the malignant behaviors of PCa cells. Moreover, TRIP13 enhancement overturned the effects of miR-495-3p overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of PCa cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NORAD depletion inhibited PCa advancement via the miR-495-3p/ TRIP13 axis, which provided a potential tactic for PCa treatment.