Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the performance of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi.
ABSTRACT: The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a major insect pest of cereal crops in many countries. Imidacloprid has been widely used for controlling piercing-sucking insect pests worldwide, but its sublethal effects on R. padi have not been well addressed. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on biological parameters and five enzyme activities of R. padi. The LC10, LC20, and LC25 of imidacloprid to adult aphids were 0.0053, 0.0329 and 0.0659 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations significantly decreased pre-adult survival rate, but prolonged the development duration of 1st instar nymphs, pre-oviposition period, and adult longevity. Adult oviposition period was also extended by LC20. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0), and finite rate (?) decreased at all three concentrations, whereas mean generation time (T) increased. Moreover, LC20 and LC25 significantly inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but increased catalase (CAT) activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity also increased at LC20. However, cytochrome P450 enzyme and peroxidase (POD) activity did not differ between imidacloprid treatments and the control. In conclusion, the imidacloprid concentrations tested here have negative impacts on the performance of R. padi by reducing its nymphal survival, extending the development duration of some stages, decreasing the rate of population growth, and altering enzyme activities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Application of the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is a viable complementary strategy for malaria control. Efficacy of Bti is dose-dependent. There is a knowledge gap on the effects of larval exposure to sublethal Bti doses on emerging adult mosquitoes. The present study examined the effect of larval exposure to sublethal doses of Bti on the survival, body size and oviposition rate in adult Anopheles coluzzii. METHODS:Third-instar An. coluzzii larvae were exposed to control and sublethal Bti concentrations at LC20, LC50 and LC70 for 48 h. Surviving larvae were reared to adults under standard colony conditions. Thirty randomly selected females from each treatment were placed in separate cages and allowed to blood feed. Twenty-five gravid females from the blood-feeding cages were randomly selected and transferred into new cages where they were provided with oviposition cups. Numbers of eggs laid in each cage and mortality of all adult mosquitoes were recorded daily. Wing lengths were measured of 570 mosquitoes as a proxy for body size. RESULTS:Exposure to LC70Bti doses for 48 h as third-instar larvae reduced longevity of adult An. coluzzii mosquitoes. Time to death was 2.58 times shorter in females exposed to LC70Bti when compared to the control females. Estimated mortality hazard rates were also higher in females exposed to the LC50 and LC20 treatments, but these differences were not statistically significant. The females exposed to LC70 concentrations had 12% longer wings than the control group (P < 0.01). No differences in oviposition rate of the gravid females were observed between the treatments. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure of An. coluzzii larvae to sublethal Bti doses reduces longevity of resultant adults and is associated with larger adult size and unclear effect on oviposition. These findings suggest that anopheline larval exposure to sublethal Bti doses, though not recommended, could reduce vectorial capacity for malaria vector populations by increasing mortality of resultant adults.
Project description:Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae), is a very destructive insect pest of grapevines. Intercropping of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (f. Amaranthaceae) and Vitis spp. grapevines can be useful to control this pest. In the present study, the toxicity of 22 compounds, known to be present in A. bidentata, to grape phylloxera was evaluated. All treatments were toxic towards grape phylloxera but the degree of toxicity differed between treatments. Among the 22 tested compounds, several of which proved toxic towards grape phylloxera. However ?-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects against grape phylloxera, with LC50 values of 175.73 mg a.i. liter-1. In addition, we assessed the sublethal effects of LC10, LC20 and LC40 of ?-ecdysterone on grape phylloxera. The fourth instar and adult developmental periods and total life span were significantly prolonged by LC40 of ?-ecdysterone. Fecundity decreased when grape phylloxera were exposed to LC20 and LC40 of ?-ecdysterone. In addition, LC40 of ?-ecdysterone decreased the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (?) and prolonged the population doubling time (DT). The net reproductive rate (R0) was significantly reduced by both the LC20 and LC40 ?-ecdysterone treatments. Our results demonstrated that ?-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects and significant sublethal effects on grape phylloxera, and showed potential control of grape phylloxera.
