Collective Effects in Second-Harmonic Generation from Plasmonic Oligomers.
ABSTRACT: We investigate collective effects in plasmonic oligomers of different symmetries using second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy with cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). The oligomers consist of gold nanorods that have a longitudinal plasmon resonance close to the fundamental wavelength that is used for SHG excitation and whose long axes are arranged locally such that they follow the distribution of the transverse component of the electric field of radially or azimuthally polarized CVBs in the focal plane. We observe that SHG from such rotationally symmetric oligomers is strongly modified by the interplay between the polarization properties of the CVB and interparticle coupling. We find that the oligomers with radially oriented nanorods exhibit small coupling effects. In contrast, we find that the oligomers with azimuthally oriented nanorods exhibit large coupling effects that lead to silencing of SHG from the whole structure. Our experimental results are in very good agreement with numerical calculations based on the boundary element method. The work describes a new route for studying coupling effects in complex arrangements of nano-objects and thereby for tailoring the efficiency of nonlinear optical effects in such structures.
Project description:Coxsackievirus B (CVB) enteroviruses are common human pathogens known to cause severe diseases including myocarditis, chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, and aseptic meningitis. CVBs are also hypothesized to be a causal factor in type 1 diabetes. Vaccines against CVBs are not currently available, and here we describe the generation and preclinical testing of a novel hexavalent vaccine targeting the six known CVB serotypes. We show that the vaccine has an excellent safety profile in murine models and nonhuman primates and that it induces strong neutralizing antibody responses to the six serotypes in both species without an adjuvant. We also demonstrate that the vaccine provides immunity against acute CVB infections in mice, including CVB infections known to cause virus-induced myocarditis. In addition, it blocks CVB-induced diabetes in a genetically permissive mouse model. Our preclinical proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the successful generation of a promising hexavalent CVB vaccine with high immunogenicity capable of preventing CVB-induced diseases.
Project description:Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are a group of common human pathogens producing various clinical symptoms. Although the virology of CVB is well known, there is limited information on viral pathogenesis and the relationship between clinical symptoms and viral phenotype, particularly for CVB type 2 (CVB2). In 2004 in Korea, two CVB2 strains were isolated: CB2/04/279 from stool of an acute myocarditis patient with heart failure and CB2/04/243 from an aseptic meningitis patient. In this study, a high degree of homology was observed between the CB2/04/279 and CB2/04/243 full genome sequences. The two Korean CVB2 isolates had 93.1% homology compared to 82.1%-82.5% nucleotide sequence identity with the cardiovirulence-associated reference CVB strain Ohio-1 (CVB/O). CVB2-induced pathogenesis was analyzed, focusing on virus-induced pathology of various tissues in 4-week-old BALB/c inbred male mice. Myocarditis developed and extensive pancreatic inflammation was observed in all mice infected with CB2/04/279 or CVB/O, but not in animals infected with CB2/04/243. This is the first report of the full-genomic sequence and pathogenesis of the CVB2 strain isolated from an acute myocarditis patient in Korea.
Project description:Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1(+) mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1(+) mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology.
Project description:X-ray tomography is a well-established technique to characterize 3D structures in material sciences and biology; its magnetic analogue--magnetic X-ray tomography--is yet to be developed. Here we demonstrate the visualization and reconstruction of magnetic domain structures in a 3D curved magnetic thin films with tubular shape by means of full-field soft X-ray microscopies. The 3D arrangement of the magnetization is retrieved from a set of 2D projections by analysing the evolution of the magnetic contrast with varying projection angle. Using reconstruction algorithms to analyse the angular evolution of 2D projections provides quantitative information about domain patterns and magnetic coupling phenomena between windings of azimuthally and radially magnetized tubular objects. The present approach represents a first milestone towards visualizing magnetization textures of 3D curved thin films with virtually arbitrary shape.
Project description:To understand better how different genomic regions may confer pathogenicity for the coxsackievirus B (CVB), two intratypic CVB1 variants, and a number of recombinant viruses were studied. Sequencing analysis showed 23 nucleotide changes between the parental non-pathogenic CVB1N and the pathogenic CVB1Nm. Mutations present in CVB1Nm were more conserved than those in CVB1N when compared to other CVB sequences. Inoculation in C3H/HeJ mice showed that the P1 region is critical for pathogenicity in murine pancreas and heart. The molecular determinants of disease for these organs partially overlap. Several P1 region amino acid differences appear to be located in the decay-accelerating factor (DAF) footprint CVBs. CVB1N and CVB1Nm interacted with human CAR, but only CVB1N seemed to interact with human DAF, as determined using soluble receptors in a plaque-reduction assay. However, the murine homolog Daf-1 did not interact with any virus assessed by hemagglutination. The results of this study suggest that an unknown receptor interaction with the virus play an important role in the pathogenicity of CVB1Nm. Further in vivo studies may clarify this issue.
Project description:Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, meningitis and pancreatitis, often leading to heart failure and pancreatic deficiency. The polarization of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their cytokine milieu are key factors in the outcome of CVB-induced diseases. Thus, sensing the virus and driving the adaptive immune response are essential for the establishment of a protective immune response. TLR3 is a crucial virus recognition receptor that confers the host with resistance to CVB infection. In the current study, we found that TLR3 expression in dendritic cells plays a role in their activation upon CVB3 infection in vitro, as TLR3-deficient dendritic cells up-regulate CD80 and CD86 to a less degree than WT cells. Instead, they up-regulated the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and secreted considerably lower levels of TNF-? and IL-10 and a higher level of IL-23. T lymphocyte proliferation in co-culture with CVB3-infected dendritic cells was increased by TLR3-expressing DCs and other cells. Furthermore, in the absence of TLR3, the T lymphocyte response was shifted toward a Th17 profile, which was previously reported to be deleterious for the host. TLR3-deficient mice were very susceptible to CVB3 infection, with increased pancreatic injury and extensive inflammatory infiltrate in the heart that was associated with uncontrolled viral replication. Adoptive transfer of TLR3+ dendritic cells slightly improved the survival of TLR-deficient mice following CVB3 infection. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of TLR3 signaling in DCs and in other cells to induce activation and polarization of the CD4+ T lymphocyte response toward a Th1 profile and consequently for a better outcome of CVB3 infection. These data provide new insight into the immune-mediated mechanisms by which CVBs are recognized and cleared in order to prevent the development of myocarditis and pancreatitis and may contribute to the design of therapies for enteroviral infections.
