Investigation of 'Head-to-Tail'-Connected Oligoaryl N,O-Ligands as Recognition Motifs for Cancer-Relevant G-Quadruplexes.
ABSTRACT: Oligomeric compounds, constituted of consecutive N,O-heteroaromatic rings, introduce useful and tunable properties as alternative ligands for biomolecular recognition. In this study, we have explored a synthetic scheme relying on Van Leusen oxazole formation, in conjunction with C-H activation of the formed oxazoles and their subsequent C-C cross-coupling to 2-bromopyridines in order to assemble a library of variable-length, 'head-to-tail'-connected, pyridyl-oxazole ligands. Through investigation of the interaction of the three longer ligands (5-mer, 6-mer, 7-mer) with cancer-relevant G-quadruplex structures (human telomeric/22AG and c-Myc oncogene promoter/Myc2345-Pu22), the asymmetric pyridyl-oxazole motif has been demonstrated to be a prominent recognition element for G-quadruplexes. Fluorescence titrations reveal excellent binding affinities of the 7-mer and 6-mer for a Na?-induced antiparallel 22AG G-quadruplex (KD = 0.6 × 10-7 M-1 and 0.8 × 10-7 M-1, respectively), and satisfactory (albeit lower) affinities for the 22AG/K? and Myc2345-Pu22/K? G-quadruplexes. All ligands tested exhibit substantial selectivity for G-quadruplex versus duplex (ds26) DNA, as evidenced by competitive Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays. Additionally, the 7-mer and 6-mer are capable of promoting a sharp morphology transition of 22AG/K? G-quadruplex.
Project description:Novel cis/trans-4- and cis/trans-5-(2-vinylstyryl)oxazoles have been synthesized by Wittig reactions from the diphosphonium salt of ?,?'-o-xylene dibromide, formaldehyde and 4- and 5-oxazolecarbaldehydes, respectively. In contrast, trans-5-(2-vinylstyryl)oxazole has been synthesized by the van Leusen reaction from trans-3-(2-vinylphenyl)acrylaldehyde which is prepared from o-vinylbenzaldehyde and (formylmethylene)triphenylphosphorane. The 4- and 5-(2-vinylstyryl)oxazoles afford, by photochemical intramolecular cycloaddition, diverse fused oxazoline-benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octadienes, which are identified and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The photoproducts formed are relatively unstable and spontaneously or on silica gel undergo oxazoline ring opening followed by formation of formiato- or formamido-benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octenone derivatives. On irradiation of 4-(2-vinylstyryl)oxazole small quantities of electrocyclization product, 4-(1,2-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)oxazole, are isolated and spectroscopically characterized.
Project description:Non-macrocyclic heteroaryls represent a valuable class of ligands for nucleic acid recognition. In this regard, non-macrocyclic pyridyl polyoxazoles and polyoxadiazoles were recently identified as selective G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds with high cytotoxicity and promising anticancer activity. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a new family of heteroaryls containing oxadiazole and pyridine moieties targeting DNA G-quadruplexes. To perform a structure?activity analysis identifying determinants of activity and selectivity, we followed a convergent synthetic pathway to modulate the nature and number of the heterocycles (1,3-oxazole vs. 1,2,4-oxadiazole and pyridine vs. benzene). Each ligand was evaluated towards secondary nucleic acid structures, which have been chosen as a prototype to mimic cancer-associated G-quadruplex structures (e.g., the human telomeric sequence, c-myc and c-kit promoters). Interestingly, heptapyridyl-oxadiazole compounds showed preferential binding towards the telomeric sequence (22AG) in competitive conditions vs. duplex DNA. In addition, G4-FID assays suggest a different binding mode from the classical stacking on the external G-quartet. Additionally, CD titrations in the presence of the two most promising compounds for affinity, TOxAzaPy and TOxAzaPhen, display a structural transition of 22AG in K-rich buffer. This investigation suggests that the pyridyl-oxadiazole motif is a promising recognition element for G-quadruplexes, combining seven heteroaryls in a single binding unit.
Project description:Oxazole-containing macrocycles represent a promising class of anticancer agents that target G-quadruplex DNA. We report the results of spectroscopic studies aimed at defining the mode, energetics and specificity with which a hexaoxazole-containing macrocycle (HXDV) binds to the intramolecular quadruplex formed by the human telomeric DNA model oligonucleotide d(T2AG3)4 in the presence of potassium ions. HXDV binds solely to the quadruplex nucleic acid form, but not to the duplex or triplex form. HXDV binds d(T2AG3)4 with a stoichiometry of two drug molecules per quadruplex, with these binding reactions being coupled to the destacking of adenine residues from the terminal G-tetrads. HXDV binding to d(T2AG3)4 does not alter the length of the quadruplex. These collective observations are indicative of a nonintercalative 'terminal capping' mode of interaction in which one HXDV molecule binds to each end of the quadruplex. The binding of HXDV to d(T2AG3)4 is entropy driven, with this entropic driving force reflecting contributions from favorable drug-induced alterations in the configurational entropy of the host quadruplex as well as in net hydration. The 'terminal capping' mode of binding revealed by our studies may prove to be a general feature of the interactions between oxazole-containing macrocyclic ligands (including telomestatin) and intramolecular DNA quadruplexes.
