Discovery and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazines as Novel FGFR Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Abnormality of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-mediated signaling pathways were frequently found in various human malignancies, making FGFRs hot targets for cancer treatment. To address the consistent need for a new chemotype of FGFR inhibitors, here, we started with a hit structure identified from our internal hepatocyte growth factor receptor (also called c-Met) inhibitor project, and conducted a chemical optimization. After exploring three parts of the hit compound, we finally discovered a new series of pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine FGFR inhibitors, which contain a novel scaffold and unique molecular shape. We believe that our findings can help others to further develop selective FGFR inhibitors.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, are aberrant in various cancer types, and considered to be promising targets for cancer therapy. We started with a weak-active compound that was identified from our internal hepatocyte growth factor receptor (also called c-Met) inhibitor project, and optimized it with the guidance of a co-crystal structure of compound 8 with FGFR1. Through rational design, synthesis, and the biological evaluation of a series of 5H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives, we discovered several potent FGFR kinase inhibitors. Among them, compound 13 displayed high selectivity and favorable metabolic properties, demonstrating a promising lead for further development.
Project description:Background:Clinical trials based on FGFR mutation or amplification as a druggable target of FGFR inhibitors have produced disappointing clinical outcomes. Therefore, the identification of predictive biomarkers for FGFR-targeted agents has remained a crucial issue. Methods:Expression profiles of FGFs and FGFRs in 8,111 patients with 24 types of solid tumors and 879 tumor cell lines along with drug sensitivity data were obtained and followed by integrative bioinformatics analysis. Results:FGFs and FGFRs were frequently dysregulated in pancancer. Most of the expression of FGFs and FGFRs were significantly associated with overall survival in at least two cancer types. Moreover, tumor cell lines with high FGFR1/3 expression were more sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, especially in breast, liver, lung and ovarian cancer. The predicted positive ratios of FGFR1-4 were generally over 10% in most tumor types, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. High positive FGFR1 or 3 expression ratios were predicted in cholangiocarcinoma (58%), followed by bladder cancer (42%), endometrial carcinoma (35%), and ovarian cancer (34%). Conclusions:FGFR expression was a promising predictive biomarker for FGFR inhibition response in clinical trials, and different combinations of FGFR genes should be used in screening for patients in certain tumor types.
Project description:Genomic alterations are commonly found in the signaling pathways of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Although there is no selective FGFR inhibitors in market, several promising inhibitors have been investigated in clinical trials, and showed encouraging efficacies in patients. By designing a hybrid between the FGFR-selectivity-enhancing motif dimethoxybenzene group and our previously identified novel scaffold, we discovered a new series of potent FGFR inhibitors, with the best one showing sub-nanomolar enzymatic activity. After several round of optimization and with the solved crystal structure, detailed structure-activity relationship was elaborated. Together with in vitro metabolic stability tests and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiling, a representative compound (35) was selected and tested in xenograft mouse model, and the result demonstrated that inhibitor 35 was effective against tumors with FGFR genetic alterations, exhibiting potential for further development.
Project description:Aberrant FGFR4 signaling has been documented abundantly in various human cancers. The majority of FGFR inhibitors display significantly reduced potency toward FGFR4 compared to FGFR1-3. However, LY2874455 has similar inhibition potency for FGFR1-4 with IC50 less than 6.4 nM. To date, there is no published crystal structure of LY2874455 in complex with any kinase. To better understand the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455, we have determined the crystal structure of the FGFR4 kinase domain bound to LY2874455 at a resolution of 2.35 Å. LY2874455, a type I inhibitor for FGFR4, binds to the ATP-binding pocket of FGFR4 in a DFG-in active conformation with three hydrogen bonds and a number of van der Waals contacts. After alignment of the kinase domain sequence of 4 FGFRs, and superposition of the ATP binding pocket of 4 FGFRs, our structural analyses reveal that the interactions of LY2874455 to FGFR4 are largely conserved in 4 FGFRs, explaining at least partly, the broad inhibitory activity of LY2874455 toward 4 FGFRs. Consequently, our studies reveal new insights into the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455 and provide a structural basis for developing novel FGFR inhibitors that target FGFR1-4 broadly.
Project description:The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) cascade plays crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that in some tumor types, FGFRs are bona fide oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted. Because FGFR inhibition can reduce proliferation and induce cell death in a variety of in vitro and in vivo tumor models harboring FGFR aberrations, a growing number of research groups have selected FGFRs as targets for anticancer drug development. Multikinase FGFR/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have shown promising activity in breast cancer patients with FGFR1 and/or FGF3 amplification. Early clinical trials with selective FGFR inhibitors, which may overcome the toxicity constraints raised by multitarget kinase inhibition, are recruiting patients with known FGFR(1-4) status based on genomic screens. Preliminary signs of antitumor activity have been demonstrated in some tumor types, including squamous cell lung carcinomas. Rational combination of targeted therapies is expected to further increase the efficacy of selective FGFR inhibitors. Herein, we discuss unsolved questions in the clinical development of these agents and suggest guidelines for management of hyperphosphatemia, a class-specific mechanism-based toxicity. In addition, we propose standardized definitions for FGFR1 and FGFR2 gene amplification based on in situ hybridization methods. Extended access to next-generation sequencing platforms will facilitate the identification of diseases in which somatic FGFR(1-4) mutations, amplifications and fusions are potentially driving cancer cell viability, further strengthening the role of FGFR signaling in cancer biology and providing more possibilities for the therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors.
