Photoresponse of Graphene-Gated Graphene-GaSe Heterojunction Devices.
ABSTRACT: Because of their extraordinary physical properties, low-dimensional materials including graphene and gallium selenide (GaSe) are promising for future electronic and optoelectronic applications, particularly in transparent-flexible photodetectors. Currently, the photodetectors working at the near-infrared spectral range are highly indispensable in optical communications. However, the current photodetector architectures are typically complex, and it is normally difficult to control the architecture parameters. Here, we report graphene-GaSe heterojunction-based field-effect transistors with broadband photodetection from 730-1550 nm. Chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was employed as transparent gate and contact electrodes with tunable resistance, which enables effective photocurrent generation in the heterojunctions. The photoresponsivity was shown from 10 to 0.05 mA/W in the near-infrared region under the gate control. To understand behavior of the transistor, we analyzed the results via simulation performed using a model for the gate-tunable graphene-semiconductor heterojunction where possible Fermi level pinning effect is considered.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures hold the promise for future atomically thin electronics and optoelectronics because of their diverse functionalities. Although heterostructures consisting of different 2D materials with well-matched lattices and novel physical properties have been successfully fabricated via van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy, constructing heterostructures from layered semiconductors with large lattice misfits remains challenging. We report the growth of 2D GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures with a large lattice misfit using two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both vertically stacked and lateral heterostructures are demonstrated. The vertically stacked GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures exhibit vdW epitaxy with well-aligned lattice orientation between the two layers, forming a periodic superlattice. However, the lateral heterostructures exhibit no lateral epitaxial alignment at the interface between GaSe and MoSe2 crystalline domains. Instead of a direct lateral connection at the boundary region where the same lattice orientation is observed between GaSe and MoSe2 monolayer domains in lateral GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures, GaSe monolayers are found to overgrow MoSe2 during CVD, forming a stripe of vertically stacked vdW heterostructures at the crystal interface. Such vertically stacked vdW GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures are shown to form p-n junctions with effective transport and separation of photogenerated charge carriers between layers, resulting in a gate-tunable photovoltaic response. These GaSe/MoSe2 vdW heterostructures should have applications as gate-tunable field-effect transistors, photodetectors, and solar cells.
Project description:While high photoconductive gain has been recently achieved in graphene-based hybrid phototransistors using semiconductor two-dimensional transition/post-transition metal dichalcogenides or quantum dots sensitizers, obtaining fast photoresponse simutaneously remains a challenge that must be addressed for practical applications. In this paper we report a graphene/GaSe nanosheets hybrid photodetector, in which GaSe nanosheets provide a favorable geometric link to graphene conductive layer through van Der Waals force. After a vacuum annealing process, a high gain in exceeding 10(7) has been obtained simitaneously with a dynamic response time of around 10?ms for both light on and off. We attribute the high performance to the elimination of possible deep charge traps, most probably at the graphene/GaSe nanosheets interface. This result demonstrates high photoconductive gain and fast photoresponse can be achieved simultaneously and a clean interface is the key to the high performance of these hybrid devices.
Project description:Metamaterials have recently established a new paradigm for enhanced light absorption in state-of-the-art photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate broadband, highly efficient, polarization-insensitive, and gate-tunable photodetection at room temperature in a novel metadevice based on gold/graphene Sierpinski carpet plasmonic fractals. We observed an unprecedented internal quantum efficiency up to 100% from the near-infrared to the visible range with an upper bound of optical detectivity of 1011 Jones and a gain up to 106, which is a fingerprint of multiple hot carriers photogenerated in graphene. Also, we show a 100-fold enhanced photodetection due to highly focused (up to a record factor of |E/E0| ? 20 for graphene) electromagnetic fields induced by electrically tunable multimodal plasmons, spatially localized in self-similar fashion on the metasurface. Our findings give direct insight into the physical processes governing graphene plasmonic fractal metamaterials. The proposed structure represents a promising route for the realization of a broadband, compact, and active platform for future optoelectronic devices including multiband bio/chemical and light sensors.
Project description:The massless Dirac electron transport in graphene has led to a variety of unique light-matter interaction phenomena, which promise many novel optoelectronic applications. Most of the effects are only accessible by breaking the spatial symmetry, through introducing edges, p-n junctions, or heterogeneous interfaces. The recent development of direct synthesis of lateral heterostructures offers new opportunities to achieve the desired asymmetry. As a proof of concept, we study the photothermoelectric effect in an asymmetric lateral heterojunction between the Dirac semimetallic monolayer graphene and the parabolic semiconducting monolayer MoS2. Very different hot-carrier cooling mechanisms on the graphene and the MoS2 sides allow us to resolve the asymmetric thermalization pathways of photoinduced hot carriers spatially with electrostatic gate tunability. We also demonstrate the potential of graphene-2D semiconductor lateral heterojunctions as broadband infrared photodetectors. The proposed structure shows an extreme in-plane asymmetry and provides a new platform to study light-matter interactions in low-dimensional systems.