Project description:Human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA stabilization has emerged as an exciting novel approach for anticancer drug development. In the present study, we have designed and synthesized three C2-symmetric bisubstituted bisbenzimidazole naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligands, ALI-C3 , BBZ-ARO, and BBZ-AROCH2 , which stabilize human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA with high affinity. Herein, we have studied the binding affinities and thermodynamic contributions of each of these molecules with G-quadruplex DNA and compared the same to those of the parent NDI analogue, BMSG-SH-3. Results of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance demonstrate that these ligands have a higher affinity for G4-DNA over duplex DNA and induce the formation of a G-quadruplex. The binding equilibrium constants obtained from the microcalorimetry studies of BBZ-ARO, ALI-C3 , and BBZ-AROCH2 were 8.47, 6.35, and 3.41 ?M, respectively, with h-telo 22-mer quadruplex. These showed 10 and 100 times lower binding affinity with h-telo 12-mer and duplex DNA quadruplexes, respectively. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained from the microcalorimetry study suggests that interactions were most favorable for BBZ-ARO among all of the synthesized compounds. The ?Gfree obtained from molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies suggest that BBZ-ARO interacted strongly with G4-DNA. MD simulation results showed the highest hydrogen bond occupancy and van der Waals interactions were between the side chains of BBZ-ARO and the DNA grooves. A significant inhibition of telomerase activity (IC50 = 4.56 ?M) and induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines by BBZ-ARO suggest that this molecule has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent.
Project description:Ligands targeting telomeric G-quadruplexs are considered good candidates for anticancer drugs. However, current studies on G-quadruplex ligands focus exclusively on the interactions of ligands and monomeric G-quadruplexes under dilute conditions. Living cells are crowded with biomacromolecules, and the ? 200-nucleotide G-rich single-stranded overhang of human telomeric DNA has the potential to fold into multimeric G-quadruplex structures containing several G-quadruplex units. Studies on interactions between ligands and multimeric G-quadruplexes under molecular crowding conditions could provide a new route for screening specific telomeric G-quadruplex-targeting ligands. Herein, TMPipEOPP, a cationic porphyrin derivative designed by us, was demonstrated as a promising multimeric telomeric G-quadruplex ligand under molecular crowding conditions. It could highly specifically recognize G-quadruplexes. It could also promote the formation of G-quadruplexes and stabilize them. Detailed studies showed that TMPipEOPP interacted with monomeric G-quadruplexes in sandwich-like end-stacking mode of quadruplex/TMPipEOPP/quadruplex and interacted with multimeric human telomeric G-quadruplexes by intercalating into the pocket between two adjacent G-quadruplex units. The pocket size greatly affected TMPipEOPP binding. A larger pocket was advantageous for the intercalation of TMPipEOPP. This work provides new insights into the ligand-binding properties of multimeric G-quadruplexes under molecular crowding conditions and introduces a new route for screening anticancer drugs targeting telomeric G-quadruplexes.
Project description:We have explored a series of trisubstituted acridine-peptide conjugates for their ability to recognize and discriminate between DNA quadruplexes derived from the human telomere, and the c-kit and N-ras proto-oncogenes. Quadruplex affinity was measured as the peptide sequences were varied, together with their substitution position on the acridine, and the identity of the C-terminus (acid or amide). Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that all compounds bound to the human telomeric quadruplex with sub-micromolar affinity. Docking calculations from molecular modelling studies were used to model the effects of substituent orientation and peptide sequence. Modelling and experiment were in agreement that placement of the peptide over the face of the acridine is detrimental to binding affinity. The highest degrees of selectivity were observed towards the N-ras quadruplex by compounds capable of forming simultaneous contacts with their acridine and peptide moieties. The ligands that bound best displayed quadruplex affinities in the 1-5 nM range and at least 10-fold discrimination between the quadruplexes studied.
Project description:The quadruplex binding affinities and selectivities of two large pi-surface Pt(II) phenanthroimidazole complexes, as well as a smaller pi-surface platinum bipyridine complex and a larger Ru(II) complex, were evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to determine the structures of various quadruplexes and to study the thermal denaturation of the quadruplexes in the absence and presence of the metal complexes. In addition, chemical probe reactions with glyoxal were used to monitor the changes in the quadruplex conformation because of association with the complexes. The platinum phenanthroimidazole complexes show increased affinity for several of the quadruplexes with elongated loops between guanine repeats. Quadruplexes with shorter loops exhibited insubstantial binding to the transition metal complexes. Similarly binding to duplex and single strand oligonucleotides was low overall. Although the ruthenium-based metal complex showed somewhat enhanced quadruplex binding, the Pt(II) complexes had higher quadruplex affinities and selectivities that are attributed to their square planar geometries. The chemical probe reactions using glyoxal indicated increased reactivity when the platinum phenanthroimidazole complexes were bound to the quadruplexes, thus suggesting a conformational change that alters guanine accessibility.
