Mental Health, Sleep and Physical Function in Treatment Seeking Women with Urinary Incontinence.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:We examined how mental health measures, sleep and physical function are associated with the presence and type of urinary incontinence and severity in women seeking treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This baseline cross-sectional analysis was performed in treatment seeking women with lower urinary tract symptoms. All participants completed the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool (Pfizer, New York, New York), which was used to classify women based on urinary incontinence symptoms and measure severity. The PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) questionnaire for depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and physical function, the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) and the IPAQ-SF (International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form) were administered. Multivariable regression modeling was done to assess associations with urinary symptom presence, type and severity. RESULTS:We studied 510 women with a mean ± SD age of 56 ± 14 years. Of the women 82% were Caucasian, 47% were obese and 14% reported diabetes. Urinary incontinence was reported by 420 women (82.4%), including stress urinary incontinence in 70, urgency urinary incontinence in 85, mixed urinary incontinence in 240 and other urinary incontinence in 25. On adjusted analyses there was no difference in any mental health, sleep or physical function measure based on the presence vs the absence of urinary incontinence. Among women with urinary incontinence PROMIS anxiety and sleep disturbance scores were higher in those with mixed urinary incontinence than stress urinary incontinence. Increasing urinary incontinence severity was associated with higher PROMIS depression and anxiety scores, and higher PSS scores. However, higher urinary incontinence severity was not associated with a difference in sleep or physical function. CONCLUSIONS:Among treatment seeking women with lower urinary tract symptoms, increasing urinary incontinence severity rather than the presence or type of urinary incontinence was associated with increased depression, anxiety and stress.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance, fatigue, and urinary incontinence (UI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms among patients with OAB. METHODS:Patients who were diagnosed with OAB and age-matched control subjects without OAB were enrolled. Sleep disturbance and fatigue symptoms were assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) short forms. UI and OAB symptoms were assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), the Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7). Psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress level) was also assessed. RESULTS:Patients with OAB reported a significantly greater sleep disturbance compared with controls (PROMIS 8b T-scores: 54.3?±?10.3 vs 43.8?±?9.2). Patients with OAB also reported a significantly greater fatigue compared with controls (PROMIS 7a T-scores: 54.7?±?9.6 vs 46.0?±?6.4). After adjusting for nocturia, the differences in sleep disturbance between OAB and controls became insignificant (P?=?.21), whereas the differences in fatigue between OAB and controls remained significant (P?=?.014). Among patients with OAB, there were positive correlations between sleep disturbance and the severity of OAB symptoms (ICIQ-OAB), poorer health-related quality of life (OAB-q QOL), the severity of UI symptoms (ICIQ-UI), greater incontinence impact (IIQ-7), and urinary bother (UDI-6). Positive correlations were also observed between fatigue and worse UI and OAB symptoms and quality of life. Both sleep disturbance and fatigue were associated with poor psychosocial health (depression, anxiety, and higher stress level) among patients with OAB. CONCLUSION:Sleep disturbance and fatigue are present in substantial percentages of patients with OAB. Among patients with OAB, sleep disturbance and fatigue were associated with more severe UI and OAB symptoms, worse health-related quality of life, and poorer psychosocial health.
