Left ventricular reverse remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve implantation complicated by paroxysmal complete atrioventricular block.
ABSTRACT: An 86-year-old man with unremarkable clinical history complaining of asthenia and dyspnea was diagnosed with low-flow low-gradient aortic stenosis [LFLG-AS; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 40% and transaortic mean gradient 37 mmHg, increasing to 52% and 55 mmHg after dobutamine infusion]. The patient underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI; Edwards CENTERA™ 29, Irvine, CA, USA). The procedure and the following hospital stay were free from complications, with no changes on electrocardiography (ECG). Six months later, few syncopal episodes occurred. No signs of orthostatic hypotension or neurologic disorders were present. Echocardiography showed normal functioning of the prosthetic valve and recovery of LV systolic function (LVEF 55%). Baseline ECG and 24-h Holter monitoring were unremarkable. An implantable loop recorder (ILR) was implanted to verify the occurrence of paroxysmal conduction disturbances. One month later, during a syncopal episode, ILR interrogation showed a complete atrioventricular (AV) block. Therefore, a dual chamber, single lead pacemaker was implanted. We are providing the first report of complete AV block occurring months after TAVI, possibly because of reverse LV remodeling following TAVI, with ensuing relative oversizing of the prosthetic valve. This possibility should be considered in patients with syncope not otherwise explained, and previous TAVI, especially in cases of LFLG-AS. <Learning objective: Complete atrioventricular block can occur even months after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), possibly because of left ventricular reverse remodeling following valve replacement, with ensuing relative valve oversizing. This possibility should be considered in patients with syncope not otherwise explained, and previous TAVI, especially in cases of low flow low gradient aortic stenosis. Loop recorder implantation should be considered in this group of patients.>.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>We aimed to investigate the role of aortic valve tissue composition from quantitative cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) for the differentiation of disease subtypes and prognostication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).<h4>Methods and results</h4>Our study included 447 consecutive AS patients from six high-volume centres reporting to a prospective nationwide registry of TAVI procedures (POL-TAVI), who underwent cardiac CTA before TAVI, and 224 matched controls with normal aortic valves. Components of aortic valve tissue were identified using semi-automated software as calcific and non-calcific. Volumes of each tissue component and composition [(tissue component volume/total tissue volume) × 100%] were quantified. Relationship of aortic valve composition with clinical outcomes post-TAVI was evaluated using Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 definitions.High-gradient (HG) AS patients had significantly higher aortic tissue volume compared to low-flow low-gradient (LFLG)-AS (1672.7 vs. 1395.3 mm3, P < 0.001) as well as controls (509.9 mm3, P < 0.001), but increased non-calcific tissue was observed in LFLG compared to HG patients (1063.6 vs. 860.2 mm3, P < 0.001). Predictive value of aortic valve calcium score [area under the curve (AUC) 0.989, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.981-0.996] for severe AS was improved after addition of non-calcific tissue volume (AUC 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991-0.999, P = 0.011). In the multivariable analysis of clinical and quantitative computed tomography parameters of aortic valve tissue, non-calcific tissue volume [odds ratio (OR) 5.2, 95% CI 1.8-15.4, P = 0.003] and history of stroke (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5, P = 0.037) were independent predictors of 30-day major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Quantitative CTA assessment of aortic valve tissue volume and composition can improve detection of severe AS, differentiation between HG and LFLG-AS in patients referred for TAVI as well as prediction of 30-day MACEs post-TAVI, over the current clinical standard.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are known to suffer from poor prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to develop a simple score system for risk prediction in this vulnerable subset of patients.<h4>Methods</h4>All patients with LFLG AS with reduced EF and sufficient CT data for aortic valve calcification (AVC) quantification, who underwent TAVI at five German centres, were retrospectively included. The Risk prEdiction in patients with Low Ejection Fraction low gradient aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI (RELiEF TAVI) score was developed based on multivariable Cox regression for all-cause mortality.