Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.
ABSTRACT: Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens with A. sativum being in general more active than A. cepa red cv.
Project description:The present study was conducted to compare the antibacterial activity of oven-dried and freeze-dried <i>Allium sativum</i> along with its spray-dried microencapsulated essential oil in the preservation of minced beef meat. <i>Allium sativum</i> extracts were tested against mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coagulase-positive <i>staphylococci</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Salmonella</i> sp., and the sulfite-reducing anaerobes. A difference between the chemical compositions of powders obtained by the conventional oven-drying and freeze-drying has been verified by HPLC-MS<sup>2</sup>, freeze-dried fresh garlic powder contains 74% of allicin, and 12% cysteine sulfoxides comparing to the oven-drying garlic powder in which is detected two thiosulfinate isomers: allicin (67%) and allyl-1-propenyl thiosulfinate (21%). CIELAB color analysis was performed to assess the effect of drying temperature on powders. The microflora-inhibiting effect of freeze-dried fresh garlic and the spray-dried microencapsulated essential oil at a concentration of 20% represents a promising way to be used in food systems such as meat and meat products preservation, at 4-8°C.
Project description:Species that belong to the genus Allium have been widely used for human food and traditional medicine. Their beneficial health effects, as well as the specific aroma, are associated with their bioactive chemical compounds, such as sulfur compounds and flavonoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (reverse-phase HPLC) were used to identify organosulfur and amino acid content of triploid hybrid onion, Allium cornutum Clement ex Visiani, 1842, and common onion, Allium cepa L. Allium extracts were tested for their antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, and U2OS). DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining analysis were performed on HeLa cells to evaluate the effect of extracts on DNA damage and cell morphology. The mRNA expression of p53, Bax, and Caspase-3 genes involved in apoptosis were analyzed by real-time PCR. Using GC-MS, 27 compounds were found in two Allium species headspaces. Differences were noted among the main compound abundance in the headspace (although the major thiols and disulfides were qualitatively identic in both Allium species) and dipropyl disulfide, diisopropyl trisulfide, and (Z)-prop-1-enyl propyl trisulfide were predominant sulfides. Identification of amino acids and their quantities were determined by reverse-phase HPLC. Most abundant amino acids in both onions were arginine (Arg) and glutamic acid (Glu). The results of cytotoxicity testing confirmed antiproliferative effects of both species. The DNA fragmentation assay, DAPI staining and real time PCR analysis confirmed that A. cornutum and A. cepa extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. This study presents the evidence for possible therapeutic use of A. cornutum and A. cepa extracts against human cervical carcinoma cell line.
Project description:The complete chloroplast genome sequence of <i>Allium obliquum</i> was determined by Illumina single-end sequencing. The complete plastid genome was 152,387?bp in length, containing a large single copy (LSC) of 81,588?bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 18,059?bp, which were separated by a pair of 26,370?bp inverted repeats (IRs). A total of 134 genes were annotated, including 83 protein coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes, and five pseudogenes. The overall GC contents of the plastid genome were 36.8%. Unlike <i>A. cepa</i> (onion) and <i>A. sativum</i> (garlic), <i>A. obliquum</i> encodes a functional intact <i>infA</i> gene.
Project description:Coriandrum sativum L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant spread around the world, with beneficial properties that are well recognized. Both coriander seeds and leaves are used for pharmaceutical and flavoring purposes. Even though coriander seeds tend to be more popular, the leaves are receiving a consistently growing interest, especially because of popularization of Mexican, Northern African, and Indian cuisines. This increased attention brings about the necessity for providing the product with guaranteed quality, which will retain its valuable characteristics, even after post-harvest treatment. For this reason, it is highly necessary to determine reliable protocols for cilantro preservation, which usually include drying procedures; in order to identify the optimal drying treatments, a spectrum of drying techniques—convective, vacuum-microwave, and a combination of convective and vacuum-microwave—were evaluated. Cilantro-based dried products were examined from the perspectives of volatile organic constituent composition and sensory quality. After headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC/MS analysis and sensory tests, the results demonstrate that convective drying at 70 °C for 120 min followed by vacuum-microwave drying at 360 W and convective drying at 70 °C were the optimal drying methods for preserving cilantro aroma quality, while convective drying at 70 °C for 120 min followed by convective finishing drying at 50 °C decreased cilantro aroma quality.