Project description:Sogatella furcifera, an important migratory pest of rice, has substantial detrimental effects on rice production. To clarify the mechanism whereby S. furcifera responds to insecticide stress, we measured the activity of its protective [superoxide dismutase (SOD); peroxidase (POD); catalase (CAT)] and detoxifying [carboxylesterase (CarE); glutathione S-transferase (GST); mixed-function oxidase (MFO)] enzymes and the expression levels of its ATP-binding cassette subfamily G (ABCG) transporter genes in response to sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC25) of the insecticides thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and abamectin. On the bases of the transcriptome data and the ABCG genes of Laodelphax striatellus, we obtained 14 full-length ABCG sequences for S. furcifera. RT-qPCR results showed that 13, 12, and 9 sfABCG genes were upregulated in the presence of thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and abamectin, respectively, at LC10. Moreover, 13 and 7 sfABCG genes were upregulated following treatment with thiamethoxam and abamectin, respectively, at LC25. Enzyme activity assays showed that although thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and abamectin induced GST, CarE, CAT, POD, and SOD activity, they did so at different concentrations and exposure times. The activity of MFO was generally inhibited with prolonged exposure to the three insecticides, with the inhibitory effect being most significant at 72 h. These results indicate that S. furcifera differs in its response to different types or concentrations of insecticides. Taken together, our results lay the foundations for gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of S. furcifera to different types of insecticides, which would be of considerable significance for the development of effective pest management strategies.
Project description:Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest insects, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicotinoids on S. invicta has never been investigated. In this study, the newly mated queens were fed with water containing 0.01 or 0.25 ?g/ml imidacloprid. Imidacloprid at both concentrations did not cause any increase in queen mortality during the founding stage; however, it significantly reduced queens' brood tending ability. In the 0.25 ?g/ml imidacloprid treatment, the time to larval emergence was significantly delayed and no pupae or adult workers were produced. This study provides clear evidence that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations has a significant detrimental impact on S. invicta queens and the development of incipient colonies.
Project description:The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is an important pest of rice that severely affects production. Insecticides are an important means of controlling BPH, but their long-term use has led to resistance. To provide insight into BPH responses to insecticide stress, we determined the expression levels of BPH ABCG transporter genes under treatment with thiamethoxam, abamectin, and cyantraniliprole at LC10, LC25, LC50, and LC90. We cloned 13 BPH ABCG transporters, named NlABCG1 to NlABCG13. Conservative domain analysis showed that all 13 transporters have one nucleotide binding domain and one transmembrane domain, typical of semi-molecular transporters. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that thiamethoxam, abamectin, and cyantraniliprole stress increased the expression of some NlABCG transporters gene in BPH. However, after treatment with thiamethoxam at LC25 and abamectin at LC10, there was no significant upregulation of NlABCG. These results indicate that the expression of NlABCG varies in response to stress from different insecticides. These findings provide baseline information for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in BPH.
Project description:A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might contribute to the impairment in climbing ability of bees. The enriched GO terms were attributed to the up-regulated ribosomal protein genes. Considering the ribosomal and extra-ribosomal functions of the ribosomal proteins, we hypothesized that imidacloprid also causes cell dysfunction. Our findings further enhance the understanding of imidacloprid sublethal toxicity.
Project description:NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays an important role in the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substrates. CPR has been found to be associated with insecticide metabolism and resistance in many insects. However, information regarding CPR in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, is unavailable. In the current study, a full-length cDNA (2,476 bp) of CPR (RpCPR) encoding 681 amino acids was cloned from R. padi. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that RpCPR exhibits characteristics of classical CPRs and shares high identities with those of other insects, especially with the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. The mRNA of RpCPR was expressed at all developmental stages, with the highest expression level found in the second instar and the lowest in adult. Expression levels of RpCPR in isoprocarb-resistant and imidacloprid-resistant strains were 3.74- and 3.53-fold higher, respectively, than that of a susceptible strain. RpCPR expression could also be induced by low concentrations (LC30) of isoprocarb and imidacloprid. Moreover, we sequenced the open reading frame (ORF) of RpCPR from 167 field samples collected in 11 geographical populations. Three hundred and thirty-four SNPs were detected, of which, 65 were found in more than two individuals. One hundred and ninety-four missense mutations were present in the amino acid sequence, of which, the P484S mutant had an allele frequency of 35.1%. The present results suggest that RpCPR may play an important role in the P450-mediated insecticide resistance of R. padi to isoprocarb and imidacloprid and possibly other insecticides. Meanwhile, RpCPRmaintains high genetic diversity in natural individuals, which provides the possibility of studying potential correlations between variants and certain special physiological characters.
