Molecular characterization of serogroup 19 Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Czech Republic in the post-vaccine era.
ABSTRACT: Purpose. The aim of this study was to characterize serogroup 19 isolates resistant to macrolides and/or penicillin found among pneumococci recovered from cases of invasive and respiratory tract disease in the Czech Republic in 2014.Methods. Pneumococcal isolates of serotypes 19A (n=26) and 19F (n=10) that were non-susceptible to penicillin and/or macrolides and had been collected in 2014 were analysed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Four isolates representing the major clones were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS).Results. The penicillin-susceptible macrolide-resistant isolates of serotype 19A were mainly associated with sequence type (ST) 416 belonging to clonal complex (CC) 199, and the penicillin-resistant isolates were of serotype 19F belonging to ST1464 (CC 320). WGS revealed the presence of pilus 1, in association with pilus 2, in serotype19F isolates belonging to CC 320. Another adhesin, pneumococcal serine-rich protein (PsrP), was only present in serotype 19A isolates of ST416. Analysis of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of serotype 19F penicillin-resistant isolates (ST1464 and ST271) performed on PBP1a, 2b and 2x identified a large number of mutations in comparison to the reference strain, R6. Both isolates contained a unique PBP profile; however, they were highly similar to PBP sequences of the Taiwan19F-14 reference strain. The Pbp2b sequences of both 19F isolates showed the lowest similarity to those of the Taiwan19F-14 strain (91?% similarity), while they were also found to be distantly related to each other (94?% similarity).Conclusions. WGS revealed specific virulence factors in antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal clones that spread rapidly in the post-vaccine era in the Czech Republic.
Project description:Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has greatly decreased since implementation in the U.S. of the 7 valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 and 13 valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to predict phenotypic traits (serotypes, antimicrobial phenotypes, and pilus determinants) and determine multilocus genotypes from 5334 isolates (~90% of cases) recovered during 2015-2016 through Active Bacterial Core surveillance. We identified 44 serotypes; 26 accounted for 98% of the isolates. PCV13 serotypes (inclusive of serotype 6C) accounted for 1503 (28.2%) isolates, with serotype 3 most common (657/5334, 12.3%), while serotypes 1 and 5 were undetected. Of 305 isolates from children <5 yrs, 60 (19.7%) were of PCV13 serotypes 19A, 19F, 3, 6B, and 23F (58/60 were 19A, 19F, or 3). We quantitated MLST-based lineages first detected during the post-PCV era (since 2002) that potentially arose through serotype-switching. The 7 predominant emergent post-PCV strain complexes included 23B/CC338, 15BC/CC3280, 19A/CC244, 4/CC439, 15A/CC156, 35B/CC156, and 15BC/CC156. These strains accounted for 332 isolates (6.2% of total) and were more frequently observed in children <5 yrs (17.7%; 54/305). Fifty-seven categories of recently emerged (in the post PCV7 period) putative serotype-switch variants were identified, accounting for 402 isolates. Many of these putative switch variants represented newly emerged resistant strains. Penicillin-nonsusceptibility (MICs > 0.12 ?g/ml) was found among 22.4% (1193/5334) isolates, with higher penicillin MICs (2-8 ?g/ml) found in 8.0% (425/5334) of isolates that were primarily (372/425, 87.5%) serotypes 35B and 19A. Most (792/1193, 66.4%) penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were macrolide-resistant, 410 (34.4%) of which were erm gene positive and clindamycin-resistant. The proportion of macrolide-resistant isolates increased with increasing penicillin MICs; even isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC = 0.06 ?g/ml) were much more likely to be macrolide-resistant than basally penicillin-susceptible isolates (MIC < 0.03 ?g/ml). The contribution of recombination to strain diversification was assessed through quantitating 