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Crystal structure of the red light-activated channelrhodopsin Chrimson.


ABSTRACT: Channelrhodopsins are light-activated ion channels that mediate cation permeation across cell membranes upon light absorption. Red-light-activated channelrhodopsins are of particular interest, because red light penetrates deeper into biological tissues and also enables dual-color experiments in combination with blue-light-activated optogenetic tools. Here we report the crystal structure of the most red-shifted channelrhodopsin from the algae Chlamydomonas noctigama, Chrimson, at 2.6?Å resolution. Chrimson resembles prokaryotic proton pumps in the retinal binding pocket, while sharing similarity with other channelrhodopsins in the ion-conducting pore. Concomitant mutation analysis identified the structural features that are responsible for Chrimson's red light sensitivity; namely, the protonation of the counterion for the retinal Schiff base, and the polar residue distribution and rigidity of the retinal binding pocket. Based on these mechanistic insights, we engineered ChrimsonSA, a mutant with a maximum activation wavelength red-shifted beyond 605?nm and accelerated closing kinetics.

SUBMITTER: Oda K 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6158191 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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