Is hip strengthening the best treatment option for females with patellofemoral pain? A randomized controlled trial of three different types of exercises.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of three types of exercise intervention in patients with patellofemoral pain and to verify the contributions of each intervention to pain control, function, and lower extremity kinematics. METHODS:A randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted. Forty women with patellofemoral pain were randomly allocated into four groups: hip exercises, quadriceps exercises, stretching exercises and a control group (no intervention). Pain (using a visual analog scale), function (using the Anterior Knee Pain Scale), hip and quadriceps strength (using a handheld isometric dynamometer) and measuring lower limb kinematics during step up and down activities were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks post intervention. RESULTS:All treatment groups showed significant improvements on pain and Anterior Knee Pain Scale after intervention with no statistically significant differences between groups except when compared to the control group. Only hip and quadriceps groups demonstrated improvements in muscle strength and knee valgus angle during the step activities. CONCLUSION:Hip strengthening exercises were not more effective for pain relief and function compared to quadriceps or stretching exercises in females with patellofemoral pain. Only hip and quadriceps groups were able to decrease the incidence of dynamic valgus during step-down activity. This study was approved by Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry registration number: RBR-6tc7mj (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-6tc7mj/).
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), also known as Anterior Knee Pain, is a common cause of recurrent or chronic knee pain. The etiology is considered to be multifactorial but is not completely understood. At the current time the leading theory is that pathomechanics in the patellofemoral joint leads to PFPS. Traditionally, conservative treatment has focused on improving strength and timing in the quadriceps muscles. In recent years, evidence has been accumulating to support the importance of hip control and strengthening in PFPS. Two recent studies have shown promising results for hip strengthening as an isolated treatment for PFPS. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to compare isolated hip strengthening to traditional quadriceps-based training and a control group with free physical activity.An observer-blinded RCT will be performed. We intend to include 150 patients aged 16-40 years, referred from primary care practitioners to the department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Kristiansand, Norway for PFPS with more than three months duration. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria will be randomised using opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes to one of three groups: isolated hip strengthening, quadriceps based training, or a control group (free physical activity). All groups will receive standardized information about PFPS formulated with the intention to minimize fear avoidance and encourage self-mastery of symptoms. Standardized exercises will be performed under supervision of a study physiotherapist once per week in addition to home training two times per week for a total of six weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the Anterior Knee Pain Score (AKPS) at three and 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will include Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, hip abductor and quadriceps strength, the generic EuroQol (EQ-5D), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), Knee self-efficacy score and Tampa score for Kinesiophobia.This trial will help to elucidate the role of hip and quadriceps strengthening in the treatment of PFPS. Information as to the role of anxiety and depression, kinesiophobia and self-efficacy will be collected, also as regards prognosis and response to exercise therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT02114294.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patellofemoral pain (PFP) often affects young women, and the etiology is multifactorial and poorly understood. Conservative intervention has been focused on risk factors or aggravating factors and is composed of hip- and knee-strengthening exercises, as this population often has muscle weakness and poor motor control during daily and sports activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the additional effects of neuromuscular training in a conservative treatment of trunk-, hip-, and knee-muscle strengthening on pain, function, and kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb in women with PFP. METHODS:This is a randomised clinical trial, controlled, blinded. Ninety women who are active and engage in physical activity up to twice a week will be recruited. All participants will undergo an individual physiotherapy assessment and then will be allocated randomly into two groups. Thereafter, both groups will undergo a 12-week intervention protocol: group 1 will perform strengthening exercises for the trunk, hip, and knee muscles, while group 2 will receive the same treatment, with the inclusion of neuromuscular training exercises on the fourth week. At the end of the intervention, the volunteers will be evaluated. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity (using a Visual Analog Scale: over the last month, squat 90°, and step of 26 cm during 1 min), functional capacity (Anterior Knee Pain Scale and Activities of Daily Living Scale), and 2D kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb during the single-leg squat. The secondary outcomes correspond to the isometric muscular strength of the lower limb and the level of satisfaction from the intervention. DISCUSSION:The present study was initiated on 28 January 2018 and is currently in progress, scheduled for completion in July 2019. The results of this study should contribute to the physiotherapeutic treatment of women with PFP by aggregating information on the benefits of adding neuromuscular training to strengthening of the trunk and lower-limb muscles. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, ID: RBR-8c7267 . Registered on 2 August 2017.