Project description:Increased periods of prolonged droughts followed by severe precipitation events are expected throughout South America due to climate change. Freshwater sediments are especially sensitive to these changing climate conditions. The increased oscillation of water levels in aquatic ecosystems causes enhanced cycles of sediment drying and rewetting. Here we experimentally evaluate the effects of induced drought followed by a rewetting event on the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and trace elements (iron, manganese, and zinc) from the sediment of a tropical reservoir in southeastern Brazil. Furthermore, we used bulb onions (Allium cepa) to assess the potential cytogenotoxicity of the water overlying sediments after rewetting. We found peaks in CO2 and CH4 emissions when sediments first transitioned from wet to dry, with fluxes declining as sediments dried out. CO2 emissions peaked again upon rewetting, whereas CH4 emissions remained unaltered. Our experiment also revealed average increases by up to a factor of ~5000 in the release rates of nutrients and trace elements in water overlying sediments after rewetting. These increased release rates of potentially toxic compounds likely explain the lower replication of Allium cepa cells (up to 22% reduction) exposed to water overlying sediments after rewetting. Our findings suggest that increased events of drought followed by rewetting may lead to a range of changes in freshwater ecosystems, including nutrient enrichment, increased toxicity following resuspension of contaminants, and higher emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
Project description:Brine, the historically known food additive salt solution, has been widely used as a pickling media to preserve flavor or enhance food aroma, appearance, or other qualities. The influence of pickling, using brine, on the aroma compounds and the primary and secondary metabolite profile in onion bulb Allium cepa red cv. and lemon fruit Citrus limon was evaluated using multiplex metabolomics technologies. In lemon, pickling negatively affected its key odor compound "citral", whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons limonene and ?-terpinene increased in the pickled product. Meanwhile, in onion sulphur rearrangement products appeared upon storage, i.e., 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane. Profiling of the polar secondary metabolites in lemon fruit via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS annotated 37 metabolites including 18 flavonoids, nine coumarins, five limonoids, and two organic acids. With regard to pickling impact, notable and clear separation among specimens was observed with an orthogonal projections to least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot for the lemon fruit model showing an enrichment of limonoids and organic acids and that for fresh onion bulb showing an abundance of flavonols and saponins. In general, the pickling process appeared to negatively impact the abundance of secondary metabolites in both onion and lemon, suggesting a decrease in their food health benefits.
Project description:Chinese chives is a popular herb vegetable and medicine in Asian countries. Southwest China is one of the centers of origin, and the mountainous areas in this region are rich in wild germplasm. In this study, we collected four samples of germplasm from different altitudes: a land race of cultivated Chinese chives (<i>Allium tuberosum</i>), wide-leaf chives and extra-wide-leaf chives (<i>Allium hookeri</i>), and ovoid-leaf chives (<i>Allium funckiaefolium</i>). Leaf metabolites were detected and compared between <i>A. tuberosum</i> and <i>A. hookeri</i>. A total of 158 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAM) were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), among which there was a wide range of garlic odor compounds, free amino acids, and sugars. <i>A. hookeri</i> contains a higher content of fructose, garlic odor compounds, and amino acids than <i>A. tuberosum</i>, which is supported by the higher expression level of biosynthetic genes revealed by transcriptome analysis. <i>A. hookeri</i> accumulates the same garlic odor compound precursors that <i>A. tuberosum</i> does (mainly methiin and alliin). We isolated full-length gene sequences of <i>phytochelatin synthase</i> (<i>PCS</i>), <i>γ-glutamyltranspeptidases</i> (<i>GGT</i>), <i>flavin-containing monooxygenase</i> (<i>FMO</i>), and <i>alliinase</i> (<i>ALN</i>). These sequences showed closer relations in phylogenetic analysis between <i>A. hookeri</i> and <i>A. tuberosum</i> (with sequence identities ranging from 86% to 90%) than with <i>Allium cepa</i> or <i>Allium sativum</i> (which had a lower sequence identity ranging from 76% to 88%). Among these assayed genes, <i>ALN</i>, the critical gene controlling the conversion of odorless precursors into odor compounds, was undetected in leaves, bulbs, and roots of <i>A. tuberosum</i>, which could account for its weaker garlic smell. Moreover, we identified a distinct <i>FMO1</i> gene in extra-wide-leaf <i>A. hookeri</i> that is due to a CDS-deletion and frameshift mutation. These results above reveal the molecular and metabolomic basis of impressive strong odor in wild Chinese chives.