Project description:Structure-based drug design (SBDD) has become a powerful tool utilized by medicinal chemists to rationally guide the drug discovery process. Herein, we describe the use of SPROUT, a de novo-based program, to identify an indazole-based pharmacophore for the inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinases, which are validated targets for cancer therapy. Hit identification using SPROUT yielded 6-phenylindole as a small fragment predicted to bind to FGFR1. With the aid of docking models, several modifications to the indole were made to optimize the fragment to an indazole-containing pharmacophore, leading to a library of compounds containing 23 derivatives. Biological evaluation revealed that these indazole-containing fragments inhibited FGFR1-3 in the range of 0.8-90 ?M with excellent ligand efficiencies of 0.30-0.48. Some compounds exhibited moderate selectivity toward individual FGFRs, indicating that further optimization using SBDD may lead to potent and selective inhibitors of the FGFR family.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are tyrosine kinase receptors involved in many biological processes. Deregulated FGFR signaling plays an important role in tumor development and progression in different cancer types. FGFR genomic alterations, including FGFR gene fusions that originate by chromosomal rearrangements, represent a promising therapeutic target. Next-generation-sequencing (NGS) approaches have significantly improved the discovery of FGFR gene fusions and their detection in clinical samples. A variety of FGFR inhibitors have been developed, and several studies are trying to evaluate the efficacy of these agents in molecularly selected patients carrying FGFR genomic alterations. In this review, we describe the most frequent FGFR aberrations in human cancer. We also discuss the different approaches employed for the detection of FGFR fusions and the potential role of these genomic alterations as prognostic/predictive biomarkers.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling facilitates tumor initiation and progression. Although currently approved inhibitors of FGFR kinase have shown therapeutic benefit in clinical trials, overexpression or mutations of FGFRs eventually confer drug resistance and thereby abrogate the desired activity of kinase inhibitors in many cancer types. In this study, we report that loss of myristoylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2α), a scaffold protein essential for FGFR signaling, inhibits FGF/FGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling and FGF10-induced tumorigenesis. Moreover, a previously synthesized myristoyl-CoA analog, B13, which targets the activity of N-myristoyltransferases, suppressed FRS2α myristoylation and decreased the phosphorylation with mild alteration of FRS2α localization at the cell membrane. B13 inhibited oncogenic signaling induced by WT FGFRs or their drug-resistant mutants (FGFRsDRM). B13 alone or in combination with an FGFR inhibitor suppressed FGF-induced WT FGFR- or FGFRDRM-initiated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity or MAPK signaling, inducing cell cycle arrest and thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and migration in several cancer cell types. Finally, B13 significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors without pathological toxicity to the liver, kidney, or lung in vivo In summary, our study suggests a possible therapeutic approach for inhibiting FGF/FGFR-mediated cancer progression and drug-resistant FGF/FGFR mutants.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play essential roles in organ development during the embryonic period, and regulate tissue repair in adults. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in FGFR signalling are involved in diverse types of cancer. In this review, we focus on aberrant regulation of FGFRs in pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), including altered expression and subcellular location, aberrant isoform splicing and mutations. We also provide an overview of oncogenic roles of each FGFR and its downstream signalling pathways in regulating OSCC cell proliferation and metastasis. Finally, we discuss potential application of FGFRs as anti-cancer targets in the preclinical environment and in clinical practice.
Project description:A series of novel 3,5-disubstituted indolin-2-ones were designed and synthesized as selective FGFR inhibitors. In the design process of 3,5-disubstituted indolin-2-ones for FGFRs, molecular docking studies were performed to generate and optimize novel compounds which have FGFR inhibitory potency, theoretically. In vitro enzyme inhibitory and selectivity profiles of the synthesized compounds, and their cytotoxicity against NIH-3T3 cells were evaluated. According to enzyme inhibition assay, compound A1 (FGFR1-4; IC50?=?19.82; 5.95; 1419; 37150?nM), compound A5 (FGFR1-4; IC50?=?1890; Nd; 6.50; 18590?nM) and compound A13 (FGFR1-4; IC50?=?6.99; 1022; 17090; 8993?nM) have displayed best inhibitory potency against FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR1, respectively. The studied compounds have displayed low affinity to FGFR4 in comparison with other isoforms. Molecular docking study data were used to determine the binding orientations of the synthesized compounds inside FGFRs in accordance with enzyme inhibition assay data. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations were performed to determine stability, binding modes and dynamics behaviors of compound A1, A5 and A13 inside FGFR-2, FGFR-3 and FGFR-1, respectively. The compounds bearing aromatic groups at the C5 position of indolin-2-one could be lead compounds for the development of more effective and selective FGFR1-3 inhibitors.