Total Neoadjuvant Therapy With FOLFIRINOX Followed by Individualized Chemoradiotherapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Patients with borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have historically poor outcomes with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach with highly active therapy is warranted. Objective:To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate in borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) therapy and individualized chemoradiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants:A single-arm, phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital with expertise in pancreatic surgery from August 3, 2012, through August 31, 2016, among 48 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, localized pancreatic cancer determined to be borderline resectable by multidisciplinary review, who had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 18.0 months among the 30 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions:Patients received FOLFIRINOX for 8 cycles. Upon restaging, patients with resolution of vascular involvement received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 Gy × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was R0 resection rate; secondary outcomes were median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS). Results:Of the 48 eligible patients, 27 were men and 21 were women, with a median age of 62 years (range, 46-74 years). Of the 43 patients who planned to receive 8 preoperative cycles of chemotherapy, 34 (79%) were able to complete all cycles. Twenty-seven patients (56%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy, while 17 patients (35%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. R0 resection was achieved in 31 of the 48 eligible patients (65%; 95% CI, 49%-78%). Among the 32 patients who underwent resection, the R0 resection rate was 97% (n = 31). Median PFS among all eligible patients was 14.7 months (95% CI, 10.5 to not reached), with 2-year PFS of 43%; median OS was 37.7 months (95% CI, 19.4 to not reached), with 2-year OS of 56%. Among patients who underwent resection, median PFS was 48.6 months (95% CI, 14.4 to not reached) and median OS has not been reached, with a 2-year PFS of 55% and a 2-year OS of 72%. Conclusions and Relevance:Preoperative FOLFIRINOX followed by individualized chemoradiotherapy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer results in high rates of R0 resection and prolonged median PFS and median OS, supporting ongoing phase 3 trials. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01591733.
Project description:Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is a potentially resectable disease but is associated with poorer survival compared to primary resectable disease. There has been no prospective trial that compare the efficacy of FOLFIRNOX and gemcitabine-based regimen for BRPC. Between February 2013 and December 2014, 18 patients with BRPC receiving FOLFIRINOX were reviewed retrospectively. For comparative analysis, data for all BRPC patients (n=18) in our previous phase 2 study of neoadjuvant fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine were pooled. Patients received a median 6 cycles (range, 3-13) of FOLFIRINOX. Surgical resection was performed in 12 patients (67%) and R0 resection in 9 patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.4-24.2) and 21.2 (95% CI, 14.2-28.2) months, respectively. Patients who underwent surgical resection showed significantly better PFS (p=0.01) and OS (p=0.003) than those unresected. In the exploratory analysis, patients receiving FOLFIRINOX showed significantly longer PFS compared to those receiving fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine (median 16.8 months [95% CI, 9.4-24.2] vs. 6.5 months [1.6-11.3]; p = 0.04). There was a trend toward improved OS in patients who received FOLFIRINOX (median 21.2 months [95% CI, 14.2-28.2]) compared to those who received fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine (13.6 months [11.8-15.4]; p=0.12). FOLFIRINOX was feasible and effective as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with BRPC and may have improved efficacy compared to a gemcitabine-based regimen.