35B/CC558-specific bioinformatic pipeline features among non-CC558 CCs and determining the sizes of gene replacements. Although IPD has decreased greatly and stabilized in the post-PCV13 era, the species continually generates recombinants that adapt to selective pressures exerted by vaccines and antimicrobials. These data serve as a baseline for monitoring future changes within each invasive serotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of severe infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media, that has since become a major public health concern. In this study, the serotypes distribution of pneumococcal isolates was investigated to predict the efficacy of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) among the Malaysian populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 151 clinical isolates were serotyped using multiplex PCR assays. Out of them, there were 21.2% penicillin-resistant, 29.1% penicillin-intermediate, and 49.7% penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae strains. Serotypes detected among the Malaysian isolates were 1, 3, 10A, 11A/11D, 12F/12A, 14, 15A, 15B/15C, 16F, 18C/18B/18A/18F, 19A, 19F, 23F, 35B, 35F/47F, 6A/6B, 7C/7B/40, 7F/7A, 9V/9A, and 34. Serotype 19F and 23F were the two most prevalent serotypes detected. Serotypes are highly associated with invasiveness of isolates (p?=?0.001) and penicillin susceptibility (p<0.001). Serotype 19F was observed to have increased resistance against penicillin while serotype 19A has high invasive tendency. Age of patients was an important factor underlying the pneumococcal serotypes (p?=?0.03) and clinical sites of infections (p<0.001). High prevalence of pneumococcal isolates were detected among children <5 years old at nasopharyngeal sites while elderly adults ?60 years old were at increased risk for pneumococcal bacteremia. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Current study revealed that a number of serotypes, especially those associated with high penicillin resistance, have been formulated in the PCV7. Therefore, the protections expected from the routine use of PCV7 would be encouraging for the Malaysian. However, it is not possible to predict serotypes that might become predominant in the future and hence continued surveillance of circulating serotypes will be needed.
Project description:A total of 105 multiple-antibiotic-resistant invasive pneumococcal isolates recovered in Italy from 2001 to 2003 were genetically characterized. Of these, 40 were penicillin-nonsusceptible (PNSSP) and 65 were penicillin-susceptible (PSSP) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Among the PNSSP isolates, 8 and 11 different restriction profiles were obtained for the pbp2b and pbp2x genes, respectively. Clonal groups were established on the basis of analysis of both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Several international clones, such as Spain(23F)-1/ST81, Spain(6B)-2/ST90, Spain(9V)-3/ST156, and Sweden(15A)-25/ST63 [corrected] were identified among the PNSSP isolates. Other, smaller clones, such as the minor Spanish 19F clone/ST88 and Denmark(14)-32/ST230, were also found. Among the PSSP isolates, clones related to England(14)-9/ST9, Greece(6B)-22/ST273, and Portugal(19F)-21/ST177 were found. In addition, two large clones comprised nonvaccine serotypes. One, comprising serotype 3 isolates, corresponded to the clone Netherlands(3)-31/ST180; the other, comprising serotype 15B/C isolates, ST474, was not related to any previously described clone. Two small clusters related to the newly described clones Greece(21)-30/ST193 and Netherlands(15B)-37/ST199 included isolates with unrelated PFGE profiles. An unusual finding was the inability to obtain the MLST allelic profile for an isolate of serotype 19A, belonging to the Sweden(15A)-25/ST63 [corrected] clone, due to a large deletion of the xpt gene. Capsular switching was observed among both PNSSP and PSSP isolates and involved also serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), such as serotypes 15B/C and 19A. Since antibiotic-resistant nonvaccine serotype clones are present in Italy, continuous monitoring of pneumococcal epidemiology should be carried out in the PCV7 era.
