Infrastructure to enable deployment of carbon capture, utilization, and storage in the United States.
ABSTRACT: In February 2018, the United States enacted significant financial incentives for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) that will make capture from the lowest-capture-cost sources economically viable. The largest existing low-capture-cost opportunity is from ethanol fermentation at biorefineries in the Midwest. An impediment to deployment of carbon capture at ethanol biorefineries is that most are not close to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields or other suitable geological formations in which the carbon dioxide could be stored. Therefore, we analyze the viability of a pipeline network to transport carbon dioxide from Midwest ethanol biorefineries to the Permian Basin in Texas, which has the greatest current carbon dioxide demand for EOR and large potential for expansion. We estimate capture and transport costs and perform economic analysis for networks under three pipeline financing scenarios representing different combinations of commercial and government finance. Without government finance, we find that a network earning commercial rates of return would not be viable. With 50% government financing for pipelines, 19 million tons of carbon dioxide per year could be captured and transported profitably. Thirty million tons per year could be captured with full government pipeline financing, which would double global anthropogenic carbon capture and increase the United States' carbon dioxide EOR industry by 50%. Such a development would face challenges, including coordination between governments and industries, pressing timelines, and policy uncertainties, but is not unprecedented. This represents an opportunity to considerably increase CCUS in the near-term and develop long-term transport infrastructure facilitating future growth.
Project description:Capture and permanent geologic sequestration of biogenic CO2 emissions may provide critical flexibility in ambitious climate change mitigation. However, most bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies are technically immature or commercially unavailable. Here, we evaluate low-cost, commercially ready CO2 capture opportunities for existing ethanol biorefineries in the United States. The analysis combines process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment to consider the technical, economic, and institutional feasibility of near-term carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Our modeling framework evaluates least cost source-sink relationships and aggregation opportunities for pipeline transport, which can cost-effectively transport small CO2 volumes to suitable sequestration sites; 216 existing US biorefineries emit 45 Mt CO2 annually from fermentation, of which 60% could be captured and compressed for pipeline transport for under $25/tCO2 A sequestration credit, analogous to existing CCS tax credits, of $60/tCO2 could incent 30 Mt of sequestration and 6,900 km of pipeline infrastructure across the United States. Similarly, a carbon abatement credit, analogous to existing tradeable CO2 credits, of $90/tCO2 can incent 38 Mt of abatement. Aggregation of CO2 sources enables cost-effective long-distance pipeline transport to distant sequestration sites. Financial incentives under the low-carbon fuel standard in California and recent revisions to existing federal tax credits suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO2 This financial opportunity could catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, and sequestration; improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional biofuels; support development of carbon-negative fuels; and help fulfill the mandates of low-carbon fuel policies across the United States.
Project description:Due to increasing concentrations in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide has, in recent times, been targeted for utilisation (Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage, CCUS). In particular, the production of CO from CO2 has been an area of intense interest, particularly since the CO can be utilized in Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Herein we report that CO2 can also be used as a source of atomic oxygen that is efficiently harvested and used as a waste-free terminal oxidant for the oxidation of alkenes to epoxides. Simultaneously, the process yields CO. Utilization of the atomic oxygen does not only generate a valuable product, but also prevents the recombination of O and CO, thus increasing the yield of CO for possible application in the synthesis of higher-order hydrocarbons. Selective formation of atomic oxygen to form epoxides in a waste free process is reported. Simultaneously generating carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide for further use.