<h4>Results</h4>Among all included patients (n=718), RELiEF TAVI score variables were defined as independent predictors of mortality: male sex (HR 1.34 (1.06, 1.68), p=0.013), underweight (HR 3.10 (1.50, 6.40), p=0.0022), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.55 (1.21, 1.99), p=0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR 1.51 (1.17, 1.94), p=0.0015), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.28 (1.03, 1.60), p=0.028), stroke volume index (HR 0.96 (0.95, 0.98), p<0.001), non-transfemoral access (HR 1.36 (1.05, 1.76), p=0.021) and low AVC density (HR 1.44 (1.15, 1.79), p=0.0012). A score system was developed ranging from 0 to 12 points (risk of 1-year mortality: 13%-99%). Kaplan-Meier analysis for low (0-1 points), moderate (2-4 points) and high RELiEF TAVI score (>4 points) demonstrated rates of 18.0%, 29.0% and 46.1% (p<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 23.8%, 35.9% and 53.4% (p<0.001) for the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality or heart failure rehospitalisation after 1 year, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The RELiEF TAVI score is based on simple clinical, echocardiographic and CT parameters and might serve as a helpful tool for risk prediction in patients with LFLG AS and reduced LVEF scheduled for TAVI.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has proven efficacy in the treatment of aortic stenosis (AS). Understandably, there is increasing enthusiasm for its use to treat aortic regurgitation (AR). However, there are significant anatomical differences between AS and AR which make TAVI for AR more complex. <h4>Case summary</h4> We present the case of technically challenging TAVI for severe AR, which was complicated by a traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) that required percutaneous closure. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of VSD post-TAVI for AR. <h4>Discussion</h4> This unanticipated complication highlights anatomical differences between TAVI use in AS and AR. Lack of aortic valve calcification and excessive annular compliance made stable deployment of a self-expanding valve extremely challenging. Despite device oversizing, repeated embolization of the prosthesis into the left ventricular outflow tract traumatized the interventricular septum.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Failure of a small surgical aortic bioprosthesis represents a challenging clinical scenario with valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) often resulting in patient-prosthesis mismatch. Bioprosthetic valve fracture (BVF) performed as a part of the ViV TAVI has recently emerged as an alternative approach with certain types of surgical bioprostheses. <h4>Case summary</h4> An 81-year-old woman with a history of three surgical aortic valve procedures presented with heart failure. Aortic bioprosthesis degeneration with severe stenosis and moderate regurgitation was found. The patient was deemed a high-risk surgical candidate and the heart team decided that ViV TAVI was the preferred treatment option. Due to the very small 19?mm stented surgical aortic bioprosthesis Mitroflow 19?mm (Sorin Group, Italy) we decided to perform BVF as a part of ViV TAVI to prevent patient-prosthesis mismatch. Since this was the first BVF procedure in our centre, an ex vivo BVF of the same kind of bioprosthetic valve was performed first. Subsequently, successful BVF with implantation of Evolut R 23?mm (Medtronic, USA) self-expandable transcatheter valve was performed. Excellent haemodynamic result was achieved and no periprocedural complications were present. The patient had an immediate major improvement in clinical status and remains asymptomatic after 6?months. <h4>Discussion</h4> Bioprosthetic valve fracture together with ViV TAVI is a safe and effective emerging technique for treatment of small surgical aortic bioprosthesis failure. Bioprosthetic valve fracture allows marked oversizing of implanted self-expandable transcatheter aortic valves, leading to excellent haemodynamic and clinical results. An ex vivo BVF can serve as an important preparatory step when introducing the new method.
Project description:<h4>Background </h4>Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in classical low-flow, low-gradient (LFLG) aortic stenosis (AS) is recommended in recent guidelines to differentiate true-severe AS from pseudo-severe AS. However, DSE for patients with concomitant significant mitral regurgitation (MR) is often inaccurate or inconclusive.<h4>Case summary </h4>A 73-year-old man with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting was referred to our institution with congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe functional MR and LFLG AS. The results of DSE to determine the severity of AS were inconclusive owing to the absence of flow reserve, usually defined as stroke volume increase of ≥20%. In addition, calcium score by computed tomography scan was also inconclusive. Our heart team decided to reassess the severity of AS after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR), considering the patient's high surgical risk. Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair was uneventful, resulting in marked reduction of MR from severe to trivial. Dobutamine stress echocardiography after PMVR revealed true-severe AS with the presence of flow reserve. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was performed, and the patient ambulatorily discharged.<h4>Discussion </h4>The coexistence of significant AS may lead to overestimation of the severity of MR, and reportedly, concomitant MR improves in the majority of patients after TAVI, especially MR of functional aetiology. However, the coexistence of significant MR often leads to inconclusive DSE results because dobutamine stress may worsen MR and fail to increase the stroke volume. In our case, DSE after PMVR was useful to diagnose the true-severe AS for the patient with LFLG AS and severe functional MR.
