Acyclic Triterpenoids from Alpinia katsumadai Inhibit IL-6-Induced STAT3 Activation.
ABSTRACT: The seeds of Alpinia katsumadai yielded two new acyclic triterpenoids, 2,3,6,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,6,11,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-7,10,14,18-tetraene (3) and 2,3,6,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-7-methylenetetracosa-10,14,18-triene (4), as well as two known compounds, 2,3,22,23-tertrahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-6,10,14,18-tetraene (1) and 2,3,5,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-6,10,14,18-tetraene (2). The absolute configurations of 2 and 3, which were determined by means of a modified Mosher's method, are suggested as (3R; 5S; 22R) and (3R; 22R), respectively. Compounds 1-4 inhibited IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, with IC50 values of 0.67, 0.71, 2.18, and 2.99 ?M. Moreover, IL-6-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly suppressed in U266 cells by the administration of A. katsumadai EtOH extract and Compounds 1 and 2. These results suggest that major phytochemicals, Compounds 1 and 2, obtained from A. katsumadai may be useful candidates for designing new IL-6 inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.
Project description:Chronic and excessive inflammation can destroy host organs and cause inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Alpinia katsumadai seed-derived 2,3,5,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-6,10,14,18-tetraene (PHT) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 cells and a formalin-induced chronic paw inflammation mouse model. The in vitro results showed that PHT exhibited no cytotoxicity and decreased LPS-induced NO secretion. Additionally, PHT inhibited LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) protein expression. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that PHT downregulated the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). PHT inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). In a mouse model, oral administration of 50 mg/kg PHT significantly alleviated both mouse paw thickness and volume. These results indicate that PHT has potential anti-inflammatory effects and should be considered a possible functional material.
Project description:Five new withanolides (1–5) along with five known ones (6–10) were isolated from the whole plants of Physalis minima Linn. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified as (20S,22R) 15a-acetoxy-5?,6?-epoxy-4?,14a,28-trihydroxy-3?-methoxy-1-oxowitha-16,24-dienolide (1), (20S,22R) 15a-acetoxy-5?,6?-epoxy-3?,4?,14?,17?,20?-pentahydroxy-1-oxowitha-24-enolide (2), (20R,22R) 15?-acetoxy-4?,5?,6?,14?,20?-pentahydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide (3), (20R,22R) 15?-acetoxy-5?,6?,14?,20?-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide (4), and (20S,22R) 5?,6?,14?-trihydroxy-1,15-dioxowitha-2,16,24-trienolide (5) on the basis of integration combining IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR analyses. Biologically, compounds (1–10) were subjected to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activities via inhibiting nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. The activity screening indicated that all of the compounds showed a moderate inhibitory effect against nitric oxide production with IC50 values of 23.53–66.28 ?M.
Project description:A new diarylheptanoid containing a chalcone moiety, katsumain H (1), was isolated from the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai. The structure was elucidated using a combination of 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data analysis. The absolute configurations of C-3, C-5, and C-7 in 1 were assigned based on its optical rotation and after comparing its NMR chemical shifts with those of its diastereoisomers, katsumain E and katsumain F, which were previously isolated from this plant and characterized. In this study, the stimulatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and HSP70. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the expression of HSF1 (1.056- and 1.200-fold, respectively), HSP27 (1.312- and 1.242-fold, respectively), and HSP70 (1.234- and 1.271-fold, respectively), without increased cytotoxicity.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-22 is a member of the IL-10 family. Its main targets are epithelial cells, not immune cells. We examined IL-22 signal transduction in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that IL-22R was expressed more highly in OSCC compared to normal regions. An IL-22R signal was also observed in metastatic OSCC cells in the lymph node. RT-PCR showed that the human OSCC cell lines MISK81-5, HSC-3, HSC-4, SAS and SQUU-B expressed IL-22 receptor chains. Immunoblotting showed that IL-22 induced a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 (pY705-STAT3) in MISK81-5 cells. The change in the serine phosphorylation of STAT3 was subtle during the examination periods. Simultaneously, pY705-STAT3 activation in HSC-3 cells was undetectable after IL-22 stimulation. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that IL-22 induced the translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 into the nucleus of MISK81-5 cells. IL-22 temporarily upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic and mitogenic genes such as Bcl-x, survivin and c-Myc, as well as SOCS3. IL-22 transiently activated ERK1/2 and induced a delayed phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, but negligibly involved the activation of NF-?B in MISK81-5 cells. MISK81-5 and SQUU-B cells treated with IL-22 showed mild cellular proliferation. MISK81-5, HSC-4 and SAS cells treated with IL-22 downregulated the keratinocyte differentiation-related genes compared with unstimulated cells. Conversely, STAT3 suppression by STAT3 siRNA strongly disrupted the downregulation of these genes by IL-22, but it did not significantly affect the activation of ERK1/2 by IL-22. The OSCC cells used in this study upregulated the expression of SERPINB3/4 (SCCA1/2), well-known SCC markers, following treatment with IL-22. These results indicate that IL-22 differentially activates the STAT3 signaling system depending on the type of OSCC. IL-22 may therefore play a role in tumor growth, cell differentiation and progression through STAT3-dependent and -independent pathways.
