A Predominant Clonal Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis Group of Histophilus somni Assigned by Major Outer Membrane Protein Gene Sequencing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis.
ABSTRACT: Histophilus somni, a member of the family Pasteurellaceae, causes a variety of diseases, including thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (TEME) and respiratory diseases, which result in considerable economic losses to the cattle and sheep industries. In this study, 132 chronologically diverse isolates from cattle in Japan and 68 isolates from other countries comprising 49 from cattle and 19 from sheep were characterized using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene sequence and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. The H. somni isolates formed nine MOMP genetic clades (clade Ia, Ib, and II-VIII) and 10 PFGE clusters (HS1-HS10). Except for two (1.0%), all isolates fell into one of the nine MOMP genetic clades, while 62 (31.0%) isolates belonged to no PFGE cluster. MOMP genetic clade Ia and PFGE cluster HS1 were the major groups, and all HS1 isolates possessed the clade Ia MOMP gene. Isolates from TEME cases were significantly associated with these major groups (chi-square test, p < 0.0001), as 88.2% of the TEME isolates belonged to MOMP genetic clade Ia and PFGE cluster HS1, which formed the most predominant clonal group. After an inactivated vaccine using an HS1 strain with the clade Ia MOMP gene was introduced in Japan in late 1989, the number of TEME cases and isolates assigned into the clonal group decreased simultaneously. However, the proportions of clade Ia and cluster HS1 isolates from TEME cases remained high after 1990. These results suggest a close association of TEME with PFGE cluster HS1 and MOMP genetic clade Ia, and imply the presence of factors or characteristics commonly possessed by those strains that contribute to the development of TEME.
Project description:A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from different outbreaks/incidents.
Project description:One hundred and two Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates were collected from dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis in Eastern China during 2011. Clonal groups were established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS), pilus and alpha-like-protein (Alp) family genes were also characterized by molecular techniques. MLST analysis revealed that these isolates were limited to three clonal groups and were clustered in six different lineages, i.e. ST (sequence type) 103, ST568, ST67, ST301, ST313 and ST570, of which ST568 and ST570 were new genotypes. PFGE analysis revealed this isolates were clustered in 27 PFGE types, of which, types 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23 and 25 were the eight major types, comprising close to 70% (71/102) of all the isolates. The most prevalent sequence types were ST103 (58% isolates) and ST568 (31% isolates), comprising capsular genotype Ia isolates without any of the detected Alp genes, suggesting the appearance of novel genomic backgrounds of prevalent strains of bovine S. agalactiae. All the strains possessed the pilus island 2b (PI-2b) gene and the prevalent capsular genotypes were types Ia (89% isolates) and II (11% isolates), the conserved pilus type providing suitable data for the development of vaccines against mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.
Project description:The molecular epidemiology of 545 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates collected between 1977 and 2009 from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nine main clusters were identified from 116 PFGE patterns. Cluster I comprised 248 isolates, 243 of which possessed a sequence specific to definitive phage type 104 (DT104) or U302. The cluster I isolates were dominant in 1993 to 2003, but their numbers declined beginning in 2004. Beginning in 2002, an increase was observed in the number of cluster VII isolates, consisting of 21 PFGE patterns comprising 165 isolates. A total of 116 isolates representative of the 116 PFGE profiles were analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Other than two drug-sensitive isolates, 19 isolates within cluster VII were classified in the same cluster by MLVA. Among the cluster VII isolates, an antibiotic resistance type showing resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, kanamycin, cefazolin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and a resistance type showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and kanamycin were found in 23 and 125 isolates, respectively. In the 19 isolates representative of cluster VII, the bla(TEM-1) gene was found on a Salmonella serotype Typhimurium virulence plasmid, which was transferred to Escherichia coli by electroporation along with resistance to two to four other antimicrobials. Genomic analysis by subtractive hybridization and plasmid analysis suggested that the bla(TEM-1)-carrying virulence plasmid has a mosaic structure composed of elements of different origin. These results indicate an emerging multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium clone carrying a virulence-resistance plasmid among cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.