Project description:We describe the dissemination of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19 pneumococcal clone of representative multilocus sequence type 271 (ST271) with high-level resistance to cefotaxime in Hong Kong and penicillin binding protein (pbp) genes and its relationships to Taiwan(19F)-14 and the prevalent multidrug-resistant 19A clone (MDR19A-ST320). A total of 472 nonduplicate isolates from 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Significant increases in the rates of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (MIC ≥ 4.0 μg/ml; 9.9 versus 23.3%; P = 0.0005), cefotaxime (CTX) (MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/ml; 12.2 versus 30.3%; P < 0.0001 [meningitis MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml; 30.2 versus 48.7%; P = 0.0001]), and erythromycin (ERY) (69.2 versus 84.0%; P = 0.0003) were noted when rates from 2006 and 2011 were compared. The CTX-resistant isolates with MICs of 8 μg/ml in 2011 were of serotype 19F, belonging to ST271. Analyses of the penicillin binding protein 2x (PBP2x) amino acid sequences in relation to the corresponding sequences of the R6 strain revealed M339F, E378A, M400T, and Y595F substitutions found within the ST271 clone but not present in Taiwan(19F)-14 or MDR19A. In addition, PBP2bs of ST271 strains and that of the Taiwan(19F)-14 clone were characterized by a unique amino acid substitution, E369D, while ST320 possessed the unique amino acid substitution K366N, as does that of MDR19A in the United States. We hypothesize that ST271 originated from the Taiwan(19F)-14 lineage, which had disseminated in Hong Kong in the early 2000s, and conferred higher-level β-lactam and cefotaxime resistance through acquisitions of 19 additional amino acid substitutions in PBP2b (amino acid [aa] positions 538 to 641) and altered PBP2x via recombination events. The serogroup 19 MDR CC320/271 clone warrants close monitoring to evaluate its effect after the switch to expanded conjugate vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study objective was to determine the carriage and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Accra, Ghana, five years after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in 2012. METHODS:Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from 410 children below 5 years of age in Accra, Ghana, from September to December, 2016. Pneumococcal isolates were identified by optochin sensitivity and bile solubility. Serotyping was performed using the latex agglutination kit and Quellung reaction. The isolates were furthermore tested for antimicrobial susceptibility for different antimicrobials, including penicillin (PEN). Twelve isolates including seven non-typeable (NT) isolates were characterized using whole-genome sequencing analysis (WGS). RESULTS:The overall carriage prevalence was found to be 54% (95% CI, 49-59%), and 20% (95% CI, 49-59%) of the children were carrying PCV-13 included serotypes, while 37% (95% CI, 33-42%) of the children were carrying non-PCV-13 serotypes. Based on the serotype distribution, 33% of all observed serotypes were included in PCV-13 while 66% were non-PCV-13 serotypes. The dominating non-PCV-13 serotypes were 23B, 16F, and 11A followed by PCV-13 serotypes 23F and 19F. The PCV-13 covers the majority of resistant isolates in Accra. A proportion of 22.3% of the isolates showed intermediate resistance to penicillin G, while only one isolate showed full resistance. Forty-five isolates (20.5%) were defined as multidrug-resistant (MDR) as they were intermediate/resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Of the seven NT isolates characterized by WGS, four showed highest match to genotype 38, while the remaining three showed highest match to genotype 14. Four MDR serotype 19A isolates were found to be MLST 320. CONCLUSION:PCV-13 introduced in Ghana did not eliminate PCV-13 covered serotypes, and the carriage rate of 54% in this study is similar to carriage studies from pre PCV-13 period. However, the penicillin non-susceptible isolates have been reduced from 45% of carriage isolates before PCV-13 introduction to 22.3% of the isolates in this study. Continuous monitoring of serotype distribution is important, and in addition, an evaluation of an alternative vaccination schedule from 3 + 0 to 2 + 1 will be important to consider.
Project description:We determined the sequence types of isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) prior to routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in South Africa. PCV-13 serotypes and 6C isolates collected in 2007 (1 461/2 437, 60%) from patients of all ages as part of on-going, national, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD, were selected for genetic characterization. In addition, all 134 non-PCV isolates from children <2 years were selected for characterization. Sequence type diversity by serotype and age category (children <5 years vs. individuals ?5 years) was assessed for PCV serotypes using Simpson's index of diversity. Similar genotypes circulated among isolates from children and adults and the majority of serotypes were heterogeneous. While globally disseminated clones were common among some serotypes (e.g., serotype 1 [clonal complex (CC) 217, 98% of all serotype 1] and 14 [CC230, 43%)]), some were represented mainly by clonal complexes rarely reported elsewhere (e.g., serotype 3 [CC458, 60%] and 19A [CC2062, 83%]). In children <2 years, serotype 15B and 8 were the most common serotypes among non-PCV isolates (16% [22/134] and 15% [20/134] isolates, respectively). Sequence type 7052 and 53 were most common among serotypes 15B and 8 isolates and accounted for 58% (7/12) and 64% (9/14) of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 19F, 14, 19A and 15B had the highest proportions of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Genotypes rarely reported in other parts of the world but common among some of our serotypes highlight the importance of our data as these genotypes may emerge post PCV introduction.
