Design, Modeling and Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole-Linked Nucleoside-Amino Acid Conjugates as Potential Antibacterial Agents.
ABSTRACT: Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC or click chemistry) are convenient methods to easily couple various pharmacophores or bioactive molecules. A new series of 1,2,3-triazole-linked nucleoside-amino acid conjugates have been designed and synthesized in 57-76% yields using CuAAC. The azido group was introduced on the 5'-position of uridine or the acyclic analogue using the tosyl-azide exchange method and alkylated serine or proparylglycine was the alkyne. Modeling studies of the conjugates in the active site of LpxC indicate they have promise as antibacterial agents.
Project description:Step-economical syntheses of annulated 1,2,3-triazoles were accomplished through copper-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylations in sustainable one-pot reactions. Thus, catalyzed cascade reactions involving [3 + 2]-azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) and C-H bond functionalizations provided direct access to fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles with excellent chemo- and regioselectivities. Likewise, the optimized catalytic system proved applicable to the direct preparation of 1,2-diarylated azoles through a one-pot C-H/N-H arylation reaction.
Project description:Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is an important tool to obtain long-range distance restraints for protein structural research. We here study a variety of azide- and alkyne-bearing noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) in terms of protein single- and double-incorporation efficiency via nonsense suppression, metabolic stability, yields of nitroxide labeling via copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC), and spectroscopic properties in continuous-wave and double electron-electron resonance measurements. We identify para-ethynyl-l-phenylalanine and para-propargyloxy-l-phenylalanine as suitable ncAA for CuAAC-based SDSL that will complement current SDSL approaches, particularly in cases in which essential cysteines of a target protein prevent the use of sulfhydryl-reactive spin labels.
Project description:Multifunctional dendrimers bearing two or more surface functionalities have the promise to provide smart drug delivery devices that can for example combine tissue targeting and imaging or be directed more precisely to a specific tissue or cell type. We have developed a concise synthetic methodology for efficient dendrimer assembly and heterobifunctionalization based on three sequential azide-alkyne cycloadditions. The methodology is compatible with biologically important compounds rich in chemical functionalities such as peptides, carbohydrates, and fluorescent tags. In the approach, a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) between polyester dendrons modified at the focal point with an azido and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) moiety provided dendrimers bearing terminal and TMS-protected (TMS=trimethylsilyl) alkynes at the periphery. The terminal alkynes were outfitted with azido-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or galactosyl residues by using Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Next, a one-pot TMS deprotection and second click reaction of the resulting terminal alkyne with azido-containing compounds gave multifunctional dendrimers bearing complex biologically active moieties at the periphery.
Project description:Novel BODIPY-estrone conjugates were synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Estrone-alkynes or an estrone-azide as starting compounds were synthesized via Michael addition or Sonogashira reaction as key steps. Fluorescent dyes based on BODIPY-core were provided by azide or alkyne functional groups. Fluorescent labeling of estrone was efficiently achieved at the C-2 or C-15 position. The newly-elaborated coupling procedures might have a broad applicability in the synthesis of fluorescent-labeled estrone conjugates suitable for biological assays.
Project description:Herein, we present a facile synthesis of three azide-functionalized fluorophores and their covalent attachment as triazoles in Huisgen-type cycloadditions with model alkynes. Besides two <i>ortho</i>- and <i>para</i>-bromo-substituted benzaldehydes, the azide functionalization of a fluorene-based structure will be presented. The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) of the so-synthesized azide-functionalized bromocarbaldehydes with terminal alkynes, exhibiting different degrees of steric demand, was performed in high efficiency. Finally, we investigated the photophysical properties of the azide-functionalized arenes and their covalently linked triazole derivatives to gain deeper insight towards the effect of these covalent linkers on the emission behavior.