Project description:One hundred twenty Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains, including 103 isolates from cattle gathered between 1977 and 1999 in the prefecture located on the northern-most island of Japan, were analyzed by using fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine the genotypic basis of the epidemic. Among these strains, there were 17 FAFLP profiles that formed four distinct clusters (A, B, C, and D). Isolates that belonged to cluster A have become increasingly common since 1992 with the increase of bovine salmonellosis caused by serotype Typhimurium. PFGE resolved 25 banding patterns that formed three distinct clusters (I, II, and III). All the isolates that belonged to FAFLP cluster A, in which all the strains of definitive phage type 104 examined were included, were grouped into PFGE cluster I. Taken together, these results indicate that clonal exchange of serotype Typhimurium has taken place since 1992, and they show a remarkable degree of homogeneity at a molecular level among contemporary isolates from cattle in this region. Moreover, we have sequenced two kinds of FAFLP markers, 142-bp and 132-bp fragments, which were identified as a polymorphic marker of strains that belonged to clusters A and C, respectively. The sequence of the 142-bp fragment shows homology with a segment of P22 phage, and that of the 132-bp fragment shows homology with a segment of traG, which is an F plasmid conjugation gene. FAFLP is apparently as well suited for epidemiological typing of serotype Typhimurium as is PFGE, and FAFLP can provide a source of molecular markers useful for studies of genetic variation in natural populations of serotype Typhimurium.
Project description:We describe a molecular subtyping scheme for two principal O (heat-stable [HS]) serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni, HS1 and the HS4 complex. A 16S rRNA gene-specific probe confirmed that almost all the C. jejuni strains had three copies of this gene, and strains could be assigned with complete typeability to 1 of 16 combined (Pst1 and HaeIII) 16S ribotypes. Macrorestriction profiles (mrps) consisting of up to 10 SmaI fragments from approximately 40 to approximately 480 kbp were resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were 11 mrps among the HS1 strains and 9 mrps among HS4 strains which corresponded to valid types--they occurred in multiple isolates, hosts, places, and times. There were 14 additional single-strain mrp fingerprints in HS1 and 20 in HS4. PFGE exhibited complete typeability when formaldehyde fixation of cells was employed, and PFGE was generally more differential than ribotyping. The data presented elucidate a high-resolution genotypic subtyping scheme for these common subspecific phenotypes of C. jejuni, which is both coherent and efficient for epidemiological purposes.
Project description:Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a nonpathogenic, nontoxic model organism for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum used in the validation of conventional thermal food processes due to its ability to produce highly heat-resistant endospores. Because of its public safety importance, the uncertain taxonomic classification and genetic diversity of PA 3679 are concerns. Therefore, isolates of C. sporogenes PA 3679 were obtained from various sources and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing. The phylogenetic relatedness and genetic variability were assessed based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. All C. sporogenes PA 3679 isolates were categorized into two clades (clade I containing ATCC 7955 NCA3679 isolates 1961-2, 1990, and 2007 and clade II containing PA 3679 isolates NFL, UW, FDA, and Campbell and ATCC 7955 NCA3679 isolate 1961-4). The 16S maximum likelihood (ML) tree clustered both clades within proteolytic C. botulinum strains, with clade I forming a distinct cluster with other C. sporogenes non-PA 3679 strains. SNP analysis revealed that clade I isolates were more similar to the genomic reference PA 3679 (NCTC8594) genome (GenBank accession number AGAH00000000.1) than clade II isolates were. The genomic reference C. sporogenes PA 3679 (NCTC8594) genome and clade I C. sporogenes isolates were genetically distinct from those obtained from other sources (University of Wisconsin, National Food Laboratory, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and Campbell's Soup Company). Thermal destruction studies revealed that clade I isolates were more sensitive to high temperature than clade II isolates were. Considering the widespread use of C. sporogenes PA 3679 and its genetic information in numerous studies, the accurate identification and genetic characterization of C. sporogenes PA 3679 are of critical importance.