Fatigue, Pain, and Other Physical Symptoms of Living Liver Donors in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about living liver donors' perceptions of their physical well-being following the procedure. We collected data on donor fatigue, pain, and other relevant physical outcomes as part of the prospective, multicenter Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study consortium. A total of 271 (91%) of 297 eligible donors were interviewed at least once before donation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after donation using validated measures when available. Repeated measures regression models were used to identify potential predictors of worse physical outcomes. We found that donors reported more fatigue immediately after surgery that improved by 2 years after donation, but not to predonation levels. A similar pattern was seen across a number of other physical outcomes. Abdominal or back pain and interference from their pain were rated relatively low on average at all study points. However, 21% of donors did report clinically significant pain at some point during postdonation study follow-up. Across multiple outcomes, female donors, donors whose recipients died, donors with longer hospital stays after surgery, and those whose families discouraged donation were at risk for worse physical well-being outcomes. In conclusion, although not readily modifiable, we have identified risk factors that may help identify donors at risk for worse physical outcomes for targeted intervention. Liver Transplantation 00 000-000 2018 AASLD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prospective and longitudinal studies have examined liver donors' medical outcomes beyond the first 1 to 2 years postdonation. There is no analogous longitudinal evidence on long-term psychosocial outcomes, including patient-reported clinically significant mental health problems and perceptions of physical well-being. We examined prevalence, descriptive characteristics, and predictors of diagnosable mental health conditions and self-reported physical health problems, including fatigue and pain, in the long-term years after liver donation. METHODS:Donors from 9 centers who initially completed telephone interviews at 3 to 10 years postdonation (mean, 5.8 years; SD, 1.9) were reinterviewed annually for 2 years using validated measures. Outcomes were examined descriptively. Repeated-measures regression analyses evaluated potential predictors and correlates of outcomes. RESULTS:Of 517 donors initially interviewed (66% of those eligible), 424 (82%) were reassessed at least once. Prevalence rates of major depression and clinically significant pain were similar to general population norms; average fatigue levels were better than norms. All prevalence rates showed little temporal change. Anxiety and alcohol use disorder rates exceeded normative rates at 1 or more assessments. Longer postdonation hospitalization, female sex, higher body mass index, concerns about donation-related health effects, and burdensome donation-related financial costs were associated with increased risk for most outcomes (P's < 0.05). Men were at higher risk for alcohol use disorder (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Anxiety and alcohol use disorders were more common than would be expected; they may warrant increased research attention and clinical surveillance. Surveillance for long-term problems in the areas assessed may be optimized by targeting donors at higher risk based on identified predictors and correlates.
Project description:There are no evidence-based interventions to prevent adverse psychosocial consequences after living donation. We conducted a single-site randomized controlled trial to examine the postdonation impact of a preventive intervention utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to target a major risk factor for poor psychosocial outcomes, residual ambivalence (i.e. lingering hesitation and uncertainty) about donating. Of 184 prospective kidney or liver donors, 131 screened positive for ambivalence; 113 were randomized to (a) the MI intervention, (b) an active comparison condition (health education) or (c) standard care only before donation. Ambivalence was reassessed postintervention (before donation). Primary trial outcomes-psychosocial variables in somatic, psychological and family interpersonal relationship domains-were assessed at 6 weeks and 3 months postdonation. MI subjects showed the greatest decline in ambivalence (p = 0.050). On somatic outcomes, by 3 months postdonation MI subjects reported fewer physical symptoms (p = 0.038), lower rates of fatigue (p = 0.021) and pain (p = 0.016), shorter recovery times (p = 0.041) and fewer unexpected medical problems (p = 0.023). Among psychological and interpersonal outcomes, they had a lower rate of anxiety symptoms (p = 0.046) and fewer unexpected family-related problems (p = 0.045). They did not differ on depression, feelings about donation or family relationship quality. The findings suggest that the intervention merits testing in a larger, multisite trial.
Project description:Studies of liver donors' psychosocial outcomes focus on the short term and rely largely on quality-of-life measures not specific to donation. We sought to examine long-term donation effects on 3 psychosocial domains: perceived physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes.Individuals donating 3 to 10 years previously at 9 centers were eligible for telephone surveys. Survey responses were examined descriptively. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct donor groups based on response profiles across psychosocial domains. Potential predictors of response profiles were evaluated with regression analysis.Five hundred seventeen donors (66%) participated (M = 5.8 years postdonation, SD = 1.9). Fifteen percent to 48% of donors endorsed current donation-related physical health problems and concerns, and 7%-60% reported socioeconomic concerns (eg, insurance difficulties, financial expenditures). However, on average, donors experienced high psychological growth, and 90% felt positively about donation. Cluster analysis revealed 5 donor groups. One group showed high psychological benefit, with little endorsement of physical or socioeconomic concerns (15% of donors). Four groups showed less favorable profiles, with varying combinations of difficulties. The largest such group showed high endorsement of physical concerns and financial expenditures, and only modest psychological benefit (31% of donors). Men and nonHispanic whites were most likely to have unfavorable response profiles (Ps < 0.01). Compared with donors aged 19 to 30 years, older donors were less likely to have unfavorable profiles; these differences were significant for donors in the >40 to 50 year age group (Ps < 0.008).Even many years postdonation, donors report adverse physical and socioeconomic effects, but positive emotional effects as well. Identification of response profiles and predictors may improve targeting of postdonation surveillance and care.
