Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey.
ABSTRACT: In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP's broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.
Project description:Enoxaparin is a low-molecular weight heparin used to treat thrombotic disorders. Following the fatal contamination of the heparin supply chain in 2007-2008, the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have worked extensively to modernize the unfractionated heparin and enoxaparin monographs. As a result, the determination of molecular weight (MW) has been added to the monograph as a measure to strengthen the quality testing and to increase the protection of the global supply of this life-saving drug. The current USP calibrant materials used for enoxaparin MW determination are composed of a mixture of oligosaccharides; however, they are difficult to reproduce as the calibrants have ill-defined structures due to the heterogeneity of the heparin parent material. To address this issue, we describe a promising approach consisting of a predictive computational model built from a library of chemoenzymatically synthesized heparin oligosaccharides for enoxaparin MW determination. Here, we demonstrate that this test can be performed with greater efficiency by coupling synthetic oligosaccharides with the power of computational modeling. Our approach is expected to improve the MW measurement for enoxaparin.
Project description:The current United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) includes more than 250 monographs of fixed dose combinations (FDCs), and some of them need to be updated due to incompleteness of impurity profiles and obsolescence of analytical methodologies. A case study of metoprolol tartrate and hydrochlorothiazide tablets is presented to summarize challenges encountered during the USP monograph modernization initiative of FDCs and to highlight an "adoption and adaptation" approach employed for method development. To this end, a single stability-indicating HPLC method was developed to separate the two drug substances and eight related compounds with resolution 2.0 or higher between all critical pairs. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a Symmetry column (C18, 100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm) using sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0; 34 mM) and acetonitrile as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The stability-indicating capability of this method has been demonstrated by analyzing stressed samples of the two drug substances. The developed HPLC method was validated for simultaneous determination of metoprolol tartrate and hydrochlorothiazide and relevant impurities in the tablets. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablet dosage forms and proved to be suitable for routine quality control use. The case study could be used to streamline USP's monograph modernization process of FDCs and strengthen compendial procedures.
Project description:Conjugated estrogens purified from pregnant mares urine has been used as estrogen hormone replacement therapy since 1942. Previously, methods were proposed to identify and quantify the components of this complex mixture but ultimately were withdrawn due to incomplete characterization of the product and difficulties in transferring the method between laboratories. The aim of the current study is to develop a LC method that can reliably detect multiple steroidal components in conjugated estrogen tablets and measure their relative amount. The method developed was optimized for UHPLC columns, and the elution profile was analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 60 steroidal components were identified using their exact m/z, product ion spectra of known, and predicted conjugated estrogen structures. These components were consistently present in 23 lots of Premarin tablets spanning two production years. The ten conjugated estrogens identified in the USP monograph and other additional estrogens reported elsewhere are among the 60 steroidal components reported here. The LC-MS method was tested in different laboratories using multiple samples, and the obtained results were reproducible among laboratories.
Project description:The US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged the reintroduction of bovine heparin drug product to the US market to mitigate the risks of heparin shortages and potential adulteration or contamination of the primary source which is porcine heparin. Here, a 1D-NMR method was applied to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung, porcine, or ovine intestinal origin. The results showed that a simple 1D test using NMR signal intensity ratios among diagnostic signals of the proton spectra uniquely identified the origin of heparin and concomitantly could be used to assure the correct sample labeling. However, a limitation of the use of only mono-dimensional spectra is that these spectra may not provide sufficiently detailed information on the composition of heparin batches to adequately determine the quality of this complex product. As an alternative, a higher resolution quantitative 2D-HSQC method was used to calculate the percentage of mono- and disaccharides, distinguish the origin of heparin and, simultaneously, assess the heparin composition. The 2D-HSQC method is proposed to provide sufficient information to evaluate the quality of industrial production process used to make the drug substance. Together, the 1D and 2D data produced by these measurements can be used to assure the identity and purity of this widely used drug.
Project description:Soluble extracts prepared from bovine thymus contain an angiotensin-I-phosphorylating activity that is activated several-fold by high concentrations of NaCl. Fractionation of this protein-tyrosine kinase activity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose yields a major diffuse peak of activity. The enzymes responsible for this activity are found at much higher levels in extracts from bovine thymus than from bovine spleen. The peak of activity from the DEAE-cellulose column can be further separated into two major peaks by chromatography on heparin-agarose. The second peak to elute from the heparin-agarose column was previously purified through several chromatographic steps to yield a 40 kDa protein-tyrosine kinase (p40). We have now partially purified the early-eluting peak of kinase activity by chromatography on columns of butyl-agarose, protamine-agarose and Sephacryl S200. The enzyme was identified following covalent modification with 5'-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA) by reactivity with anti-FSBA antibodies. This procedure labelled a series of 52-56 kDa proteins. These proteins were also recognized by polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies raised against the C-terminal 33 amino acids of p56lck, a major T lymphocyte protein-tyrosine kinase. Peptide maps of the partially purified enzyme were identical to maps generated from p56lck obtained from LSTRA cells. These data suggest that bovine thymus p56lck is responsible for the activity found in the early-eluting peak from heparin-agarose. Antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to amino acids 39-64 of p56lck, a sequence found near the N-terminus, recognized the slower-migrating, but not the faster-migrating, form of the enzyme, indicating that a fraction of the protein had been proteolysed near the N-terminus during purification. The partially purified bovine enzyme exhibited a restricted substrate specificity in vitro and did not readily phosphorylate human erythrocyte band 3, casein or histone, but was able to phosphorylate acid-treated enolase. The dilute enzyme present in fractions eluting from chromatography columns was unable to catalyse an autophosphorylation reaction. Autophosphorylation could be detected in more concentrated enzyme samples and was readily observed in immune-complex assays. The phosphorylation of angiotensin I by bovine thymus p56lck was weakly activated by polyionic compounds such as heparin and polylysine, and was strongly activated by high concentrations of NaCl.