Project description:A critical challenge for the integration of optoelectronics is that photodetectors have relatively poor sensitivities at the nanometer scale. Generally, a large electrodes spacing in photodetectors is required to absorb sufficient light to maintain high photoresponsivity and reduce the dark current. However, this will limit the optoelectronic integration density. Through spatially resolved photocurrent investigation, we find that the photocurrent in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors based on layered GaSe is mainly generated from the region close to the metal-GaSe interface with higher electrical potential. The photoresponsivity monotonically increases with shrinking the spacing distance before the direct tunneling happens, which was significantly enhanced up to 5,000 AW(-1) for the bottom Ti/Au contacted device. It is more than 1,700-fold improvement over the previously reported results. The response time of the Ti/Au contacted devices is about 10-20?ms and reduced down to 270??s for the devices with single layer graphene as metallic electrodes. A theoretical model has been developed to well explain the photoresponsivity for these two types of device configurations. Our findings realize reducing the size and improving the performance of 2D semiconductor based MSM photodetectors simultaneously, which could pave the way for future high density integration of optoelectronics with high performances.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenides have attracted considerable attention for use in photoelectric devices due to their unique layer structure and strong light-matter interaction. In this paper, vertically grown SnS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets array film was synthesized by a facile chemical bath deposition (CBD). The effects of deposition time and annealing temperature on the quality of SnS<sub>2</sub> films was investigated in detail. By optimizing the preparation conditions, the SnS<sub>2</sub> array film exhibited efficient photoelectric detection performance under sunlight. Furthermore, in order to improve the performance of the photodetector based on SnS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets film, a transparent graphene film was introduced as the hole-transport layer by wet-chemical method directly transferring techniques. Graphene/SnS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets array film heterojunction photodetectors exhibit enhanced photoresponsivity. The light on/off ratio of the photodetector based on graphene/SnS<sub>2</sub> was 1.53, about 1.4 times higher than that of the pristine SnS<sub>2</sub> array films. The improved photoresponse performance suggested that the effective heterojunction between vertical SnS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets array film and graphene suppresses the recombination of photogenerated carriers. The results indicate that the graphene/SnS<sub>2</sub> heterojunction photodetectors have great potential in photodetection devices.
Project description:There is a growing number of applications demanding highly sensitive photodetectors in the mid-infrared. Thermal photodetectors, such as bolometers, have emerged as the technology of choice, because they do not need cooling. The performance of a bolometer is linked to its temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, ?2-4%?K-1 for state-of-the-art materials). Graphene is ideally suited for optoelectronic applications, with a variety of reported photodetectors ranging from visible to THz frequencies. For the mid-infrared, graphene-based detectors with TCRs ?4-11%?K-1 have been demonstrated. Here we present an uncooled, mid-infrared photodetector, where the pyroelectric response of a LiNbO3 crystal is transduced with high gain (up to 200) into resistivity modulation for graphene. This is achieved by fabricating a floating metallic structure that concentrates the pyroelectric charge on the top-gate capacitor of the graphene channel, leading to TCRs up to 900%?K-1, and the ability to resolve temperature variations down to 15??K.
Project description:Graphene-based optoelectronic devices have attracted much attention due to their broadband photon responsivity and fast response time. However, the performance of such graphene-based photodetectors is greatly limited by weak light absorption and low responsivity induced by the gapless nature of graphene. Here, we achieved a high responsivity above 103 AW-1 for Ultraviolet (UV) light in a hybrid structure based phototransistor, which consists of CVD-grown monolayer graphene and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. The photodetectors exhibit a selective photo responsivity for the UV light with the wavelength of 405 nm, confirming the main light absorption from QDs. The photo-generated charges have been found to transfer from QDs to graphene channel, leading to a gate-tunable photo responsivity with the maximum value obtained at V G about 15V. A recirculate 100 times behavior with a good stability of 21 days is demonstrated for our devices and another flexible graphene/QDs based photoconductors have been found to be functional after 1000 bending cycles. Such UV photodetectors based on graphene decorated with cadmium-free ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots offer a new way to build environmental friendly optoelectronics.
Project description:A high-quality GaSe single crystal was grown by the Bridgman method. The X-ray rocking curve for the studied GaSe sample is symmetric and the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) is only 46 arcs, which is the smallest value ever reported for GaSe crystals. The IR-transmittance is about 66% in the range from 500 to 4000 cm-1. The photoluminescence spectrum at 9.2 K shows a symmetric and sharp excition peak in 2.1046 eV. The results indicate that the as-grown GaSe crystal is of high crystalline quality. The as-grown ? -GaSe crystal has a p-type conductance with the resistivity of 10³ ?/cm, and the Hall mobility is ~25 cm² V-1 s-1. Few-layer GaSe crystals were prepared through mechanical exfoliation from this high-quality crystal sample. Few-layer GaSe-based photodetectors were fabricated, which exhibit an on/off ratio of 10?, a field-effect differential mobility of 0.4 cm² V-1 s-1, and have a fast response time less than 60 ms under light illumination.
Project description:Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 ?m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their structure and orientation were characterized from atomic scale to micrometer scale. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.