Project description:There are few long-term studies of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in living liver donors. This study aimed to characterize donor HRQOL in the Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Study (A2ALL) up to 11 years post-donation.Between 2004 and 2013, HRQOL was assessed at evaluation, at 3 months, and yearly post-donation in prevalent liver donors using the short-form survey (SF-36), which provides a physical (PCS) and a mental component summary (MCS).Of the 458 donors enrolled in A2ALL, 374 (82%) had SF-36 data. Mean age at evaluation was 38 (range 18-63), 47% were male, 93% white, and 43% had a bachelor's degree or higher. MCS and PCS means were above the US population at all time points. However, at every time point there were some donors who reported poor scores (>1/2 standard deviation below the age and sex adjusted mean) (PCS: 5.3-26.8%,10.0-25.0%). Predictors of poor PCS and MCS scores included recipient's death within the two years prior to the survey and education less than a bachelor's degree; poor PCS scores were also predicted by time since donation, Hispanic ethnicity, and at the 3-month post-donation time point.In summary, most living donors maintain above average HRQOL up to 11 years prospectively, supporting the notion that living donation does not negatively affect HRQOL. However, targeted support for donors at risk for poor HRQOL may improve overall HRQOL outcomes for living liver donors.
Project description:Because results from single-center (mostly kidney) donor studies demonstrate interpersonal relationship and financial strains for some donors, we conducted a liver donor study involving nine centers within the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study 2 (A2ALL-2) consortium. Among other initiatives, A2ALL-2 examined the nature of these outcomes following donation. Using validated measures, donors were prospectively surveyed before donation and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo after donation. Repeated-measures regression models were used to examine social relationship and financial outcomes over time and to identify relevant predictors. Of 297 eligible donors, 271 (91%) consented and were interviewed at least once. Relationship changes were positive overall across postdonation time points, with nearly one-third reporting improved donor family and spousal or partner relationships and >50% reporting improved recipient relationships. The majority of donors, however, reported cumulative out-of-pocket medical and nonmedical expenses, which were judged burdensome by 44% of donors. Lower income predicted burdensome donation costs. Those who anticipated financial concerns and who held nonprofessional positions before donation were more likely to experience adverse financial outcomes. These data support the need for initiatives to reduce financial burden.
Project description:Little is known about how well postoperative pain is managed in living liver donors, despite pain severity being the strongest predictor of persistent pain with long-lasting disability.We conducted a prospective multicenter study of 172 living liver donors. Self-reported outcomes for pain severity, activity interference, affective (emotional) reactions, adverse effects to treatment, and perceptions of care were collected using the American Pain Society Patient Outcomes Questionnaire-Revised. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to identify demographic and psychosocial predictors of subscale scores.Donors were young (36.8 ± 10.6) and healthy. Of 12 expert society analgesic recommendations for postoperative pain management, 49% received care conforming to 3 guidelines, and only 9% to 4 or 5. More than half reported adverse effects to analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain that interfered with functional activity; however, emotional distress to pain was unexpectedly minimal. Female donors had higher affective (? = 0.88, P = 0.005) and adverse effects scores (? = 1.33, P < 0.001). Donors with 2 or more medical concerns before surgery averaged 1 unit higher pain severity, functional interference, adverse effects, and affective reaction subscale scores (? range 1.06-1.55, all P < 0.05). Receiving information about pain treatment options increased perception of care subscale scores (? = 1.24, P = 0.001), whereas depressive symptoms before donation were associated with lower scores (? = -1.58, P = 0.01).Donors have a distinct profile of pain reporting that is highly influenced by psychological characteristics. Interventions to improve pain control should consider modifying donor behavioral characteristics in addition to optimizing pain care protocols.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The clinical outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of living kidney donors is mostly not detrimental, but some donors experience impairment after donation. Gender-specific effects of living kidney donors was evaluated.<h4>Methods</h4>Clinical outcome was assessed in living kidney donors and HRQoL was obtained by self-reporting validated test systems as the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred and eleven (211) living renal donors were evaluated (female 62.2%). Response rate was 80.8%. In both genders, a decrease of renal function of 26% was observed after donation. De novo antihypertensives were introduced in 28.3% of women and 36.5% of men. HRQoL was comparable in female and male donors, except for mental HRQoL, which was lower in 51- to 60-year-old female donors, compared to age-matched male donors and to the female general population. Female donors aged 40-59?years demonstrated more fatigue than the age-matched general population. A low mental HRQoL (MCS; SF-36) was associated with higher values for fatigue (General Fatigue Score; MFI-20) in both genders. Multiple regression analysis detected the General Fatigue score of the MFI-20 questionnaire and depression identified by the PHQ-9 score as independent variables predicting MCS of the SF-36 in both genders. Lower age at time of donation contributed to a lower MCS in female donors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, HRQoL in living kidney donors exceeds that of the general population. Inferior mental health status and fatigue seem to be a problem, especially in middle-aged female donors, but not in all female donors. Psychological evaluation pre donation and psychological support post donation are required.