Project description:Approximately 20% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have (borderline) resectable pancreatic cancer [(B)RPC] at diagnosis. Upfront resection with adjuvant chemotherapy has long been the standard of care for these patients. However, although surgical quality has improved, still about 50% of patients never receive adjuvant treatment. Therefore, recent developments have focused on a neoadjuvant approach. Directly comparing results from neoadjuvant and adjuvant regimens is challenging due to differences in patient populations that influence outcomes. Neoadjuvant trials include all patients who have (B)RPC on imaging, while adjuvant-only trials include patients who underwent a complete resection and recovered to a good performance status without any evidence of residual disease. Guidelines recommend neoadjuvant treatment for BRPC patients mainly to improve negative resection margin (R0) rates. For resectable PDAC, upfront resection is still considered the standard of care. However, theoretical advantages of neoadjuvant treatment, including the increased R0 resection rate, early delivery of systemic therapy to all patients, directly addressing occult metastatic disease, and improved patient selection for resection, may also apply to these patients. A systematic review by intention-to-treat showed a superior median overall survival (OS) for any neoadjuvant approach (19 months) compared to upfront surgery (15 months) in (B)RPC patients. A neoadjuvant approach was recently supported by three randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For resectable PDAC, neoadjuvant treatment was superior in a Japanese RCT of neoadjuvant gemcitabine with S-1 vs. upfront surgery, with adjuvant S-1 in both arms (median OS: 37 vs. 27 months, p = 0.015). A Korean trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy vs. upfront resection in BRPC patients was terminated early due to superiority of the neoadjuvant group (median OS: 21 vs. 12 months, p = 0.028; R0 resection: 52 vs. 26%, p = 0.004). The PREOPANC-1 trial for (B)RPC patients also showed favorable outcome for neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy vs. upfront surgery (median OS: 17 vs. 14 months, p = 0.07; R0 resection: 63 vs. 31%, p < 0.001). FOLFIRINOX is likely a better neoadjuvant regimen, because of superiority compared to gemcitabine in both the metastatic and adjuvant setting. Currently, five RCTs evaluating neoadjuvant modified or fulldose FOLFIRINOX are accruing patients.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Preoperative therapy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is intended to increase R0 resection rates. An optimal approach in BRPC is yet to be defined.<h4>Methods and materials</h4>Patients with BRPC, confirmed adenocarcinoma, performance status ?1, and adequate organ function enrolled in a single-institution, phase 2 trial. Patients received FOLFIRINOX × 6 cycles, then radiation therapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (1 g/m<sup>2</sup> over 100 minutes) followed by 2 additional gemcitabine infusions. Computed tomography scans were performed at 2-month intervals during treatment. Patients without distant disease were offered surgical exploration. The primary objective was R0 resection rate with an alternate hypothesis of 55%. Secondary objectives included median progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. The trial registration number is NCT01661088.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-five patients with median age of 60 years (range, 47-77 years) enrolled from November 2011 through January 2017. Twenty-one (84%) completed FOLFIRINOX and 19 (76%) completed all protocol therapy. Treatment-related grade 3 to 4 toxicities included neutropenia (40%), nausea and vomiting (28%), diarrhea (16%), and fatigue (12%). Eighteen patients (72%) underwent laparotomy, 13 (52%) were resected (all R0). The median PFS and OS in 25 patients were 13.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-24.7) and 24.4 months (95% CI, 12.6-40.0), respectively. For resected patients, median PFS was 21.6 months (95% CI, 8.2-37.1) and OS was 37.1 months (95% CI, 15.4-not reached).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy concurrent with fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine in BRPC is feasible and tolerated. Although the alternate hypothesis was not met, the OS of the resected cohort was favorable.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The added value of radiotherapy following neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy in patients with resectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer ((B)RPC) is unclear. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes of patients who received neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX alone or combined with radiotherapy.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, Medline (ovidSP), Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The primary endpoint was pooled median overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included resection rate, R0 resection rate, and other pathologic outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>We included 512 patients with (B)RPC from 15 studies, of which 7 were prospective nonrandomized studies. In total, 351 patients (68.6%) were treated with FOLFIRINOX alone (8 studies) and 161 patients (31.4%) were treated with FOLFIRINOX and radiotherapy (7 studies). The pooled estimated median OS was 21.6 months (range 18.4-34.0 months) for FOLFIRINOX alone and 22.4 months (range 11.0-37.7 months) for FOLFIRINOX with radiotherapy. The pooled resection rate was similar (71.9% vs. 63.1%, p = 0.43) and the pooled R0 resection rate was higher for FOLFIRINOX with radiotherapy (88.0% vs. 97.6%, p = 0.045). Other pathological outcomes (ypN0, pathologic complete response, perineural invasion) were comparable.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this meta-analysis, radiotherapy following neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was associated with an improved R0 resection rate as compared with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX alone, but a difference in survival could not be demonstrated. Randomized trials are needed to determine the added value of radiotherapy following neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with (B)PRC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>FOLFIRINOX is a standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) remains debated.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis on neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC. Studies with BRPC patients who received FOLFIRINOX as first-line neoadjuvant treatment were included. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, resection rate, R0 resection rate, and grade III-IV adverse events. Patient-level survival outcomes were obtained from authors of the included studies and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.<h4>Results</h4>We included 24 studies (8 prospective, 16 retrospective), comprising 313 (38.1%) BRPC patients treated with FOLFIRINOX. Most studies (n?=?20) presented intention-to-treat results. The median number of administered neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX cycles ranged from 4 to 9. The resection rate was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.1% to 74.6%), and the R0-resection rate was 83.9% (95% CI = 76.8% to 89.1%). The median OS varied from 11.0 to 34.2?months across studies. Patient-level survival data were obtained for 20 studies representing 283 BRPC patients. The patient-level median OS was 22.2?months (95% CI = 18.8 to 25.6 months), and patient-level median progression-free survival was 18.0?months (95% CI = 14.5 to 21.5 months). Pooled event rates for grade III-IV adverse events were highest for neutropenia (17.5 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 10.3% to 28.3%), diarrhea (11.1 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.6 to 14.3), and fatigue (10.8 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.1 to 14.2). No deaths were attributed to FOLFIRINOX.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This patient-level meta-analysis of BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX showed a favorable median OS, resection rate, and R0-resection rate. These results need to be assessed in a randomized trial.