Project description:Alpinia katsumadai (A. katsumadai), Alpinia oxyphylla (A. oxyphylla) and Alpinia pumila (A. pumila), which belong to the family Zingiberaceae, exhibit multiple medicinal properties. The chloroplast genome of a non-model plant provides valuable information for species identification and phylogenetic analysis. Here, we sequenced three complete chloroplast genomes of A. katsumadai, A. oxyphylla sampled from Guangdong and A. pumila, and analyzed the published chloroplast genomes of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) and A. oxyphylla sampled from Hainan to retrieve useful chloroplast molecular resources for Alpinia. The five Alpinia chloroplast genomes possessed typical quadripartite structures comprising of a large single copy (LSC, 87,248-87,667 bp), a small single copy (SSC, 15,306-18,295 bp) and a pair of inverted repeats (IR, 26,917-29,707 bp). They had similar gene contents, gene orders and GC contents, but were slightly different in the numbers of small sequence repeats (SSRs) and long repeats. Interestingly, fifteen highly divergent regions (rpl36, ycf1, rps15, rpl22, infA, psbT-psbN, accD-psaI, petD-rpoA, psaC-ndhE, ccsA-ndhD, ndhF-rpl32, rps11-rpl36, infA-rps8, psbC-psbZ, and rpl32-ccsA), which could be suitable for species identification and phylogenetic studies, were detected in the Alpinia chloroplast genomes. Comparative analyses among the five chloroplast genomes indicated that 1891 mutational events, including 304 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 118 insertion/deletions (indels) between A. pumila and A. katsumadai, 367 SNPs and 122 indels between A. pumila and A. oxyphylla sampled from Guangdong, 331 SNPs and 115 indels between A. pumila and A. zerumbet, 371 SNPs and 120 indels between A. pumila and A. oxyphylla sampled from Hainan, and 20 SNPs and 23 indels between the two accessions of A. oxyphylla, were accurately located. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships based on SNP matrix among 28 whole chloroplast genomes showed that Alpinia was a sister branch to Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae, and that the five Alpinia accessions were divided into three groups, one including A. pumila, another including A. zerumbet and A. katsumadai, and the other including two accessions of A. oxyphylla. In conclusion, the complete chloroplast genomes of the three medicinal Alpinia species in this study provided valuable genomic resources for further phylogeny and species identification in the family Zingiberaceae.
Project description:In an attempt to study the chemical constituents from the twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa, a new terpenoid, 9(10?20)-abeo-ent-podocarpane, 3?,10?-dihydroxy-12-methoxy-13- methyl-9(10?20)-abeo-ent-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraene (1), as well as five known compounds were characterized. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structure of dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester was revised as (2S,3R)-4E-dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester based on a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The in vitro anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) activity and cytotoxicity against Huh7.5 cells for the isolated compounds were evaluated.
Project description:Recent studies show that IL-22, a cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T cells and NK cells, plays a pathogenic role in acute and chronic skin diseases. While IL-22 is produced by immune cells, the expression of IL-22R?, the functional subunit of IL-22R, is mostly restricted to non-hematopoietic cells in organs such as the skin and pancreas. Although it is well known that ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces skin inflammation, there have been no reports regarding the effect of UVB on the expression of IL-22R?. This study investigated IL-22R? expression and IL-22-mediated proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. IL-22R? was increased in HaCaT and primary human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation through the translocation of IL-22R? from the cytosol to the membrane. This increase in the expression of IL-22R? was mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, the suppression of keratinocyte proliferation by UVB irradiation was inhibited by treatment with IL-22. At the same time, IL-22 increased the production of IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18 in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes. Finally, IL-22R? expression was increased in UVB-irradiated human and mouse skin by immunohistochemistry. The increased expression of IL-22R? therefore promotes keratinocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production during UVB-induced skin inflammation, suggesting that UVB facilitates skin inflammation by increasing the responsiveness of keratinocytes to IL-22. This study provides a new insight into UVB-induced skin inflammation and the regulation of related inflammatory skin diseases.