Project description:Paravalvular leak (PVL) is an important complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and is associated with poor prognosis. We aimed to identify the risk factors for PVL after TAVI including patient (calcium amount or location), device (leakage-proof or not), and procedural (oversizing index (OI)) factors. The primary outcome was mild or greater PVL at 1-month follow-up echocardiography. Overall, 238 patients who underwent TAVI using eight types of valves (Edwards Sapien, Sapien XT, Sapien 3, CoreValve, Evolut R, Evolut PRO, Lotus, and Lotus Edge) were included. The incidence of significant PVL (?mild PVL) was 24.4%. Although patient factors (calcification of valve) were not predictors of PVL, valve without leakage-proof function (Edwards Sapien, Sapien XT, and CoreValve) was a significant predictor of PVL (adjusted odds ratio, 3.194, 95% CI, 1.620-6.299). Furthermore, OI has a significant protective role against PVL (PVL increased by 45% when OI decreased by 5%). The best cutoff value of OI to predict the absence of PVL was ?17.6% for the Evolut system and ?10.2% for the Sapien system. The predictors of PVL after TAVI included factors from the device (valve without leakage-proof function) and procedure (under-sizing). In patients with a high risk of PVL, the procedure should be optimized using valves with leakage-proof function and adequate OI.
Project description:Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has historically been recommended prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Pre-implantation BAV (pBAV) creates fractures at the level of calcified leaflets, thereby facilitating delivery of the transcatheter valve system across the diseased aortic valve and, enhances prosthesis implantation and expansion within the calcified aortic valve annulus. New device designs, lower profile delivery systems and increasing operator experience have enabled direct-TAVI (without pBAV), and its appeal amongst TAVI operators enhanced the dissemination of a direct TAVI approach across many centres. In this review, we discuss contemporary evidence that inform the debate on the need for routine pBAV for TAVI candidates and present a framework that may assist operators in selecting patients for pBAV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Implantable loop recorders (ILR) are widely used in patients with syncope, palpitations, or cryptogenic stroke. Implantable loop recorder implantation is considered a minimally invasive, low-risk procedure, however, rare complications can occur, including device migration.<h4>Case summary</h4>A 65-year-old woman underwent implantation of the new generation Biotronik ILR-BioMonitor 3-at a typical, standard location as part of recurrent syncope workup. The procedure was unremarkable, without acute complications. The remote communication with the device was lost 1 week later. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography confirmed device migration into the left postero-inferior part of the pleural cavity. We were able to establish direct device communication from the patients' dorsum (back). The device was retrieved with forceps during thoracoscopy without further complications.<h4>Discussion</h4>There are few published cases of ILR migration into the pleural cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of subpleural penetration of the new generation of Biotronik ILR (BioMonitor 3) which is small in size and has a sharp antenna. We assume that the ILR migrated about a week post-implantation. We suggest that the subcutaneous implantation be done with a minimal penetration angle and parallel to the sternum with close follow-up after the procedure.
Project description:Predilatation has been historically considered a mandatory step before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) since it facilitates valve crossing and prosthesis delivery, ensures optimal valve expansion and improves hemodynamic stability during valve deployment. However, as a result of procedural evolution over time, direct TAVI (without pre-implantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty) has emerged as an interesting option to simplify the procedure and to avoid potential valvuloplasty-related complications. Several real-world retrospective studies and one small randomised study have shown that direct TAVI (with both self-expanding and balloon-expandable prostheses) is feasible, safe and associated with outcomes similar to standard TAVI with pre-implantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty. In the absence of high-quality, robust evidence, the current review aims to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of omitting predilatation prior to TAVI.
Project description:Balloon predilatation of the aortic valve has been regarded as an essential step during the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure. However, recent evidence has suggested that aortic valvuloplasty may cause complications and that high success rates may be obtained without prior dilatation of the valve. We hypothesize that TAVI performed without predilatation of the aortic valve and using new-generation balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves is associated with a better net clinical benefit than TAVI performed with predilatation.The transcatheter aortic valve implantation without prior balloon dilatation (DIRECTAVI) trial is a randomized controlled open label trial that includes 240 patients randomized to TAVI performed with prior balloon valvuloplasty (control arm) or direct implantation of the valve (test arm). All patients with an indication for TAVI will be included excepting those requiring transapical access. The trial tests the hypothesis that the strategy of direct implantation of the new-generation balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 valve is noninferior to current medical practice using predilatation of the valve. The primary endpoint assessing efficacy and safety of the procedure consists of immediate procedural success and secondary endpoints include complications at 30-day follow-up (VARC-2 criteria). A subgroup analysis evaluates neurological ischemic events with cerebral MRI imaging (25 patients in each strategy group) performed before and between 1 and 3 days after the procedure.This prospective randomized study is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of TAVI performed without prior dilatation of the aortic valve using new-generation balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves. We aim to provide robust evidence of the advantages of this strategy to allow the interventional cardiologist to use it in everyday practice.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02729519 . Registered on 15 July 2016.