Project description:A quantitative analysis of a recalled contaminated lot of heparin sodium injection U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) was undertaken in response to the controversy regarding the exact nature of the contaminant involved in the heparin (HP) crisis. A mass balance analysis of the formulated drug product was performed. After freeze-drying, a 1-ml vial for injection afforded 54.8±0.3 mg of dry solids. The excipients, sodium chloride and residual benzyl alcohol, accounted for 11.4±0.5 and 0.9±0.5 mg, respectively. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) represented 41.5±1.0 mg, corresponding to 75.7 wt% of dry mass. Exhaustive treatment of API with specific enzymes, heparin lyases, and/or chondroitin lyases was used to close mass balance. HP represented 30.5±0.5 mg, corresponding to 73.5 wt% of the API. Dermatan sulfate (DS) impurity represented 1.7±0.3 mg, corresponding to 4.1 wt% of API. Contaminant, representing 9.3±0.1 mg corresponding to 22.4 wt% of API, was found in the contaminated formulated drug product. The recovery of contaminant was close to quantitative (95.6-100 wt%). A single contaminant was unambiguously identified as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS).
Project description:Heparins extracted from different animal sources have been conventionally considered effective anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents despite of their pharmacological dissimilarities. We performed herein a systematic analysis on the physicochemical properties, disaccharide composition, in vitro anticoagulant potency and in vivo antithrombotic and bleeding effects of several batches of pharmaceutical grade heparins obtained from porcine intestine, bovine intestine and bovine lung. Each of these three heparin types unambiguously presented differences in their chemical structures, physicochemical properties and/or haemostatic effects. We also prepared derivatives of these heparins with similar molecular weight differing exclusively in their disaccharide composition. The derivatives from porcine intestinal and bovine lung heparins were structurally more similar with each other and hence presented close anticoagulant activities whereas the derivative from bovine intestinal heparin had a higher proportion of 6-desulfated ?-glucosamine units and about half anticoagulant activity. Our findings reasonably indicate that pharmaceutical preparations of heparin from different animal sources constitute distinct drugs, thus requiring specific regulatory rules and therapeutic evaluations.
Project description:Sulconazole has been reported to degrade into sulconazole sulfoxide via sulfur oxidation; however, structural characterization data was lacking and the potential formation of an N-oxide or sulfone could not be excluded. To clarify the degradation pathways and incorporate the impurity profile of sulconazole into the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) monographs, a multifaceted approach was utilized to confirm the identity of the degradant. The approach combines stress testing of sulconazole nitrate, chemical synthesis of the degradant via a hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidation reaction, semi-preparative HPLC purification, and structural elucidation by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Structural determination was primarily based on the comparison of spectroscopic data of sulconazole and the oxidative degradant. The mass spectrometric data have revealed a McLafferty-type rearrangement as the characteristic fragmentation pathway for alkyl sulfoxides with a ?-hydrogen atom, and was used to distinguish the sulfoxide from N-oxide or sulfone derivatives. Moreover, the generated sulconazole sulfoxide was utilized as reference material for compendial procedure development and validation, which provides support for USP monograph modernization.
Project description:Nowadays, pharmaceutical heparin is purified from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa. In the past decade there has been an ongoing concern about the safety of heparin, since in 2008, adverse effects associated with the presence of an oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) were observed in preparations of pharmaceutical porcine heparin, which led to the death of patients, causing a global public health crisis. However, it has not been clarified whether OSCS has been added to the purified heparin preparation, or whether it has already been introduced during the production of the raw heparin. Using a combination of different analytical methods, we investigate both crude and final heparin products and we are able to demonstrate that the sulfated contaminants are intentionally introduced in the initial steps of heparin preparation. Furthermore, the results show that the oversulfated compounds are not structurally homogeneous. In addition, we show that these contaminants are able to bind to cells in using well known heparin binding sites. Together, the data highlights the importance of heparin quality control even at the initial stages of its production.
Project description:Heparin-binding growth factors present in pig uterine tissue were purified by approx. 50,000-fold using a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and heparin-affinity chromatography. Purification of the uterus-derived growth factors (UDGFs) was monitored by the stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into Swiss 3T3 cells and by a radioreceptor assay using 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor (EGF) as the ligand. The latter was shown to be a novel, rapid and reliable assay for heparin-binding growth factors which utilizes their trans-modulation of EGF receptor affinity. UDGFs exhibit strong affinity for immobilized heparin and two forms, named alpha UDGF and beta UDGF, were distinguished by salt gradient elution from heparin-agarose affinity columns. beta UDGF activity was eluted from heparin-agarose between 1.5 M- and 1.8 M-NaCl, and was correlated with the elution of a protein doublet of 17.2 kDa and 17.7 kDa. Immunoblotting of heparin-purified beta UDGF indicated that the beta UDGF doublet is immunologically related to the 146-amino-acid form of bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and that the 17.2 kDa component is an N-terminally truncated form of the 17.7 kDa component. After purification by C4 reversed-phase h.p.l.c., this doublet was biologically active and greater than 95% pure as assessed by silver-stained SDS/PAGE. Amino acid composition and sequence analysis confirmed that these beta UDGF polypeptides were microheterogeneous forms of bFGF. Fractions containing alpha UDGF activity were eluted from heparin-agarose in 1.3 M-NaCl. These fractions contained a 16.5 kDa protein which co-migrated on SDS/polyacrylamide gels with recombinant human acidic FGF (aFGF) and which which cross-reacted with an antiserum raised against aFGF. The identification of heparin-binding growth factors in porcine uterus at the time of implantation raises the possibility that they function in the reproductive tract during early pregnancy.