Project description:Datura metel L. is a widely used traditional herbal medicine, and withanolides and amides are the two groups of main bioactive constituents in Datura metel seeds. This study aimed to elucidate the metabolism of four representative bioactive compositions containing daturataturin A (1), daturametelin I (2), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3), and cannabisin F (4) in rats. After separately oral administration of 20 mg/kg withanolides (1, 2) and amides (3, 4) to rats, a total of 12, 24, and 21 metabolites were detected in the plasma, urine, and fecal samples, respectively. Among them, three hydroxylated metabolites, 1-M3, 2-M2, and 3-M5, were detected in plasma and rat liver microsome incubation system in high abundance. Two metabolites of 1 and 2 were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards. Particularly, the methylated metabolite 27?-methoxy-(22R)-22,26-epoxy-27-[(?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ergosta-2,4,6,24-tetraene-1,26-dione (daturametelin L) is a new compound. The withanolides could readily get hydroxylation or methylation metabolism. Meanwhile, the phase II metabolism (glucuronidation or sulfation) was the major reaction for the amides. This is the first study on in vivo metabolism of these active compounds in seeds of Datura metel.
Project description:IL-22 is a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly produced by T cells and NK cells. Recent studies have reported the increased number of IL-22 producing T cells in patients with autoimmune noninfectious uveitis; however, the correlation between IL-22 and uveitis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the specific role of IL-22 and its receptor in the pathogenesis of uveitis. Serum concentration of IL-22 was significantly increased in uveitis patients. IL-22R? was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. To examine the effect of IL-22, ARPE-19 was treated with recombinant IL-22. The proliferation of ARPE-19 and the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from ARPE-19 were clearly elevated. IL-22 induced MCP-1 which facilitated the migration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, IL-22 increased the IL-22R? expression in ARPE-19 through the activation of PI3K/Akt. Experimental animal models of uveitis induced by interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein 1-20 (IRBP1-20) exhibited elevation of hyperplasia RPE and IL-22 production. When CD4+ T cells from the uveitis patients were stimulated with IRBP1-20, the production of IL-22 definitely increased. In addition, we examine the regulatory role of cysteamine, which has an anti-inflammatory role in the cornea, in uveitis through the down-regulation of IL-22R? expression. Cysteamine effectively suppressed the IRBP1-20-induced IL-22R? expression and prevented the development of IRBP1-20-induced uveitis in the experimental animal model. These finding suggest that IL-22 and its receptor have a crucial role in the development and pathogenesis of uveitis by facilitating inflammatory cell infiltration, and that cysteamine may be a useful therapeutic drug in treating uveitis by down-regulating IL-22R? expression in RPE.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human gastric mucosa and causes various gastric diseases. H. pylori infection induces the production of inflammatory chemokine CCL20 in gastric mucosa and leads to gastric inflammation. Given that the IL-22/IL-22R axis plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis and inflammation of epithelial cells at barrier surfaces, we investigated the effect of IL-22 on CCL20 expression induced by H. pylori. We demonstrated that H. pylori infection of the gastric epithelia-derived AGS cells significantly induced CCL20 expression and the induction was inhibited by IL-22. Functional analysis of the CCL20 promoter revealed that the H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression required the activation of NF-?B, and that IL-22 inhibited the induction by attenuating NF-?B activation. Knockdown of endogenous STAT3 by either short interfering RNAs or a short hairpin RNA significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of IL-22. Furthermore, STAT3 phosphorylation elicited by IL-22 was crucial for the inhibition of H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression. Consistent with the in vitro data showing that IL-22 negatively regulated H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression in gastric epithelial cells, studies on the tissue sections from patients with H. pylori infection also revealed an inverse association of IL-22 expression and CCL20 expression in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that IL-22 plays a role in the control of overproduction of the inflammatory chemokine and thus may protect the gastric mucosa from inflammation-mediated damage.