Project description:PURPOSE:Male urinary incontinence is thought to be infrequent. We sought to describe the prevalence of urinary incontinence in a male treatment seeking cohort enrolled in the LURN (Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Study inclusion and exclusion criteria, including men with prostate cancer or neurogenic bladder, were previously reported. LURN participants prospectively completed questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and other clinical variables. Men were grouped based on incontinence type, including 1) no urinary incontinence, 2) post-void dribbling only and 3) urinary incontinence. Comparisons were made using ANOVA and multivariable regression. RESULTS:Of the 477 men 24% reported no urinary incontinence, 44% reported post-void dribbling only and 32% reported urinary incontinence. African American men and those with sleep apnea were more likely to be in the urinary incontinence group than in the no urinary incontinence group (OR 3.2, p = 0.02 and OR 2.73, p = 0.003, respectively). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly higher bother compared to men without leakage (p <0.001). Compared to men without urinary incontinence and men with only post-void dribbling those with urinary incontinence were significantly more likely to report higher scores (more severe symptoms) on the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) questionnaires regarding bowel issues, depression and anxiety than men without urinary incontinence (p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Urinary incontinence is common among treatment seeking men. This is concerning because the guideline recommended questionnaires to assess male lower urinary tract symptoms do not query for urinary incontinence. Thus, clinicians may be missing an opportunity to intervene and improve patient care. This provides a substantial rationale for a new or updated symptom questionnaire which provides a more comprehensive symptom assessment.
Project description:AIMS:Bowel symptoms, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction are common, but their frequency among women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been well described. Our aims were to describe pelvic floor symptoms among women with and without urinary incontinence (UI) and among subtypes of UI. METHODS:Women with LUTS seeking care at six U.S. tertiary care centers enrolled in prospective cohort study were studied. At baseline, participants completed the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-IR), and PROMIS GI Diarrhea, Constipation, and Fecal Incontinence Scales. RESULTS:Mean age among the 510 women was 56.4?±?14.4 years. Women who reported UI (n?=?420) had more diarrhea and constipation symptoms (mean scores 49.5 vs 46.2 [P?=?0.01] and 51.9 vs 48.4 [P?<?0.01], respectively) at baseline. Among sexually active women, mean PISQ-IR subscale scores were lower among those with UI (condition specific: 89.8 vs 96.7, P?<?0.01; condition impact: 79.8 vs 92.5, P?<?0.01). Women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (n?=?240) reported more prolapse symptoms, fecal incontinence, and worse sexual function compared to those with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). CONCLUSIONS:Women presenting with LUTS with UI reported significantly worse constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, and sexual function compared to women without UI. In women with UI, sexual function and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms were worse in those with MUI compared to SUI and UUI.
Project description:We evaluate the bidirectional association between urological symptoms (urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms and nocturia) and sleep related variables.Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 1,610 men and 2,535 women who completed baseline (2002 to 2005) and followup (2006 to 2010) phases of the BACH (Boston Area Community Health) Survey, a population based random sample survey. Sleep restriction (5 hours or less per night), restless sleep, sleep medication use and urological symptoms were assessed by self-report. Urinary incontinence was defined as weekly leakage or moderate/severe leakage, lower urinary tract symptoms (overall, obstructive, irritative) were defined by the AUA-SI (American Urological Association symptom index) and nocturia was defined as urinary frequency 2 or more times per night.At the 5-year followup 10.0%, 8.5% and 16.0% of subjects newly reported lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and nocturia, respectively, and 24.2%, 13.3% and 11.6% newly reported poor sleep quality, sleep restriction and use of sleep medication, respectively. Controlling for confounders, the odds of urological symptoms developing were consistently increased for subjects who reported poor sleep quality and sleep restriction at baseline, but only baseline nocturia was positively associated with incident sleep related problems at followup. Body mass index, a potential mediator, reduced selected associations between sleep and incident urinary incontinence and irritative symptoms, but C-reactive protein did not.These data suggest that self-reported sleep related problems and urological symptoms are linked bidirectionally, and that body mass index may be a factor in the relationship between sleep and the development of urological symptoms.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine relationships between interpersonal trauma exposures and urinary symptoms in community-dwelling midlife and older women.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort of women aged 40-80 years enrolled in an integrated health care system in California. Lifetime history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and current urinary symptoms were assessed using structured-item questionnaires. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models examined associations between traumatic exposures and PTSD symptoms with any weekly urinary incontinence, stress-type incontinence, urgency-type incontinence, and nocturia two or more times per night.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 1,999 participants analyzed, 21.7% women reported lifetime emotional IPV, 16.2% physical IPV, 19.7% sexual assault, and 22.6% reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Overall, 45% reported any weekly incontinence, 23% stress-type incontinence, 23% urgency-type incontinence, and 35% nocturia. Exposure to emotional IPV was associated with any weekly incontinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.70), stress-type incontinence (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.65), urgency-type incontinence (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.70), and nocturia (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.36-2.19). Physical IPV exposure was associated with nocturia (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.77), but not incontinence. Sexual assault history was not associated with weekly incontinence of any type or nocturia. Symptoms of PTSD were associated with all urinary symptoms assessed, including any weekly incontinence (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.85), stress-type incontinence (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.20), urgency-type incontinence (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.24-2.06), and nocturia (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.55-2.45).<h4>Conclusion</h4>More than 20% of women in this multiethnic, community-based cohort reported a history of IPV, PTSD symptoms, or both, which were associated with symptomatic urinary tract dysfunction. Findings highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care of midlife and older women presenting with urinary symptoms.