Project description:Background:Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is an abnormal movement pattern visually characterized by excessive medial movement of the lower extremity during weight bearing. Differences in hip and knee kinematic components of DKV may explain the emergence of different pain problems in people who exhibit the same observed movement impairment. Using a secondary analysis of exiting data sets, we sought to determine whether hip and knee frontal and transverse plane angles during a functional task differed between women with patellofemoral pain and women with chronic hip joint pain, and the relationship between joint-specific kinematics and pain in these 2 pain populations. Methods:In the original studies, 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during a single leg squat were obtained in 20 women with patellofemoral pain and 14 women with chronic hip joint pain who demonstrated visually classified DKV. Pain intensity during the squat was assessed in both groups. For the secondary analysis, kinematic data were compared between pain groups using their respective control groups as a reference. Within each pain group, correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between kinematics and pain during the squat. Results:Hip adduction and contralateral pelvic drop were greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain (effect sizes ? 0.40). Greater knee external rotation (r=0.47, p=0.04) was correlated with greater knee pain in those with patellofemoral pain, while greater hip adduction (r =0.53, p =0.05) and greater hip internal rotation (r =0.55, p =0.04) were correlated with greater hip pain in those with chronic hip joint pain. Conclusion:Hip frontal plane motion was greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain. In both groups, greater abnormal movement at the respective joint (e.g. knee external rotation in the patellofemoral pain group and hip adduction and internal rotation in the chronic hip joint pain group) was associated with greater pain at that joint during a single leg squat.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), a common cause of anterior knee pain, is successfully treated in over 2/3 of patients through rehabilitation protocols designed to reduce pain and return function to the individual. Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE). We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required to assess the anatomy and make recommendations to patients identified as potentially at risk. The purpose of this article is to review knee anatomy and the literature regarding potential risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome and prehabilitation strategies. A comprehensive review of knee anatomy will present the relationships of arterial collateralization, innervations, and soft tissue alignment to the possible multifactoral mechanism involved in PFPS, while attempting to advocate future use of different treatments aimed at non-soft tissue causes of PFPS. METHODS: A systematic database search of English language PubMed, SportDiscus, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, LexisNexis, and EBM reviews, plus hand searching the reference lists of these retrieved articles was performed to determine possible risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome. RESULTS: Positive potential risk factors identified included: weakness in functional testing; gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps or iliotibial band tightness; generalized ligamentous laxity; deficient hamstring or quadriceps strength; hip musculature weakness; an excessive quadriceps (Q) angle; patellar compression or tilting; and an abnormal VMO/VL reflex timing. An evidence-based medicine model was utilized to report evaluation criteria to determine the at-risk individuals, then a defined prehabilitation program was proposed that begins with a dynamic warm-up followed by stretches, power and multi-joint exercises, and culminates with isolation exercises. The prehabilitation program is performed at lower intensity level ranges and can be conducted 3 days per week in conjunction with general strength training. Based on an objective one repetition maximum (1RM) test which determines the amount an individual can lift in good form through a full range of motion, prehabilitation exercises are performed at 50-60% intensity. CONCLUSION: To reduce the likelihood of developing PFPS, any individual, especially those with positive potential risk factors, can perform the proposed prehabilitation program.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does not follow their exercise prescription, performing too few repetitions or too fast below the prescribed time under tension. Live feedback, such as a metronome or exercise games, has previously shown promising results in improving the quality of exercises. The aim of this study is to investigate if live feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed.This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an iPad. The adolescents perform the exercises twice a week unsupervised and once a week during a supervised group training session. The primary outcome will be the mean deviation of the prescribed time under tension per repetition in seconds during the course of the intervention.Low compliance is a major problem among adolescents with patellofemoral pain. Providing the adolescents with real time feedback on time under tension from a sensor and an iPad could potentially help the adolescents perform the exercises as prescribed. This may increase the total exercise dosage they receive during treatment which may help improve patient outcomes.Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02674841 ) on February 4(th) 2016.