Project description:Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide heavily used by the agricultural industry and shown to have negative impacts on honey bees above certain concentrations. We evaluated the effects of different imidacloprid concentrations in sugar syrup using cage and field studies, and across different environments. Honey bee colonies fed sublethal concentrations of imidicloprid (0, 5, 20 and 100 ppb) over 6 weeks in field trials at a desert site (Arizona), a site near intensive agriculture (Arkansas) and a site with little nearby agriculture but abundant natural forage (Mississippi) were monitored with respect to colony metrics, such as adult bee and brood population sizes, as well as pesticide residues. Hive weight and internal hive temperature were monitored continuously over two trials in Arizona. Colonies fed 100 ppb imidacloprid in Arizona had significantly lower adult bee populations, brood surface areas and average frame weights, and reduced temperature control, compared to colonies in one or more of the other treatment groups, and consumption rates of those colonies were lower compared to other colonies in Arizona and Arkansas, although no differences in capped brood or average frame weight were observed among treatments in Arkansas. At the Mississippi site, also rich in alternative forage, colonies fed 5 ppb imidacloprid had less capped brood than control colonies, but contamination of control colonies was detected. In contrast, significantly higher daily hive weight variability among colonies fed 5 ppb imidacloprid in Arizona suggested greater foraging activity during a nectar flow post treatment, than any other treatment group. Imidacloprid concentrations in stored honey corresponded well with the respective syrup concentrations fed to the colonies and remained stable within the hive for at least 7 months after the end of treatment.
Project description:Dengue fever is one of the most rapidly spreading arthropod-borne diseases. Diurnal vectorial properties of Aedes albopictus contribute to the dispersion of the dengue viruses. Frequent and injudicious use of synthetic insecticides led to the evolution of resistant phenotypes in Ae. albopictus which necessitates the search for an alternative of current control strategies. Developing a long-lasting and environmentally safe tactic based on knowledge of ecology and population dynamics of Ae. albopictus is critical. Therefore, with a view towards biological control and ecology, the effect of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) Beauveria bassiana on filial and first filial generations of Ae. albopictus were studied. Investigations showed 87.5% adulticidal activity leading to altered fecundity and adult longevity in a filial generation. The lethal (LC50) and sublethal (LC20) concentrations of B. bassiana were applied to filial generation (F0) to study demographic parameters in the first filial generation (F1). Results showed reduced net reproductive rates (Ro) intrinsic rate of increase (r), and mean generation time (T) compared to uninfected controls. Prolonged larval and pupal duration were observed followed by reduced longevity of male and female adults. Fecundity in the first filial generation was significantly changed with the lethal and sublethal concentrations of B. bassiana. Thus, it is concluded that B. bassiana has the potential to play a vital role in integrated mosquito management strategies.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) is an agricultural mite pest threatens crops throughout the world, causing serious economic loses. Exploring the effects of acaricides on predatory mites is crucial for the combination of biological and chemical control of T. cinnabarinus. Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is one of the principal natural enemies of T. cinnabarinus, which can be applied in protected agriculture. In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of a new acaricide, SYP-9625 on two mite species, and the effects of the application concentration on predatory mite, N. californicus were assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SYP-9625 on life parameters and predation capacity of N. californicus based on the concentration-response bioassay of T. cinnabarinus to explor the application of the new acaricide with natural enemy N. californicus.<h4>Method</h4>All of the experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions [25 ± 1°C, 16: 8 h (L: D) and 75 ± 5% RH]. The sublethal concentrations LC10 (0.375?g/mL) and the LC30 (0.841?g/mL) against T. cinnabarinus and the application concentration (100?g/mL) against N. californicus were used to evaluate the effects of SYP-9625 on population parameters of N. californicus based on an age-stage, two-sex life table and its predation capacity by functional response.<h4>Result</h4>cinnabarinus females treated with LC30 exhibited significantly reduced net reproductive rates (R0 = 11.02) in their offspring compared with females treated with LC10 (R0 = 14.96) and untreated females (R0 = 32.74). However, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (?) of N. californicus indicated that the application concentration of SYP-9625 had no significant negative effect on N. californicus eggs (rm = 0.277, ? = 1.319) compared to the control (rm = 0.292, ? = 1.338). Additionally, most population parameters of N. californicus showed a dose-dependent manner with the increase of the concentration of SYP-9625 against T. cinnabarinus. SYP-9625 also stimulated the control efficiency of N. californicus against immobile stages including eggs and larvae.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrated that sublethal concentrations of SYP-9625 can inhibit the population growth of T. cinnabarinus. In addition, the sublethal concentrations and the application concentration showed no effect on the population growth of N. californicus. These two advantages described above showed great commercial potential of this new acaricide based on population parameters of the two mite species and predation capacity of the predatory mite under laboratory conditions.