Project description:O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an essential protein post-translational modification in a range of organisms. It is involved in various cellular processes such as nutrient sensing, protein degradation, gene expression, and is associated with many human diseases. Despite its importance, identifying O-GlcNAcylated proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. Here, using peracetylated N-azidoacetylglucosamine (Ac4 GlcNAz) as a bioorthogonal chemical handle, we described a gel-based mass spectrometry method for the identification of proteins with O-GlcNAc modification in A549 cells. In addition, we made a labeling efficiency comparison between two modes of azide-alkyne bioorthogonal reactions in click chemistry: copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne and stain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne. After conjugation with click chemistry in vitro and enrichment via streptavidin resin, proteins with O-GlcNAc modification were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified with mass spectrometry. Proteomics data analysis revealed that 229 putative O-GlcNAc modified proteins were identified with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugated sample and 188 proteins with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugated sample, among which 114 proteins were overlapping. Interestingly, 74 proteins identified from Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugates and 46 verified proteins from Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugates could be found in the O-GlcNAc modified proteins database dbOGAP (http://cbsb.lombardi.georgetown.edu/hulab/OGAP.html). These results suggested that CuAAC with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne represented a more powerful method in proteomics with higher protein identification and better accuracy compared to SPAAC. The proteomics credibility was also confirmed by the molecular function and cell component gene ontology (GO). Together, the method we reported here combining metabolic labeling, click chemistry, affinity-based enrichment, SDS-PAGE separation, and mass spectrometry, would be adaptable for other post-translationally modified proteins in proteomics.
Project description:A copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction for the synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles from alkyl diacyl peroxides, azidotrimethylsilane, and terminal alkynes is reported. The alkyl carboxylic acids is for the first time being used as the alkyl azide precursors in the form of alkyl diacyl peroxides. This method avoids the necessity to handle organic azides, as they are generated in situ, making this protocol operationally simple. The Cu(I) catalyst not only participates in the alkyl diacyl peroxides decomposition to afford alkyl azides but also catalyzes the subsequent CuAAC reaction to produce the 1,2,3-triazoles.
Project description:Covalent protein-oligodeoxynucleotide (protein-ODN) conjugates are useful in a number of biological applications, but synthesizing discrete conjugates-where the connection between the two components is at a defined location in both the protein and the ODN-under mild conditions with significant yield can be a challenge. In this article, we demonstrate a strategy for synthesizing discrete protein-ODN conjugates using strain-promoted azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (SPAAC, a copper-free 'click' reaction). Azide-functionalized proteins, prepared by enzymatic prenylation of C-terminal CVIA tags with synthetic azidoprenyl diphosphates, were 'clicked' to ODNs that had been modified with a strained dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO-ODN). The resulting protein-ODN conjugates were purified and characterized by size-exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis. We find that the yields and reaction times of the SPAAC bioconjugation reactions are comparable to those previously reported for copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) bioconjugation, but require no catalyst. The same SPAAC chemistry was used to immobilize azide-modified proteins onto surfaces, using surface-bound DIBO-ODN as a heterobifunctional linker. Cu-free click bioconjugation of proteins to ODNs is a simple and versatile alternative to Cu-catalyzed click methods.
Project description:Development of biocompatible and high-performance heterogeneous catalysts for bioconjugation and cell labeling is highly challenging. Melanin has previously been used as a target for melanoma imaging and therapy. Herein, this important biomarker was transferred into a novel catalytic platform. A biocompatible Cu(i)/melanin dot-based catalyst [Cu(i)/M-dots] was easily prepared and exhibited high catalytic activity and excellent reusability in various Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Furthermore, DNA bioconjugation was carried out efficiently using Cu(i)/M-dots under ligand-free and reductant-free conditions, and the Cu(i)/M-dots could easily be removed by centrifugation. Lastly, the integrin receptor (alkyne RGD targeted) of U87MG cells was effectively labelled with a fluorescent dye (Cyanine5.5 azide) in combination with Cu(i)/M-dots. These attractive properties of Cu(i)/M-dots render it a promising catalytic platform in bioconjugation and chemical biology applications.
Project description:The synthesis of saccharin (1,2-benzisothiazol-3-one-1,1-dioxide) derivatives substituted on the benzene ring has seen limited development despite the longevity of this compound's use as an artificial sweetener. This type of saccharin derivative would however present attractive properties for the development of new bioactive, drug-like small molecule compounds. Here we report the derivatisation of the benzene ring of saccharin using Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) to synthesise a diverse library of novel saccharin-1,2,3-triazole conjugates. All library compounds retain the capability for interactions with biomolecules via the unmodified sulfonamide and lactam groups of the parent saccharin core heterocycle. The compounds also encompass alternate orientations of the 1,2,3-triazole heterocycle, thus further adding diversity to the potential hydrogen bonding interactions of these compounds with biomolecules of therapeutic interest. Our findings demonstrate that specifically functionalized derivatives of saccharin may be prepared from either saccharin azide or saccharin alkyne building blocks in high yield using CuAAC.