Project description:Background:Despite the scarcity of data based on randomized trials, FOLFIRINOX is widely used in the management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). We investigated the clinical outcomes of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC and LAPC. Methods:This single-center retrospective analysis included a total of 199 consecutive patients with BRPC or LAPC who received conventional or modified FOLFIRINOX between February 2013 and January 2017. An independent radiologist reviewed all baseline computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed for vascular invasion status. Results:With median follow-up duration of 40.3?months [95% confidence interval (CI), 36.7-43.8] in surviving patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.6 (95% CI, 9.5-11.7) and 18.1 (95% CI, 16.0-20.3) months, respectively. The 1-year PFS rate was 66.0% (95% CI, 65.3-66.7%), and the 2-year OS rate was 37.2% (95% CI, 36.5-37.9%). PFS and OS did not differ between BRPC and LAPC groups [median PFS, 11.1?months (95% CI, 8.8-13.5) versus 10.1?months (95% CI, 8.4-11.8), p?=?0.47; median OS, 18.4?months (95% CI, 16.1-20.8) versus 17.1?months (95% CI, 13.2-20.9), p?=?0.50]. Curative-intent conversion surgery (R0/R1) was performed in 63 patients (31.7%). C•A 19-9 response, objective tumor response to FOLFIRINOX, and conversion surgery were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion:FOLFIRINOX was effective for management of BRPC and LAPC. Given the potential for cure, a significant proportion of patients can undergo conversion curative-intent surgery following FOLFIRINOX.
Project description:<h4>Abstract</h4>Currently, the combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) is the standard therapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer. In recent years, FOLFIRINOX-based neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) has been gaining an increasing amount of attention, owing to its ability to reduce disease stage and transform LAPC to borderline resectable or even resectable pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of first-line FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy in patients with LAPC.We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from the time of establishment till January 1, 2020 and included studies focusing on LAPC patients who received FOLFIRINOX as first-line neoadjuvant treatment. The primary outcomes were: resection rate and radical (R0) resection rate while the secondary outcomes were: objective response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival, and rate of grade 3 to 4 adverse events. The meta package for R 3.6.2 was used for heterogeneity and publication bias testing.Twenty-one studies, including 653 patients with LAPC, were selected. After treatment with FOLFIRINOX, the resection rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?20%-32%, I2?=?61%) and R0 resection rate was 88% (95% CI?=?78%-95%, I2?=?62%). The response rate was 34% (95% CI?=?25%-43%, I2?=?56%). The median overall survival and progression-free survival durations ranged from 10.0 to 32.7 months and 3.0 to 25.3 months, respectively. The observed grade 3 to 4 adverse events were neutropenia (20.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?14%-27%, I2?=?75%), febrile neutropenia (7.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?5%-9%, I2?=?42%), thrombocytopenia (6.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?5%-8%, I2?=?27%), nausea/vomiting (7.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?7%-12%, I2?=?76%), diarrhea (10.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?8%-12%, I2?=?38%), and fatigue (9.0 per 100 patients, 95% CI?=?7%-11%, I2?=?43%).FOLFIRINOX-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the potential to improve the rates of resection, R0 resection, and median OS in LAPC. Our results require further validation in large, high-quality randomized controlled trials.