Project description:Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) still lack active and efficient electrocatalysts for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In this work, a new instant reduction synthesis method was developed to prepare carbon supported ternary PdNiBi nanocatalysts with improved EOR activity. Synthesized catalysts were characterized with a variety of structural and compositional analysis techniques in order to correlate their morphology and surface chemistry with electrochemical performance. The modified instant reduction synthesis results in well-dispersed, spherical Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub> nanoparticles on Vulcan XC72R support (Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(II-III)</sup>), with sizes ranging from 3.7?±?0.8 to 4.7?±?0.7 nm. On the other hand, the common instant reduction synthesis method leads to significantly agglomerated nanoparticles (Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(I)</sup>). EOR activity and stability of these three different carbon supported PdNiBi anode catalysts with a nominal atomic ratio of 85:10:5 were probed via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the rotating disk electrode method. Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(II)</sup> showed the highest electrocatalytic activity (150 mA?cm<sup>-2</sup>; 2678 mA?mg<sup>-1</sup>) with low onset potential (0.207 V) for EOR in alkaline medium, as compared to a commercial Pd/C and to the other synthesized ternary nanocatalysts Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(I)</sup> and Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(III)</sup>. This new synthesis approach provides a new avenue to developing efficient, carbon supported ternary nanocatalysts for future energy conversion devices. Graphical AbstractThe modified instant reduction method for synthesis of ternary Pd<sub>85</sub>Ni<sub>10</sub>Bi<sub>5</sub>/C<sup>(II)</sup> nanocatalyst using Vulcan XC72R as carbon support initiates an agglomeration reduction, provides low average particle size, and enables enhanced activity for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) compared to the common instant reduction method and to a commercial Pd/C catalyst.
Project description:Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to mitigate the environmental impact of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions. An understanding of the potential trapping and storage mechanisms is required to provide confidence in safe and secure CO<sub>2</sub> geological sequestration<sup>1,2</sup>. Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have substantial CO<sub>2</sub> storage potential<sup>1</sup>,<sup>3</sup>, and numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs have undergone CO<sub>2</sub> injection as a means of enhanced oil recovery (CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR), providing an opportunity to evaluate the (bio)geochemical behaviour of injected carbon. Here we present noble gas, stable isotope, clumped isotope and gene-sequencing analyses from a CO<sub>2</sub>-EOR project in the Olla Field (Louisiana, USA). We show that microbial methanogenesis converted as much as 13-19% of the injected CO<sub>2</sub> to methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) and up to an additional 74% of CO<sub>2</sub> was dissolved in the groundwater. We calculate an in situ microbial methanogenesis rate from within a natural system of 73-109 millimoles of CH<sub>4</sub> per cubic metre (standard temperature and pressure) per year for the Olla Field. Similar geochemical trends in both injected and natural CO<sub>2</sub> fields suggest that microbial methanogenesis may be an important subsurface sink of CO<sub>2</sub> globally. For CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration sites within the environmental window for microbial methanogenesis, conversion to CH<sub>4</sub> should be considered in site selection.
Project description:1. Methanobacterium omelianskii was grown on (14)CO(2) and unlabelled ethanol, or on [1-(14)C]- or [2-(14)C]-ethanol and unlabelled carbon dioxide. The cell protein was hydrolysed and certain of the amino acids were isolated and degraded. 2. Carbon from both carbon dioxide and ethanol is used for biosynthesis of amino acids, and in most cases ethanol is incorporated as a C(2) unit. Ethanol carbon atoms and carbon dioxide carbon atoms apparently enter the same range of compounds. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are equally important as sources of cell carbon. 3. The origins of carbon atoms of aspartate, alanine, glycine, serine and threonine are consistent with the synthesis of these amino acids, by pathways known to exist in aerobic organisms, from pyruvate arising by a C(2)+C(1) condensation. The proportion of total radioactivity found in C-1 of lysine, proline, methionine and valine is consistent with synthesis of these amino acids by pathways similar to those found in Escherichia coli. Isoleucine is probably formed by carboxylation of a C(5) precursor formed entirely from ethanol. Glutamate is formed by an unknown pathway.
Project description:New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.
Project description:With a recent increase in interest in metal-gas batteries, the lithium-carbon dioxide cell has attracted considerable attention because of its extraordinary carbon dioxide-capture ability during the discharge process and its potential application as a power source for Mars exploration. However, owing to the stable lithium carbonate discharge product, the cell enables operation only at low current densities, which significantly limits the application of lithium-carbon dioxide batteries and effective carbon dioxide-capture cells. Here, we investigate a high-performance lithium-carbon dioxide cell using a quinary molten salt electrolyte and ruthenium nanoparticles on the carbon cathode. The nitrate-based molten salt electrolyte allows us to observe the enhanced carbon dioxide-capture rate and the reduced discharge-charge over-potential gap with that of conventional lithium-carbon dioxide cells. Furthermore, owing to the ruthernium catalyst, the cell sustains its performance over more than 300 cycles at a current density of 10.0?A?g<sup>-1</sup> and exhibits a peak power density of 33.4?mW?cm<sup>-2</sup>.
