Effects of Phage Endolysin SAL200 Combined with Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Infection.
ABSTRACT: Phages and their derivatives are increasingly being reconsidered for use in the treatment of bacterial infections due to the rising rates of antibiotic resistance. We assessed the antistaphylococcal effect of the endolysin SAL200 in combination with standard-of-care (SOC) antibiotics. The activity of SAL200 when it was combined with SOC antibiotics was assessed in vitro by checkerboard and time-kill assays and in vivo with murine bacteremia and Galleria mellonella infection models. SAL200 reduced the SOC antibiotic MICs and showed a ?3-log10-CFU/ml reduction of Staphylococcus aureus counts within 30 min in time-kill assays. Combinations of SAL200 and SOC antibiotics achieved a sustained decrease of >2 log10 CFU/ml. SAL200 significantly lowered the blood bacterial density within 1 h by >1 log10 CFU/ml in bacteremic mice (P < 0.05 versus untreated mice), and SAL200 and SOC antibiotic combinations achieved the lowest levels of bacteremia. The bacterial density in splenic tissue at 72 h postinfection was the lowest in mice treated with SAL200 and SOC antibiotic combinations. SAL200 combined with SOC antibiotics also improved Galleria mellonella larva survival at 96 h postinfection. The combination of the phage endolysin SAL200 with SOC antistaphylococcal antibiotics showed synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo The combination of SAL200 with SOC antibiotics could help in the treatment of difficult-to-treat S. aureus infections.
Project description:The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of dual β-lactam combination treatments derived from eight approved drugs against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with MDR strains of P. aeruginosa. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa NCTC 13437 and an unrelated clinical isolate were used to infect G. mellonella larvae and the efficacy of twenty-eight dual β-lactam combination therapies were compared to their constituent monotherapies. For the most potent combinations identified, penicillin-binding protein (PBP) inhibition profiles were measured and compared with each constituent antibiotic. Five of the dual β-lactam combinations resulted in greater than 70% survival of infected G. mellonella. Two combinations showed potent, enhanced efficacy versus both strains - ceftazidime + meropenem and aztreonam + meropenem. Comparison of PBP inhibition profiles revealed that the enhanced efficacy of these two dual β-lactam combinations could not be explained by more potent inhibition of PBPs or inhibition of a broader range of PBPs. A possible contribution to the enhanced efficacy of the combinations could be stimulation of innate immunity via increased haemocyte numbers compared to their constituent monotherapies. Combinations of β-lactam antibiotics show promise in overcoming MDR P. aeruginosa and are worthy of additional study and development.
Project description:Invasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus are prevalent and life-threatening. Combinations of antibiotic therapy have been employed in many clinical settings for improving therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects of drugs, and development of antibiotic resistance. Pleuromutilins have a potential to be developed as a new class of antibiotics for systemic use in humans. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between pleuromutilins, including valnemulin, tiamulin, and retapamulin, and 13 other antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus both in vitro and in an experimental Galleria mellonella model. In vitro synergistic effects were observed in combination of all three study pleuromutilins with tetracycline (TET) by standard checkerboard and/or time-kill assays. In addition, the combination of pleuromutilins with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin showed antagonistic effects, while the rest combinations presented indifferent effects. Importantly, all study pleuromutilins in combination with TET significantly enhanced survival rates as compared to the single drug treatment in the G. mellonella model caused by S. aureus strains. Taken together, these results demonstrated synergy effects between pleuromutilins and TET against S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combinations of steroidal alkaloids and conessine from the Thai medicinal plant Holarrhena antidysenterica with antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains possessing different efflux-pump-mediated multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes in a Galleria mellonella infection model. METHODS:P. aeruginosa strains with defined mutations that result in the overexpression of the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN efflux pumps, and a strain with all three of these pumps deleted, were used. In vitro, the effect of combinations of steroidal alkaloids and conessine with antibiotics was compared with antibiotic treatment alone via MIC determination and time-kill assays. Efficacy of combinations of the steroidal alkaloids and conessine with levofloxacin were compared with monotherapies against infections in G. mellonella larvae by measuring larval mortality and bacterial burden. RESULTS:Combination therapies of conessine or steroidal alkaloids with levofloxacin enhanced bacterial inhibition in vitro and restored antibiotic efficacy in vivo compared to the constituent monotherapies. Neither conessine nor the steroidal alkaloids induced any detectable toxicity in G. mellonella larvae. The enhanced efficacy of the combination treatments was most pronounced with conessine and correlated with reduced larval burden of infecting P. aeruginosa. Notably, the enhanced efficacy of conessine/levofloxacin combinations was only detected in the parent strain and strains that overexpressed the MexAB-OprM or MexEF-OprN efflux systems. CONCLUSIONS:Steroidal alkaloids from Holarrhena antidysenterica, and particularly the principal active ingredient conessine, restored levofloxacin efficacy against resistant P. aeruginosa strains possessing efflux-mediated MDR phenotypes. The compounds should be investigated further as a potential novel therapy.
