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Identification of active and taxonomically diverse 1,4-dioxane degraders in a full-scale activated sludge system by high-sensitivity stable isotope probing.


ABSTRACT: 1,4-Dioxane is one of the most common and persistent artificial pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewaters and chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. Despite its possible biological treatment in natural environments, the identity and dynamics of the microorganisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified active and diverse 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganisms from activated sludge by high-sensitivity stable isotope probing of rRNA. By rigorously analyzing 16S rRNA molecules in RNA density fractions of 13C-labeled and unlabeled 1,4-dioxane treatments, we discovered 10 significantly 13C-incorporating microbial species from the complex microbial community. 16S rRNA expression assays revealed that 9 of the 10 species, including the well-known degrader Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium and phylogenetically novel bacteria, increased their metabolic activities shortly after exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Moreover, high-resolution monitoring showed that, during a single year of operation of the full-scale activated sludge system, the nine identified species exhibited yearly averaged relative abundances of 0.001-1.523%, and yet showed different responses to changes in the 1,4-dioxane removal efficiency. Hence, the co-existence and individually distinct dynamics of various 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganisms, including hitherto unidentified species, played pivotal roles in the maintenance of the biological system removing the recalcitrant pollutant.

SUBMITTER: Aoyagi T 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6155002 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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