Project description:PURPOSE:We described and compared the frequency and type of lower urinary tract symptoms reported by men and women at the time that they were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics into the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:At 6 research sites treatment seeking men and women were enrolled who reported any lower urinary tract symptoms at a frequency more than rarely during the last month on the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool. At baseline the study participants underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and completed validated questionnaires. Urological tests were performed, including pelvic/rectal examination, post-void residual urine measurement and urinalysis. RESULTS:A total of 545 women and 519 men were enrolled in the study. Mean ± SD age was 58.8 ± 14.1 years. At baseline nocturia, frequency and a sensation of incomplete emptying were similar in men and women but men experienced more voiding symptoms (90% vs 85%, p = 0.007) and women reported more urgency (85% vs 66%, p <0.001). Women also reported more of any type of urinary incontinence than men (82% vs 51% p <0.001), which was mixed incontinence in 57%. Only 1% of men reported stress incontinence but they had other urinary incontinence, including post-void dribbling in 44% and urgency incontinence in 46%. Older participants had higher odds of reporting symptoms of nocturia and urgency. CONCLUSIONS:In this large, treatment seeking cohort of men and women lower urinary tract symptoms varied widely by gender and age. Men reported more voiding symptoms and nonstress or urgency urinary incontinence while women reported more incontinence overall and urgency. Older participants had greater odds of urgency and nocturia.
Project description:PURPOSE:Women with lower urinary tract symptoms are often diagnosed based on a predefined symptom complex or a predominant symptom. There are many limitations to this paradigm as often patients present with multiple urinary symptoms which do not perfectly fit the preestablished diagnoses. We used cluster analysis to identify novel, symptom based subtypes of women with lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We analyzed baseline urinary symptom questionnaire data obtained from 545 care seeking female participants enrolled in the LURN (Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network) Observational Cohort Study. Symptoms were measured with the LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) Tool and the AUA SI (American Urological Association Symptom Index), and analyzed using a probability based consensus clustering algorithm. RESULTS:Four clusters were identified. The 138 women in cluster F1 did not report incontinence but experienced post-void dribbling, frequency and voiding symptoms. The 80 women in cluster F2 reported urgency incontinence as well as urgency and frequency but minimal voiding symptoms or stress incontinence. Cluster F3 included 244 women who reported all types of incontinence, urgency, frequency and mild voiding symptoms. The 83 women in cluster F4 reported all lower urinary tract symptoms at uniformly high levels. All but 2 of 44 LUTS Tool and 8 AUA SI questions significantly differed between at least 2 clusters (p <0.05). All clusters contained at least 1 member from each conventional group, including continence, and stress, urgency, mixed and other incontinence. CONCLUSIONS:Women seeking care for lower urinary tract symptoms cluster into 4 distinct symptom groups which differ from conventional clinical diagnostic groups. Further validation is needed to determine whether management improves using this new classification.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD), and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence (AI), and perineal pain at 6 months.Prospective cohort study.1941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) using the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire, and symptoms of anal incontinence (AI) severity using Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of UI, AI, and perineal pain at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of UI and AI, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).The study included 907 women (46.7%) who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907) had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907) low; and none of women with symptoms of UI (26.6%, and 22.4%, respectively; p = 0.31), AI (15.9%, and 21.8%; p = 0.09), the FISI score, and perineal pain (17.2%, and 12.7%; p = 0.14) differed significantly between groups. The same was true for stress, urge, and mixed-type UI, severe UI and difficulty voiding. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, the aORs for symptoms of UI in midpelvic aOVD were 0.70 (0.46-1.05) and AI 1.42 (0.85-2.39). Third- and fourth-degree tears were a major risk factor of symptoms of UI (aOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.35-7.00) and AI (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.43-8.39).Neither symptoms of urinary nor anal incontinence differed at 6 months among women who had midpelvic and low pelvic aOVD. These findings are reassuring and need further studies at long-term to confirm these short-term data.