Project description:Combination therapy is recommended for infections with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, limited data exist on which antibiotic combinations are the most effective. The aim of this study was to find effective antibiotic combinations against metallo-beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (MBL-KP). Two VIM- and two NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strains, all susceptible to colistin, were exposed to antibiotics at clinically relevant static concentrations during 24-h time-kill experiments. Double- and triple-antibiotic combinations of aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, colistin, daptomycin, fosfomycin, meropenem, rifampin, telavancin, tigecycline, and vancomycin were used. Synergy was defined as a ?2 log10 decrease in CFU/ml between the combination and its most active drug after 24 h, and bactericidal effect was defined as a ?3 log10 decrease in CFU/ml after 24 h compared with the starting inoculum. Synergistic or bactericidal activity was demonstrated for aztreonam, fosfomycin, meropenem, and rifampin in double-antibiotic combinations with colistin and also for aztreonam, fosfomycin, and rifampin in triple-antibiotic combinations with meropenem and colistin. Overall, the combination of rifampin-meropenem-colistin was the most effective regimen, demonstrating synergistic and bactericidal effects against all four strains. Meropenem-colistin, meropenem-fosfomycin, and tigecycline-colistin combinations were not bactericidal against the strains used. The findings of this and other studies indicate that there is great potential of antibiotic combinations against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae. However, our results deviate to some extent from those of previous studies, which might be because most studies to date have included KPC-producing rather than MBL-producing strains. More studies addressing MBL-KP are needed.
Project description:Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus infections is extremely challenging due to its intrinsic resistance to most antibiotics, and research of pathogenesis is limited due to a lack of a practical in vivo model of infection. The objective of this study was to establish a simple in vivo model for M. abscessus infection, virulence, and drug testing in Galleria mellonella larvae. We inoculated larvae with M. abscessus bacteria and assessed histopathology, CFU count, and mortality with and without antibiotic treatment. We also constructed a luminescent, recombinant M. abscessus mutant, mDB158, and imaged infected larvae using the IVIS in vivo imaging system. M. abscessus proliferated and induced granuloma-like responses in infected larvae, leading to larval mortality. The G. mellonella model was further validated successfully by demonstration of the expected favorable antimicrobial effect of treatment with meropenem and the superiority of combination treatment (meropenem and tigecycline) over that with single agents. We then used IVIS imaging of larvae infected with luminescent M. abscessus, allowing live real-time assessment of bacterial load. We used this method to compare the antimicrobial effects of various antibiotics (meropenem, amikacin, linezolid, levofloxacin, etc.) on bacterial proliferation and larval survival. Meropenem and amikacin had the most favorable effects, correlating well with common clinical practice guidelines. These findings suggest G. mellonella to be an excellent in vivo model for research of M. abscessus infection, pathogenesis, and treatment. Luminescent M. abscessus and IVIS imaging further facilitates this model. Results obtained in this model clearly substantiated common clinical practice, thus validating the model as a predictor of treatment efficacy and outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinically-relevant multidrug resistance is sometimes present in bacteria not exposed to human-made antibiotics, in environments without extreme selective pressures, such as the insect gut. The use of antibiotics on naïve microbiomes often leads to decreased microbe diversity and increased antibiotic resistance. RESULTS:Here we investigate the impact of antibiotics on the insect gut microbiome by identifying tetracycline-resistance genes in the gut bacteria of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, feeding on artificial food containing oxytetracycline. We determined that G. mellonella can be raised on artificial food for over five generations and that the insects tolerate low doses of antibiotics in their diets, but doses of oxytetracycline higher than sub-inhibitory lead to early larval mortality. In our experiments, greater wax moth larvae had a sparse microbiome, which is consistent with previous findings. Additionally, we determined that the microbiome of G. mellonella larvae not exposed to antibiotics carries a number of tetracycline-resistance genes and some of that diversity is lost upon exposure to strong selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS:We show that G. mellonella larvae can be raised on artificial food, including antibiotics, for several generations and that the microbiome can be sampled. We show that, in the absence of antibiotics, the insect gut microbiome can maintain a diverse pool of tetracycline-resistance genes. Selective pressure, from exposure to the antibiotic oxytetracycline, leads to microbiome changes and alteration in the tetracycline-resistance gene pool.