Project description:Determining candidacy for live kidney donation among obese individuals remains challenging. Among healthy non-donors, body mass index (BMI) above 30 is associated with a 16% increase in risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the impact on the ESRD risk attributable to donation and living with only one kidney remains unknown. Here we studied the risk of ESRD associated with obesity at the time of donation among 119 769 live kidney donors in the United States. Maximum follow-up was 20 years. Obese (BMI above 30) live kidney donors were more likely male, African American, and had higher blood pressure. Estimated risk of ESRD 20 years after donation was 93.9 per 10 000 for obese; significantly greater than the 39.7 per 10 000 for non-obese live kidney donors. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, blood pressure, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relationship to recipient, obese live kidney donors had a significant 86% increased risk of ESRD compared to their non-obese counterparts (adjusted hazard ratio 1.86; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.30). For each unit increase in BMI above 27 kg/m2 there was an associated significant 7% increase in ESRD risk (1.07, 1.02-1.12). The impact of obesity on ESRD risk was similar for male and female donors, African American and Caucasian donors, and across the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate spectrum. These findings may help to inform selection criteria and discussions with persons considering living kidney donation.
Project description:This study investigates the types and degrees of physical and psychological discomfort experienced by hematopoietic stem cell donors before, during, and after the donation process in order to provide helpful information for developing education programs that can help donors to cope with their discomforts. One hundred and thirty-one individuals who donated hematopoietic stem cells from 2017 to 2019 were asked to self-report the types and degrees of physical and psychological discomfort they felt in the process, and the results were analyzed using SPSS. All participants donated peripheral blood stem cells; the most commonly reported physical discomfort was myalgia (72.5%), followed by bone pain (62.6%), fatigue (60.3%), and headache (55.0%). Of the donors, 88.5% responded that they experienced psychological discomforts, including fear (44.3%), anxiety (44.3%), stress (39.7%), depression (31.3%), loneliness (31.3%), regret (29.8%), and ambivalence (23.7%). In particular, female donors experienced more discomfort than males in rash (Z = -2.123, p = 0.034), fear (Z = -2.851, p = 0.004), and anxiety (Z = -1.861, p = 0.044). Therefore, it is necessary for healthcare providers and experts to make efforts to educate and help donors to prepare and mitigate their discomfort throughout the donation process, and to strategically manage donors' well-being by monitoring and evaluating their discomfort levels and providing interventions if necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The donation of multiple allografts from a single living donor is a rare practice, and the patient characteristics and outcomes associated with these procedures are not well described. METHODS:Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified 101 living multiorgan donors and their 133 recipients. RESULTS:The 49 sequential (donations during separate procedures) multiorgan donors provided grafts to 81 recipients: 21 kidney-then-liver, 15 liver-then-kidney, 5 lung-then-kidney, 3 liver-then-intestine, 3 kidney-then-pancreas, 1 lung-then-liver, and 1 pancreas-then-kidney. Of these donors, 38% donated 2 grafts to the same recipient and 15% donated 2 grafts as non-directed donors. Compared to recipients from first-time, single organ living donors, recipients from second-time living donors had similar graft and patient survival. The 52 simultaneous (multiple donations during one procedure) multiorgan donors provided 2 grafts to 1 recipient each: 48 kidney-pancreas and 4 liver-intestine. Donors had median of 13.4 years (interquartile range, 8.3-18.5 years) of follow-up. There was one reported death of a sequential donor (2.5 years after second donation). Few postdonation complications were reported over a median of 116 days (interquartile range, 0-295 days) of follow-up; however, routine living donor follow-up data were sparse. Recipients of kidneys from second-time living donors had similar graft (P = 0.2) and patient survival (P = 0.4) when compared with recipients from first-time living donors. Similarly, recipients of livers from second-time living donors had similar graft survival (P = 0.9) and patient survival (P = 0.7) when compared with recipients from first-time living donors. CONCLUSIONS:Careful documentation of outcomes is needed to ensure ethical practices in selection, informed consent, and postdonation care of this unique donor community.