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (?90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to determine antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance, and identify associated genes and mobile genetic elements in clinical strains of Histophilus somni isolated from feedlot cattle in Alberta during years 2012-2016 (contemporary isolates, n = 63) and years 1980-1990 (historical isolates, n = 31). Comparison of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) showed a significant increase in resistance among contemporary isolates compared to historical isolates (P < 0.001). Tolerance to copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations above 1 mM was observed in 68 and 52% of the contemporary isolates, respectively. The tet(H) gene associated with oxytetracycline resistance and multicopper oxidase (mco) and cation efflux (czcD) genes associated with Cu and Zn tolerance were identified. An integrative conjugative element; ICEHs1, was identified in whole genome sequences of strains resistant to oxytetracycline, which had Cu and Zn minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) >1 mM. The length of ICEHs1 was 64,932 bp and it contained 83 genes, including tetracycline resistance gene tetH, a multidrug efflux pump gene ebrB, and metal tolerance genes mco, czcD, and acr3. Comparative genomics of ICEs revealed that ICEHs1 shares high homology with previously described ICEs of Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica. The ICEHs1 is an active element capable of intra- and inter-genus transfer as demonstrated by successful transfer to H. somni and P. multocida recipients. All isolates carrying ICEHs1 were resistant to tetracycline, a commonly used antibiotic in feedlots, and had Cu and Zn MIC higher than 1 mM. Since Cu and Zn are routinely used in feedlots, there is the possibility of co-selection of AMR in H. somni due to selection pressure created by Cu and Zn. Based on results of in-vitro conjugation experiments, ICEHs1 mediated transmission of antimicrobial and metal resistance genes is possible between BRD pathogens in the respiratory tract, potentially undermining treatment options available for histophilosis and BRD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Comparatively little is known about the prevalence or the molecular characteristics of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in the sheep reservoir. To investigate this and determine the host specificity of subclones of the bacterium, we have conducted a slaughterhouse prevalence study in sheep and compared the collected isolates to O157:H7 previously isolated from cattle and human patients. RESULTS: Verotoxin-producing O157:H7 was found in 11/597 (1.8%) of samples from sheep in Swedish slaughterhouses, 9/492 faecal (1.8%) and 2/105 ear samples (1.9%). All positive sheep were < 6 months old. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed exact matches between isolates from the sheep prevalence study and human patients as well as between isolates from sheep and cattle. In one case, matching isolates were found in sheep, cattle, and a human patient in the same municipality. Identical PFGE profiles generally corresponded to similar but non-identical multi-locus VNTR profiles. In one sheep sample, SNP-typing found the highly virulent clade 8 variant of O157:H7. The virulence gene profiles of sheep isolates from the prevalence study and three sheep farms linked to cases of human illness were investigated by PCR detection (eaeA, hlyA, cdtV-B, vtx1), and partial sequencing of vtx2. The observed profiles were similar to those of cattle strains investigated previously. CONCLUSIONS: The same pathogenic subtypes of VTEC O157:H7, including the highly virulent clade 8, appear to be present in both sheep and cattle in Sweden, suggesting strains can circulate freely between ruminant reservoirs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Poona caused a multistate outbreak, with 245 out of 907 cases occurring in California. We report a comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results with whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genotyping of Salmonella Poona isolates. METHODS:CA Salmonella Poona isolates, collected from July to August 2015, were genotyped by PFGE using XbaI restriction enzyme. WGS was done using Nextera XT library kit with 2x300 bp or 2x250 bp sequencing chemistry on the Illumina MiSeq Sequencer. Reads were mapped to the de novo assembled serovar Poona draft genome (48 contigs, N50= 223,917) from the outbreak using CLCbio GW 8.0.2. The phylogenetic tree was generated based on hqSNPs calling. Genomes were annotated with CGE and PHAST online tools. In silico MLST was performed using the CGE online tool. RESULTS:Human (14) and cucumber (2) Salmonella Poona isolates exhibited 3 possibly related PFGE patterns (JL6X01.0018 [predominant], JL6X01.0375, JL6X01.0778). All isolates that were related by PFGE also clustered together according to the WGS. One isolate with a divergent PFGE pattern (JL6X01.0776) served as an outlier in the phylogenetic analysis and substantially differed from the outbreak clade by WGS. All outbreak isolates were assigned to MLST sequence type 447. The majority of the outbreak-related isolates possessed the same set of Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands with few variations. One outbreak isolate was sequenced and analyzed independently by CDC and CDPH laboratories; there was 0 SNP difference in results. Additional two isolates were sequenced by CDC and the raw data was processed through CDPH and CDC analysis pipelines. Both data analysis pipelines also generated concordant results. Discussion: PFGE and WGS results for the recent CA Salmonella enterica serovar Poona outbreak provided concordant assignment of the isolates to the outbreak cluster. WGS allowed more robust determination of genetic relatedness, provided information regarding MLST-type, pathogenicity genes, and bacteriophage content. WGS data obtained independently at two laboratories showed complete agreement.