Project description:The effect of second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strain distributions have not yet been well described. We analysed IPD isolates recovered from children aged <5 years through Active Bacterial Core surveillance before (2008-2009; n = 828) and after (2011-2013; n = 600) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) implementation. We employed conventional testing, PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis to identify serotypes, resistance features, genotypes, and pilus types. PCV13, licensed in February 2010, effectively targeted all major 19A and 7F genotypes, and decreased antimicrobial resistance, primarily owing to removal of the 19A/ST320 complex. The strain complex contributing most to the remaining β-lactam resistance during 2011-2013 was 35B/ST558. Significant emergence of non-vaccine clonal complexes was not evident. Because of the removal of vaccine serotype strains, positivity for one or both pilus types (PI-1 and PI-2) decreased in the post-PCV13 years 2011-2013 relative to 2008-2009 (decreases of 32-55% for PI-1, and >95% for PI-2 and combined PI-1 + PI-2). β-Lactam susceptibility phenotypes correlated consistently with transpeptidase region sequence combinations of the three major penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) determined through WGS analysis. Other major resistance features were predictable by DNA signatures from WGS analysis. Multilocus sequence data combined with PBP combinations identified progeny, serotype donors and recipient strains in serotype switch events. PCV13 decreased the frequency of all PCV13 serotype clones and concurrently decreased the frequency of strain subsets with resistance and/or adherence features conducive to successful carriage. Our results serve as a reference describing key features of current paediatric IPD strains in the USA after PCV13 implementation.
Project description:We report two South African serotype 6B pneumococcal isolates with cephalosporin resistance, yet with susceptibility to penicillin. DNA fingerprinting revealed that they were clonal in origin. pbp 2X and 1A genes showed major alterations typical of cephalosporin-resistant pneumococci. The pbp 2B gene was completely unaltered, explaining the penicillin susceptibility of the isolates.
Project description:Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific pbp1a sequence (pbp1a-13) that could promote meropenem resistance. To trace the origin of pbp1a, we analyzed isolates of serotype 19A-CC3111, which is the most prevalent non-meropenem-susceptible clone in Japan. We analyzed a total of 119 serotype 19A-CC3111 strains recovered in Japan using whole-genome sequencing. Of the 119 isolates, 53 (44.5%) harbored pbp1a-13, indicating that the clone may be the primary reservoir of the pbp1a type and that the pbp1a region may be horizontally transferred between different serotype strains. The single acquisition of pbp1a-13 seemed to cause only penicillin resistance and not multidrug resistance; a combination of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) recombination in the pbp2b and/or pbp2x region(s) with acquisition of pbp1a-13 caused multidrug resistance. Conserved amino acid motif analysis suggested that the pbp1a 370SXXK, pbp2b 448SXN, and pbp2x 337SXXN motifs were the candidates for amino acid substitutions increasing the MICs of meropenem, cefotaxime, and penicillin. We identified a specific clone that was correlated with multidrug resistance, although no correlation was observed between phylogenetic trees generated using core genomes and those generated with only the cps locus. All tested isolates were highly erythromycin resistant, and most harbored mefE within macrolide efflux genetic assembly (MEGA) elements and ermB within Tn917, which was inserted within Tn916 and exhibited a structure identical to that of Tn2017.
Project description:A total of 26% of the pneumococci isolated from an outpatient clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1991 to 1992 had intermediate levels of penicillin resistance. Gene fingerprinting and DNA sequencing were used to distinguish the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A, 2B, and 2X genes in 23 resistant isolates. Isolates were grouped into those that had identical forms of each of the three PBP genes (fingerprint groups) and those that had identical rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes). Both methods divided the isolates into 11 groups. In a few cases, horizontal gene transfer appeared to have distributed an identical altered PBP gene into different pneumococcal lineages. Eight isolates were indistinguishable by ribotyping or multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and contained identical PBP 1A genes. Although these isolates were therefore members of the same clone, they were divided into two fingerprint groups which contained different PBP 2X and 2B genes. Presumably, members of this clone have acquired different altered PBP 2X and 2B genes on two separate occasions. One of these fingerprint groups contained isolates of serotype 14, whereas the other contained isolates of both serotypes 14 and 7. The identification of isolates in the latter group that are identical by all criteria, except serotype, implies the occurrence of a change in serotype. The predominant serotypes of the penicillin-resistant pneumococci from Nairobi were serotypes 14 and 19. In both cases, isolates of the same serotype which required the same MIC of penicillin were not members of a single clone, indicating that identity of serotype and MIC are not sufficient criteria for defining clones of resistant pneumococci even when the bacteria are isolated from a single clinic.