Project description:To understand how instructing females with patellofemoral pain to correct dynamic knee valgus affects pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk segment kinematics. To determine if pain reduction in the corrected condition was associated with improved segment kinematics.Cross-sectional.A 3D-motion capture system was used to collect multi-joint kinematics on 20 females with dynamic knee valgus and patellofemoral pain during a single-leg squat in two conditions: usual movement pattern, and corrected dynamic knee valgus. During each condition pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes were compared between conditions using a paired T-test. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between visual analog scale score and the kinematic variables in the corrected condition.In the corrected condition subjects had increased lateral flexion of the pelvis toward the weight-bearing limb (p<0.001), decreased femoral adduction (p=0.001) and internal rotation (p=0.01). A trend toward decreased tibial internal rotation (p=0.057) and increased trunk lateral flexion toward the weight-bearing limb (p=0.055) was also found. Lower pain levels were associated with less femoral internal rotation (p=0.04) and greater trunk lateral flexion toward the weight-bearing limb (p=0.055).Decreased hip adduction after instruction was comprised of motion at both the pelvis and femur. Decreased pain levels were associated with lower extremity segment kinematics moving in the direction opposite to dynamic knee valgus. These results increase our understanding of correction strategies used by females with patellofemoral pain and provide insight for rehabilitation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been linked to maladaptive plasticity in the brain, which may contribute to chronic pain. Neuromodulatory approaches, such as Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES), have been used therapeutically to counteract brain maladaptive plasticity. However, it is currently unclear whether these neuromodulatory techniques enhance the benefits of exercise when administered together. Therefore, this protocol aims to investigate whether the addition of tDCS combined or not with PES enhances the effects of a land-based strengthening exercise program in patients with knee OA. METHODS:Patients with knee OA (n = 80) will undertake a structured exercise program for five consecutive days. In addition, they will be randomized into four subgroups receiving either active anodal tDCS and sham PES (group 1; n = 20), sham tDCS and active PES (group 2, n = 20), sham tDCS and PES (group 3, n = 20), or active tDCS and PES (group 4, n = 20) for 20 min/day for five consecutive days just prior to commencement of the exercise program. The primary outcomes will be subjective pain intensity (VAS) and related function (WOMAC). Secondary outcomes will include quality of life (SF-36), anxiety and depression symptoms (HAD), self-perception of improvement, pressure pain thresholds over the knee, quadriceps strength, and quadriceps electromyographic activity during maximum knee extension voluntary contraction. We will also investigate cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 1 month after, before any intervention, after 5 days of intervention, and at 1 month post exercise intervention. DISCUSSION:The motor cortex becomes less responsive in knee OA because of poorly adapted plastic changes, which can impede exercise therapy benefits. Adding tDCS and/or PES may help to counteract those maladaptive plastic changes and improve the benefits of exercises, and the combination of both neuromodulatory techniques must have a higher magnitude of effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Brazilian Registry on Clinical Trials (ReBEC) - Effects of electrical stimulation over the skull and tight together with exercises for knee OA; protocol number RBR-9D7C7B. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ID: RBR-9D7C7B . Registered on 29 February 2016.
Project description:Tissue stresses and quadriceps forces are crucial factors when considering knee joint biomechanics. However, it is difficult to obtain direct, in vivo, measurements of these quantities. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the first complete description of quadriceps geometry (force directions and moment arms) of individual quadriceps components using in vivo, 3D data collected during volitional knee extension. A secondary purpose was to determine if 3D quadriceps geometry is altered in patients with patellofemoral pain and maltracking. After obtaining informed consent, cine-phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 25 asymptomatic knees and 15 knees with patellofemoral pain during active knee extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps line-of-action were identified and tracked throughout the motion by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The force direction and relative moment (RM) were calculated for each line-of-action. All quadriceps lines-of-action were oriented primarily in the superior direction. There were no significant differences in quadriceps geometry between asymptomatic and subjects with patellofemoral pain. However, patellofemoral kinematics were significantly different between the two populations. This study will improve the ability of musculoskeletal models to closely match in vivo human performance by providing accurate 3D quadriceps geometry and associated patellofemoral kinematics during dynamic knee motion. Furthermore, determination that quadriceps geometry is not altered in patellofemoral pain supports the use of generalized a knee model based on asymptomatic quadriceps architecture.
Project description:Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is relatively prevalent, with the lateral facet of the patella being the most commonly affected portion. This pathology can be a result of a patellar maltracking syndrome, patella instability, or idiopathic degenerative changes. A thorough diagnostic work-up with a physical examination and imaging studies are mandatory for a proper diagnosis and to rule out other causes of patellofemoral knee pain. These patients are often treated nonoperatively with exercises for patella mobility, intra-articular injections, braces, patellar tracking, quadriceps balance and strength, and activity modification. Patients with lateral patellar pain that is refractory to nonoperative management, and who have a clear bony deformity on the patella overriding the lateral aspect of the trochlea, can benefit from surgical intervention. We recommend an arthroscopic lateral patellar facetectomy because the joint can be dynamically assessed, treated, and re-evaluated intraoperatively to ensure that normal bony contact has been restored.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common chronic knee injuries; however, little research has been done to determine the risk factors for this injury.Altered lower extremity kinematics and kinetics, decreased strength, and altered postural measurements will be risk factors.Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.A total of 1597 participants were enrolled in this investigation and prospectively followed from the date of their enrollment (July 2005, July 2006, or July 2007) through January 2008, a maximum of 2.5 years of follow-up. Each participant underwent baseline data collection during their pre-freshman summer at the United States Naval Academy. Baseline data collection included 3-dimensional motion analysis during a jump-landing task, 6 lower extremity isometric strength tests, and postural alignment measurements (navicular drop and Q angle).Risk factors for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome included decreased knee flexion angle, decreased vertical ground-reaction force, and increased hip internal rotation angle during the jump-landing task. Additionally, decreased quadriceps and hamstring strength, increased hip external rotator strength, and increased navicular drop were risk factors for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome.Multiple modifiable risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome pain have been identified in this investigation. To decrease the incidence of this chronic injury, the risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome need to be targeted in injury prevention programs.Prevention programs should focus on increasing strength of the lower extremity musculature along with instructing proper mechanics during dynamic movements to decrease the incidence of patellofemoral pain syndrome.