Project description:Here we report the synthesis of 9 nm Ni(OH)2 decorated Pt-Cu octahedra (Ni(OH)2-PtCu) in one-pot synthesis for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) electrocatalysis in acidic electrolyte. To prepare Ni(OH)2-PtCu octahedra, CO gas was directly introduced in a reaction process as selective capping agents on the PtCu(111) facet. Ni(OH)2 was naturally deposited on the Pt-Cu octahedra during the synthesis. Carbon supported Ni(OH)2-PtCu (Ni(OH)2-PtCu/C) as an EOR catalyst showed enhanced CO tolerance due to the existence of oxophilic Ni(OH)2 on the surface of Pt-Cu, facilitating water dissolution to produce OH adsorption and to promote complete CO oxidation to CO2. In addition, Pt-Cu alloy composition also showed improvement of CO tolerance because of modified d-band structure of the Pt atoms, thereby weakening the binding strength of CO on the catalysts. Therefore, the Ni(OH)2-PtCu/C showed enhanced EOR activity and durability compared to the Pt-Cu octahedra and commercial Pt/C counterparts.
Project description:Methane can be converted to triose dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by chemical processes with formaldehyde as an intermediate. Carbon dioxide, a by-product of various industries including ethanol/butanol biorefineries, can also be converted to formaldehyde and then to DHA. DHA, upon entry into a cell and phosphorylation to DHA-3-phosphate, enters the glycolytic pathway and can be fermented to any one of several products. However, DHA is inhibitory to microbes due to its chemical interaction with cellular components. Fermentation of DHA to d-lactate by Escherichia coli strain TG113 was inefficient, and growth was inhibited by 30 g⋅L-1 DHA. An ATP-dependent DHA kinase from Klebsiella oxytoca (pDC117d) permitted growth of strain TG113 in a medium with 30 g⋅L-1 DHA, and in a fed-batch fermentation the d-lactate titer of TG113(pDC117d) was 580 ± 21 mM at a yield of 0.92 g⋅g-1 DHA fermented. Klebsiella variicola strain LW225, with a higher glucose flux than E. coli, produced 811 ± 26 mM d-lactic acid at an average volumetric productivity of 2.0 g-1⋅L-1⋅h-1 Fermentation of DHA required a balance between transport of the triose and utilization by the microorganism. Using other engineered E. coli strains, we also fermented DHA to succinic acid and ethanol, demonstrating the potential of converting CH4 and CO2 to value-added chemicals and fuels by a combination of chemical/biological processes.
Project description:This paper reports on the comparison of three zirconium-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for the capture of carbon dioxide and ethanol vapour at ambient conditions. In terms of efficiency, two parameters were evaluated by experimental and modeling means, namely the nature of the ligands and the size of the cavities. We demonstrated that amongst three Zr-based MOFs, MIP-202 has the highest affinity for CO<sub>2</sub> (-50 kJ·mol<sup>-1</sup> at low coverage against around -20 kJ·mol<sup>-1</sup> for MOF-801 and Muc Zr MOF), which could be related to the presence of amino functions borne by its aspartic acid ligands as well as the presence of extra-framework anions. On the other side, regardless of the ligand size, these three materials were able to adsorb similar amounts of carbon dioxide at 1 atm (between 2 and 2.5 µmol·m<sup>-2</sup> at 298 K). These experimental findings were consistent with modeling studies, despite chemisorption effects, which could not be taken into consideration by classical Monte Carlo simulations. Ethanol adsorption confirmed these results, higher enthalpies being found at low coverage for the three materials because of stronger van der Waals interactions. Two distinct sorption processes were proposed in the case of MIP-202 to explain the shape of the enthalpic profiles.