Project description:The use of veterinary antibiotics is largely unregulated in low-income countries. Consequently, food producers rarely observe drug withdrawal periods, contributing to drug residues in food products. Drug residues in milk can cause immunogenic reactions in people, and selectively favor antibiotic-resistant bacteria in unpasteurized products. We quantified the prevalence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and unpasteurized milk, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria from unpasteurized milk sold within Kibera, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Ninety-five milk samples (74 pasteurized and 21 unpasteurized) were collected from shops, street vendors or vending machines, and tested for the presence of ?-lactam and tetracycline residues using IDEXX SNAP kits. MacConkey agar without- and with antibiotics (ampicillin, 32 ?g/ml; tetracycline, 16 ?g/ml) was used to enumerate presumptive E. coli based on colony morphology (colony forming units per ml, CFU/ml). ?-lactam and tetracycline residues were found in 7.4% and 3.2% of all milk samples, respectively. Residues were more likely to be present in unpasteurized milk samples (5/21, 23.8%) compared to pasteurized samples (5/75, 6.8%); P = 0.039. Two thirds of unpasteurized samples (14/21, 66.7%) contained detectable numbers of presumptive E. coli (mean 3.5 Log10 CFU/ml) and of these, 92.8% (13/14) were positive for ampicillin- (mean 3.2 Log10 CFU/ml) and 50% (7/14) for tetracycline-resistant E. coli (mean 3.1 Log10 CFU/ml). We found no relationship between the presence of antibiotic residues and the presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in unpasteurized milk sold within Kibera (P > 0.2).
Project description:With only two new classes of antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, novel antibiotics are desperately needed to combat the growing problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria. Described in this letter is the synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thiones as narrow spectrum antibiotics. Optimization of the 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thione scaffold identified a small molecule with potent antibiotic activity against multiple strains of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. This small molecule also shows single dose, in vivo activity in a Galleria mellonella infection model with A. baumannii and represents a promising start in the development of a class of drugs that can target this bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Colistin is an 'old' drug, which is being increasingly utilized due to limited therapeutic options. However, resistance emergence during monotherapy is concerning. Here, our objective was to optimize colistin combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by profiling the time course of synergistic killing and prevention of resistance.Hollow-fibre infection models over 10 days simulated clinically relevant dosage regimens of colistin and doripenem against two heteroresistant P. aeruginosa strains (MIC 1 mg/L) and one resistant (MIC 128 mg/L) strain (inoculum 10(9.3) cfu/mL). New mathematical mechanism-based models (MBMs) were developed using S-ADAPT.Against heteroresistant P. aeruginosa strains, colistin monotherapy resulted in initial killing (up to 2.64 log10 cfu/mL) within 24 h followed by regrowth. High-intensity combinations involving free steady-state colistin concentrations of 5 mg/L achieved complete eradication (>9.3 log10 killing) within 48 h. These combinations achieved synergy with up to 9.38 log10 greater killing compared with the most active monotherapy. Against the colistin-resistant strain, the combination yielded marked initial synergy with up to 6.11 log10 cfu/mL bacterial reductions within 72 h followed by regrowth. The MBMs quantified total and resistant subpopulations and the proposed synergy between colistin and doripenem.Our findings provide insight into optimal antibiotic treatment and may serve as a framework for new drug combinations and combination modelling.
Project description:Despite the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the number of infections related to Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be alarming. Herein, we identified, characterized the MSlys endolysin encoded in the phage MS1. We further tested its antimicrobial efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cells, assessing the culturability of cells and biofilm structure by scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The modular MSlys endolysin consists of an amidase catalytic domain and a choline-binding domain. MSlys is active against isolates of children with otitis media, and conditions close to those found in the middle ear. Treatment with MSlys (2?h, 4 ?M) reduced planktonic cultures by 3.5 log10 CFU/mL, and 24- and 48-h-old biofilms by 1.5 and 1.8 log10 CFU/mL, respectively. Imaging of the biofilms showed thinner and damaged structures compared to control samples. The recombinantly expressed MSlys may be a suitable candidate for treating pneumococcal infections, including otitis media.