Project description:Importance:Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically poor outcomes. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach is warranted. Objective:To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) and losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:A single-arm phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital from August 22, 2013, to May 22, 2018, among 49 patients with previously untreated locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer as determined by multidisciplinary review. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 17.1 months (range, 5.0-53.7) among 27 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions:Patients received FOLFIRINOX and losartan for 8 cycles. Patients with radiographically resectable tumor after chemotherapy received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 GyE?×?5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy with a vascular boost to 58.8 Gy) with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures:R0 resection rate. Results:Of the 49 patients (26 women and 23 men; median age 63 years [range, 42-78 years]), 39 completed 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX and losartan; 10 patients had fewer than 8 cycles due to progression (5 patients), losartan intolerance (3 patients), and toxicity (2 patients). Seven patients (16%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy while 38 (84%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two (86%) patients underwent attempted surgery, with R0 resection achieved in 34 of 49 patients (69%; 95% CI, 55%-82%). Overall median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9-22.7) and median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 18.1-38.5). Among patients who underwent resection, median progression-free survival was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.6-28.2), and median overall survival was 33.0 months (95% CI, 31.4 to not reached). Conclusions and Relevance:Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, losartan, and chemoradiotherapy provides downstaging of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is associated with an R0 resection rate of 61%. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01821729.
Project description:PURPOSE:Effective preoperative regimens and biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are lacking. We prospectively evaluated fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX)-based treatment and imaging-based biomarkers for borderline resectable PDAC. METHODS:Eligible patients had treatment-naïve, histology-confirmed PDAC and one or more high-risk features: mesenteric vessel involvement, CA 19-9 level of 500 mg/dL or greater, and indeterminate metastatic lesions. Patients received modified FOLFIRINOX and chemoradiation before anticipated pancreatectomy. Tumors were classified on baseline computed tomography as high delta (well-defined interface with parenchyma) or low delta (ill-defined interface). We designated computed tomography interface response after therapy as type I (remained or became well defined) or type II (became ill defined). The study had 80% power to differentiate a 60% from 40% resection rate (? = .10). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and subgroups were compared using log-rank tests. RESULTS:Thirty-three patients initiated therapy; 45% underwent pancreatectomy. The median OS was 24 months (95% CI, 16.2 to 29.6 months). For patients who did and did not undergo pancreatectomy, the median OS was 42 months (95% CI, 17.7 months to not estimable) and 14 months (95% CI, 9.0 to 24.8 months), respectively. Patients with high-delta tumors had lower 3-year PFS (4% v 40%) and 3-year OS rates (20% v 60%) than those with low-delta tumors (both P < .05). Patients with type II interface responses had lower 3-year PFS (0% v 29%) and 3-year OS rates (16% v 47%) than those with type I responses (both P < .001). CONCLUSION:Preoperative FOLFIRINOX followed by chemoradiation for high-risk borderline resectable PDAC was associated with a resection rate of 45% and median OS of approximately 2 years. Our imaging-based biomarker validation indicates that personalized treatment may be achieved using these biomarkers at baseline and post-treatment.
Project description:5-Fluorouracile, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) has not been extensively used in the neoadjuvant setting because of concerns with safety and toxicity. We evaluated our institutional experience with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BRPAC). The primary endpoints were completion of therapy to surgery and negative resection margin (R0) rate. Patients with BRPAC treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX were retrospectively analyzed. Between August 2011 and September 2013, 20 patients with BRPAC treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX were identified. Most patients (88.8%) completed FOLFIRINOX therapy and underwent resection. Abutment of venous structures was identified in 13 cases (72.2%), while short segment portal vein encasement in 3 cases (16.6%) with concomitant arterial involvement in 3 cases (16.6%). Isolated superior mesenteric artery abutment was identified in 2 cases (11.2%). Patients received a median of 4 cycles of FOLFIRINOX. There was 1 case of progression. Vascular resection was performed in 9 cases (52.9%). Preoperative radiation therapy was used in 8 patients (44%). All patients underwent margin negative resection (R0). Histopathologic treatment response was evident in 10 cases (58.8%). Neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was generally safe and the expected toxicity did not prevent surgery allowing for a high rate of R0 resection.