Project description:Purpose:We report a case of diabetic papillopathy (DP) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections and evaluated for disc vessel changes using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Observations:A 52-year-old man was referred with a 1-week history of acute painless decreased vision in both eyes (OU). His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40 in the right eye (OD) and 20/100 in the left eye (OS). Fundus examination showed swollen optic discs with superficial radially oriented telangiectatic vessels, peripapillary splinter hemorrhages, and hard exudates OU. On SS-OCTA, B-scan images displayed blood flow signals in the thickened retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of the optic disc and superficial RNFL slab images displayed radially oriented telangiectatic vessels OU. Laboratory tests revealed previously unknown diabetes, and we diagnosed the patient with DP OU. Two weeks after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab OS, the disc swelling, radially oriented telangiectatic vessels, and peripapillary splinter hemorrhages had decreased OS. The superficial RNFL slab OS also depicted decreased radially oriented telangiectatic vessels. However, OD showed no interval changes. Two weeks after an intravitreal bevacizumab injection OD, improved BCVA, decreased disc swelling, radially oriented telangiectatic vessels, and peripapillary splinter hemorrhages were observed OU. The superficial RNFL slab also showed decreased radially oriented telangiectatic vessels OU. Conclusions and importance:This case showed that bevacizumab is a useful treatment option for DP as they resolve underlying optic nerve capillary vasculopathy. SS-OCTA demonstrated resolved superficial telangiectatic vessels of the optic disc which has not been previously described.
Project description:Computational models of normal liver function and xenobiotic induced liver damage are increasingly being used to interpret in vitro and in vivo data and as an approach to the de novo prediction of the liver's response to xenobiotics. The microdosimetry (dose at the level of individual cells) of xenobiotics vary spatially within the liver because of both compound-independent and compound-dependent factors. In this paper, we build model liver lobules to investigate the interplay between vascular structure, blood flow and cellular transport that lead to regional variations in microdosimetry. We then compared simulation results obtained using this complex spatial model with a simpler linear pipe model of a sinusoid and a very simple single box model. We found that variations in diffusive transport, transporter-mediated transport and metabolism, coupled with complex liver sinusoid architecture and blood flow distribution, led to three essential patterns of xenobiotic exposure within the virtual liver lobule: (1) lobular-wise uniform, (2) radially varying and (3) both radially and azimuthally varying. We propose to use these essential patterns of exposure as a reference for selection of model representations when a computational study involves modeling detailed hepatic responses to xenobiotics.
Project description:Cyclovirobuxine D (CVB?D) is an alkaloid, which is mainly derived from Buxus microphylla. It has been reported that CVB?D has positive effects on breast cancer, gastric cancer and other malignant tumors. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the effects of CVB?D on colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of CVB?D and further elucidate its molecular mechanism(s). DLD?1 and LoVo cell lines were selected to evaluate the antitumor effect of CVB?D. Cytotoxicity, viability and proliferation were evaluated by the MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effects on apoptosis and the cell cycle in CVB?D?treated CRC cells. The migration and invasion abilities of CRC cells were examined by wound healing and Transwell assays. In addition, RNA sequencing, bioinformatics analysis and western blotting were performed to investigate the target of drug action and clarify the molecular mechanisms. A xenograft model was established using nude mice, and ultrasound was employed to assess the preclinical therapeutic effects of CVB?D in vivo. It was identified that CVB?D inhibited the proliferation, migration, stemness, angiogenesis and epithelial?mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, and induced apoptosis and S?phase arrest. In addition, CVB?D significantly inhibited the growth of xenografts. It is notable that CVB?D exerted anticancer effects in CRC cells partly by targeting collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1), which may be upstream of the AKT and ERK pathways. CVB?D exerted anticancer effects through the CTHRC1?AKT/ERK?Snail signaling pathway. Targeted therapy combining CTHRC1 with CVB?D may offer a promising novel therapeutic approach for CRC treatment.
Project description:Antibodies are a class of molecules widely used in bioengineering and nanomedicine for applications involving protein recognition and targeting. Here we report an efficient method for universal conjugation of antibodies to lipid-coated nanoparticles using radially oriented Fc?RIs. This method is performed in physiological solution with no additional coupling reagents, thereby avoiding problems with antibody stability and functionality. Coupling to the Fc region of the antibody avoids aggregation and polymerization allowing high yield. In addition, the antibody is oriented perpendicular to the surface so that the binding sites are fully functional. Using this method we demonstrate quantitative profiling of a panel of four membrane-bound cancer biomarkers (claudin-4, mesothelin, mucin-4, and cadherin-11) on four cell lines (Panc-1, MIA PaCa-2, Capan-1, and HPDE). We show that by designing the lipid coating to minimize aggregation and nonspecific binding, we can obtain absolute values of biomarker expression levels as number per unit area on the cell surface. This method is applicable to a wide range of technologies, including solution based protein detection assays and active targeting of cell surface membrane biomarkers.