Project description:PURPOSE:Conventional classification of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms into diagnostic categories based on a predefined symptom complex or predominant symptom appears inadequate. This is due to the frequent presentation of patients with multiple urinary symptoms which could not be perfectly categorized into traditional diagnostic groups. We used a novel clustering method to identify subtypes of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms based on detailed multisymptom information. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We analyzed baseline data on 503 care seeking men in the LURN (Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network) Observational Cohort Study. Symptoms and symptom severity were assessed using the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool and the AUA SI (American Urological Association Symptom Index), which include a total of 52 questions. We used a resampling based consensus clustering algorithm to identify patient subtypes with distinct symptom signatures. RESULTS:Four distinct symptom clusters were identified. The 166 patients in cluster M1 had predominant symptoms of frequency, nocturia, hesitancy, straining, weak stream, intermittency and incomplete bladder emptying suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction. The 93 patients in cluster M2 mainly endorsed post-micturition symptoms (eg post-void dribbling and post-void leakage) with some weak stream. The 114 patients in cluster M3 reported mostly urinary frequency without incontinence. The 130 patients in cluster M4 reported severe frequency, urgency and urgency incontinence. Most other urinary symptoms statistically differed between cluster pairs. Patient reported outcomes of bowel symptoms, mental health, sleep dysfunction, erectile function and urological pain significantly differed across the clusters. CONCLUSIONS:We identified 4 data derived clusters among men seeking care for lower urinary tract symptoms. The clusters differed from traditional diagnostic categories. Further subtype refinement will be done to incorporate clinical data and nonurinary patient reported outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Female urinary microbiota are associated with urgency urinary incontinence and response to medication. The urinary microbiota of women with stress urinary incontinence has not been described. OBJECTIVE:We sought to study the cross-sectional relationships between urinary microbiota features and demographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing stress urinary incontinence surgery. STUDY DESIGN:Preoperative urine specimens were collected from women without urinary tract infection and were available from 197 women (174 voided, 23 catheterized) enrolled in a multicenter prospective randomized trial, the Value of Urodynamic Evaluation study. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained including stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, menopausal status, and hormone use. The bacterial composition of the urine was qualitatively assessed by sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic relatedness and microbial alpha diversity were compared to demographics and symptoms using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS:The majority of 197 urine samples (86%) had detectable bacterial DNA. Bacterial diversity was significantly associated with higher body mass index (P = .02); increased Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging urge index score (P = .04); and hormonal status (P < .001). No associations were detected with stress urinary incontinence symptoms. Increased diversity was also associated with a concomitant lower frequency of Lactobacillus in hormone-negative women. CONCLUSION:Women undergoing stress urinary incontinence surgery have detectable urinary microbiota. This cross-sectional analysis revealed that increased diversity of the microbiota was associated with urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, hormonal status, and body mass index. In contrast, the female urinary microbiota were not associated with stress urinary incontinence symptoms.