Project description:A long shelf life of onions (Allium cepa L.) is of high importance in the onion industry. Onions are dried and stored in large wooden boxes that are difficult to access. Monitoring temperature and relative humidity during these processes is challenging. Moreover, quality may change in storage without being noticed. Therefore, there is a need to find alternative methods for monitoring and controlling the drying and storage processes of onions and to identify early changes in quality during storage. The potential use of online measurements of temperature and relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of onions was evaluated during drying and long-term storage of six onion batches (four cultivars and three selections of one of the cultivars) in commercial storage. The batches varied in bulb weight, dry matter content, firmness and disease incidence. The dry matter content and firmness decreased during storage, while the respiration rate and incidences of individual and total disease increased. Two of the batches had low storability with high disease incidences and high average temperatures and variations in the RH. The results showed that tracking the temperature and RH in the vicinity of the onions is a promising tool for improving the drying and storage processes in commercial storage and for identifying onion batches with reduced storability early in storage.
Project description:The genus <i>Allium</i> is one of the world's largest monocot genera. However, few reports on the complete chloroplast genome of <i>Allium</i> plants are reported. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome of <i>Allium prattii</i>. The genome sequence was 154,482?bp in length, including a large single copy region (LSC) of 83,392?bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 18,064?bp, which were separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,513?bp. The complete chloroplast genome contains 131 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with several reported chloroplast genomes showed that <i>A. prattii</i> has a close genetic relationship with <i>A. cepa</i> and <i>A. sativum</i>.
Project description:Antioxidant potential has protective effects in diabetic neuropathy (DN); hence, the present study was designed with an objective to quantify quercetin from shade-dried leaves of Allium cepa Lam. and to study its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic DN.The shade-dried leaves of A. cepa Lam. were extracted with methanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate (ACEA). The quantification of quercetin in ACEA was evaluated by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The STZ (40 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (180-250 g) maintained at normal housing conditions. The STZ was administered once a day for 3 consecutive days. The elevation in blood glucose was monitored for 3 weeks periodically using flavin adenine dinucleotide-glucose dehydrogenase method by Contour TS glucometer. Rats showing blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were selected for the study. Animals were divided into eight groups. ACEA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), quercetin (40 mg/kg), metformin (120 mg/kg), and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) were given orally once a day for 2 weeks. The blood glucose level was again measured at the end of treatment to assess DN. Thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, motor incoordination, and neurotoxicity were studied initially and at the end of 2-week treatment. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated after 2-week drug treatment.The quercetin present in ACEA was 4.82% by HPTLC. All the ACEA treatment reduces blood glucose level at the end of the 2-week study and shows a significant neuroprotective effect in STZ-induced DN in the above experimental models.The quercetin present in ACEA proved protective effect in STZ-induced DN.High-performance thin layer chromatography reveals the presence of 4.82% quercetin in Allium cepa ethyl acetate. (ACEA). Its investigation against various diabetic neuropathy biomarkers has proved that ACEA has significant blood glucose reducing action shown neuroprotective action in thermal hyperalgesia, motor incoordination, and biochemical parameters. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, ACEA: Allium cepa ethyl acetate, STZ: Streptozotocin, LDL: Low-density lipids, HDL: High-density lipids.