Project description:We completed a biophysical characterization of the c-MYC proto-oncogene P1 promoter quadruplex and its interaction with a cationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4), using differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. We examined three different 24-mer oligonucleotides, including the wild-type (WT) sequence found in the c-MYC P(1) promoter and two mutant G?T sequences that are known to fold into single 1:2:1 and 1:6:1 loop isomer quadruplexes. Biophysical experiments were performed on all three oligonucleotide sequences at two different ionic strengths (30 mM [K(+)] and 130 mM [K(+)]). Differential scanning calorimetry experiments demonstrated that the WT quadruplex consists of a mixture of at least two different folded conformers at both ionic strengths, whereas both mutant sequences exhibit a single two-state melting transition at both ionic strengths. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that both mutant sequences bind 4 mols of TMPyP4 to 1 mol of DNA, in similarity to the WT sequence. The circular dichroism spectroscopy signatures for all three oligonucleotides at both ionic strengths are consistent with an intramolecular parallel stranded G-quadruplex structure, and no change in quadruplex structure is observed upon addition of saturating amounts of TMPyP4 (i.e., 4:1 TMPyP4/DNA).
Project description:Studies on ligand interaction with quadruplex DNA, and their role in stabilizing the complex at concentration prevailing under physiological condition, has attained high interest. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and spectroscopic studies in solution were used to evaluate the interaction of PBD and TMPyP4 ligands, stoichiometry and selectivity to G-quadruplex DNA. Two synthetic ligands from PBD family, namely pyrene-linked pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine hybrid (PBD1), mixed imine-amide pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD2) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) were studied. G-rich single-stranded oligonucleotide d(5'GGGGTTGGGG3') designated as d(T(2)G(8)), from the telomeric region of Tetrahymena Glaucoma, was considered for the interaction with ligands. ESI-MS and spectroscopic methods viz., circular dichroism (CD), UV-Visible, and fluorescence were employed to investigate the G-quadruplex structures formed by d(T(2)G(8)) sequence and its interaction with PBD and TMPyP4 ligands. From ESI-MS spectra, it is evident that the majority of quadruplexes exist as d(T(2)G(8))(2) and d(T(2)G(8))(4) forms possessing two to ten cations in the centre, thereby stabilizing the complex. CD band of PBD1 and PBD2 showed hypo and hyperchromicity, on interaction with quadruplex DNA, indicating unfolding and stabilization of quadruplex DNA complex, respectively. UV-Visible and fluorescence experiments suggest that PBD1 bind externally where as PBD2 intercalate moderately and bind externally to G-quadruplex DNA. Further, melting experiments using SYBR Green indicate that PBD1 unfolds and PBD2 stabilizes the G-quadruplex complex. ITC experiments using d(T(2)G(8)) quadruplex with PBD ligands reveal that PBD1 and PBD2 prefer external/loop binding and external/intercalative binding to quadruplex DNA, respectively. From experimental results it is clear that the interaction of PBD2 and TMPyP4 impart higher stability to the quadruplex complex.
Project description:G-quadruplexes are non-canonical DNA structures formed by guanine-rich DNA sequences that are implicated in cancer and aging. Understanding how small molecule ligands interact with quadruplexes is essential both to the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and to the design of new quadruplex-selective probes needed for elucidation of quadruplex biological functions. In this work, UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays, and resonance light scattering were used to investigate how the Pt(II) and Pd(II) derivatives of the well-studied 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) interact with quadruplexes formed by the human telomeric DNA, Tel22, and by the G-rich sequences from oncogene promoters. Our results suggest that Pt- and PdTMPyP4 interact with Tel22 via efficient ?-? stacking with a binding affinity of 10(6)-10(7) M(-1). Under porphyrin excess, PtTMPyP4 aggregates using Tel22 as a template; the aggregates reach maximum size at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ~8 and dissolve at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ? 2. FRET assays reveal that both porphyrins are excellent stabilizers of human telomeric DNA, with stabilization temperature of 30.7 ± 0.6 °C for PtTMPyP4 and 30.9 ± 0.4 °C for PdTMPyP4 at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] = 2 in K(+) buffer, values significantly higher as compared to those for TMPyP4. The porphyrins display modest selectivity for quadruplex vs. duplex DNA, with selectivity ratios of 150 and 330 for Pt- and PdTMPyP4, respectively. This selectivity was confirmed by observed 'light switch' effect: fluorescence of PtTMPyP4 increases significantly in the presence of a variety of DNA secondary structures, yet the strongest effect is produced by quadruplex DNA.